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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453386/collateral-damage-during-antibiotic-treatment-of-c-difficile-infection-in-the-aged-host-insights-into-why-recurrent-disease-happens
#1
Jae Hyun Shin, Cirle A Warren
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is one of the most common causes of healthcare-associated infections but an even bigger problem for the aging population. Advanced age leads to higher incidence, higher mortality, and higher recurrences. In our study, recently published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases, we investigated the effect of aging on CDI using a mouse model. We were able to demonstrate that aging leads to worse clinical outcomes, as well as lead to changes in microbiota composition and lower antibody production against C...
April 28, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449424/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-refractory-and-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-a-case-series-of-nine-patients
#2
Byoung Wook Bang, Jin Seok Park, Hyung Kil Kim, Yong Woon Shin, Kye Sook Kwon, Hea Yoon Kwon, Ji Hyeon Baek, Jin Soo Lee
Background/Aims: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a highly effective therapy for refractory and recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Despite its excellent efficacy and recent widespread use, FMT has not been widely used in South Korea thus far. We describe our experience with FMT to treat refractory/recurrent CDI. Methods: We conducted a chart review of patients who underwent FMT for refractory/recurrent CDI at Inha University Hospital, between March 2014 and June 2016...
April 25, 2017: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444954/clinical-presentation-and-outcome-of-children-with-central-diabetes-insipidus-associated-with-a-self-limited-or-transient-pituitary-stalk-thickening-diagnosed-as-infundibuloneurohypophysitis
#3
J Schaefers, M Cools, K De Waele, I Gies, V Beauloye, P Lysy, I Francois, D Beckers, J De Schepper
OBJECTIVE: Despite lymphocytic or autoimmune infundibuloneurohypophysitis (INH) is an increasingly recognized etiology in children with central diabetes insipidus, clinical data on epidemiology (clinical evolution, predisposing factors, complications), diagnosis and management of this entity are limited and mostly based on published case reports. The aim of this study was to gain a broader insight in the natural history of this disease by analyzing the clinical presentation, radiological pituitary stalk changes, associated autoimmunity and hormonal deficiencies in children with CDI and a self-limiting or transient stalk thickening (ST), diagnosed as autoimmune INH, during the last 15 years in four Belgian university hospitals...
April 26, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444166/the-effect-of-a-piperacillin-tazobactam-shortage-on-antimicrobial-prescribing-and-clostridium-difficile-risk-in-88-u-s-medical-centers
#4
Alan E Gross, Richard S Johannes, Vikas Gupta, Ying P Tabak, Arjun Srinivasan, Susan C Bleasdale
Background: Anti-infective shortages are a pervasive problem in the U.S. The objective of this study was to identify any associations between changes in antibiotic prescribing during a piperacillin/tazobactam (PIP/TAZO) shortage and hospital-onset Clostridium difficile infection (HO-CDI) risk in 88 U.S medical centers. Methods: We analyzed electronically captured microbiology and antibiotic use data from a network of U.S. hospitals from July 2014 through June 2015...
April 24, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437937/use-of-kramers-kronig-relation-in-phase-retrieval-calculation-in-x-ray-spectro-ptychography
#5
Makoto Hirose, Kei Shimomura, Nicolas Burdet, Yukio Takahashi
Coherent diffraction imaging (CDI) is a method for reconstructing the complex-valued image of an object from diffraction intensities by using iterative phasing methods. X-ray ptychography is a scanning type of CDI using X-rays, allowing us to visualize the complex transmission function of an extended specimen. We here propose the use of the Kramers-Kronig relation (KKR) as an additional constraint in phase retrieval algorithms for multiple-energy X-ray ptychography using the absorption edge of a specific element...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435086/toxigenic-clostridium-difficile-colonization-among-hospitalised-adults-risk-factors-and-impact-on-survival
#6
Laura Behar, David Chadwick, Angela Dunne, Christopher I Jones, Clare Procter, Chakravathi Rajkumar, Paula Sharratt, Philip Stanley, Angela Whiley, Mark Wilks, Martin J Llewelyn
OBJECTIVES: To establish risk factors for Clostridium difficile colonization among hospitalized patients in England. METHODS: Patients admitted to elderly medicine wards at three acute hospitals in England were recruited to a prospective observational study. Participants were asked to provide a stool sample as soon as possible after enrolment and then weekly during their hospital stay. Samples were cultured for C. difficile before ribotyping and toxin detection by PCR...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435010/ribotypes-associated-with-clostridium-difficile-outbreaks-in-brazil-display-distinct-surface-protein-profiles
#7
Thais Gonçalves Ferreira, Hercules Moura, John R Barr, Regina M C Pilotto Domingues, Eliane de Oliveira Ferreira
Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming anaerobic intestinal pathogen that causes Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). C. difficile is the leading cause of toxin-mediated nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea. The pathogenesis of CDI is attributed to two major virulence factors, TcdA and TcdB toxins, that cause the symptomatic infection. C. difficile also expresses a number of key proteins, including cell wall proteins (CWPs). S-layer proteins (SLPs) are CWPs that form a paracrystalline surface array that coats the surface of the bacterium...
April 20, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433406/results-of-the-implementation-of-a-multidisciplinary-programme-of-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-by-colonoscopy-for-the-treatment-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection
#8
Antonio López-Sanromán, Enrique Rodríguez de Santiago, Javier Cobo Reinoso, Rosa Del Campo Moreno, José Ramón Foruny Olcina, Sergio García Fernández, Ana García García de Paredes, Lara Aguilera Castro, Carlos Ferre Aracil, Agustín Albillos Martínez
INTRODUCTION: Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is common and often difficult to manage. Faecal microbiota transplant (FMT) is an effective therapeutic tool in these cases, although its applicability and effectiveness in Spain is currently unknown. AIM: To analyse the technical aspects, safety and effectiveness of the first consolidated FMT programme in Spain. METHODS: Retrospective descriptive study of all patients with recurrent CDI treated with FMT performed by colonoscopy in a tertiary centre after the implementation of a multidisciplinary protocol between March 2015 and September 2016...
April 19, 2017: Gastroenterología y Hepatología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432963/health-hazards-of-child-labor-in-the-leather-products-and-surgical-instrument-manufacturing-industries-of-sialkot-pakistan
#9
Muhammad Junaid, Riffat Naseem Malik, De-Sheng Pei
Child labor is a major challenge in the developing countries and comprehensive health hazard identification studies on this issue are still lacking. Therefore, the current study is an effort to highlight the health concerns of child labor exposed in the key small scale industries of Sialkot, Pakistan. Our findings revealed jolting levels of heavy metals in the urine, blood, serum, saliva, and hair samples collected from the exposed children. For example, in the urine samples, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb were measured at the respective concentrations of 39...
April 19, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431238/reducing-recurrence-of-c-difficile-infection
#10
Michael G Dieterle, Vincent B Young
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is facilitated by alteration of the microbiome following antibiotic administration. Antimicrobial therapy directed against the pathogen can treat CDI. Unfortunately, ∼20% of successfully treated patients will suffer recurrence. Bezlotoxumab, a human monoclonal antibody, binds to C. difficile toxin B (TcdB), reducing recurrence presumably by limiting epithelial damage and facilitating microbiome recovery.
April 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423475/primary-lymphocytic-hypophysitis-clinical-characteristics-and-treatment-of-50-cases-in-a-single-centre-in-china-over-18-years
#11
Shuchang Wang, Linjie Wang, Yong Yao, Feng Feng, Hongbo Yang, Zhiyong Liang, Kan Deng, Hui You, Jian Sun, Bing Xing, Zimeng Jin, Renzhi Wang, Hui Pan, Huijuan Zhu
OBJECTIVE: Primary lymphocytic hypophysitis (LYH) is rare and it is often evaluated in a small case series. This study aimed to describe the diagnosis and treatment of primary LYH in a larger cohort. DESIGN: A retrospective study of the diagnosis and treatment of primary LYH was conducted at Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 1999 to 2016. PATIENTS: Fifty patients (28 histologically-diagnosed and 22 clinically-diagnosed) were eligible for inclusion...
April 19, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421185/changes-in-composition-of-the-gut-bacterial-microbiome-after-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-a-pediatric-heart-transplant-patient
#12
Kyle L Flannigan, Taylor Rajbar, Andrew Moffat, Leanna S McKenzie, Frank Dicke, Kevin Rioux, Matthew L Workentine, Thomas J Louie, Simon A Hirota, Steven C Greenway
The microbiome is increasingly recognized as an important influence on human health and many of the comorbidities that affect patients after solid organ transplantation (SOT) have been shown to involve changes in gut bacterial populations. Thus, microbiome changes in an individual patient may have important health implications after SOT but this area remains understudied. We describe changes in the composition of the fecal microbiome from a pediatric heart transplant recipient before and >2.5 years after he underwent repeated fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI)...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418233/in-situ-expanding-pores-of-dodecahedron-like-carbon-frameworks-derived-from-mofs-for-enhanced-capacitive-deionization
#13
Zhuo Wang, Tingting Yan, Liyi Shi, Dengsong Zhang
The pores of dodecahedron-like carbon frameworks derived from metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) were in situ expanded via a surfactant-template strategy, which were originally demonstrated to enhance capacitive deionization (CDI). The dodecahedron-like carbon frameworks were obtained through carbonization of zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) using the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as a supramolecular template. It is found that the dodecahedron-like carbon frameworks derived from ZIF-8 possess efficiently expanded pores while retaining the original morphology and high nitrogen contents...
April 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417271/antimicrobial-effects-of-manuka-honey-on-in-vitro-biofilm-formation-by-clostridium-difficile
#14
M Piotrowski, P Karpiński, H Pituch, A van Belkum, P Obuch-Woszczatyński
Clostridium difficile is the cause of the nosocomial C. difficile infection (CDI). The conventional antibiotics used in CDI therapy are often unsuccessful, and recurrent infections may occur. Biofilm formation by C. difficile is associated with chronic or recurrent infections; biofilms may contribute to virulence and impaired antimicrobial efficacy. Manuka honey, derived from the Manuka tree (Leptospermum scoparium), is known to exhibit antimicrobial properties that are associated with its significant content of methylglyoxal, a natural antibiotic...
April 18, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412448/self-assembled-liposomes-of-dual-paclitaxel-phospholipid-prodrug-for-anticancer-therapy
#15
Longbing Ling, Yawei Du, Muhammad Ismail, Ruiyu He, Yongpeng Hou, Zhenglin Fu, Ying Zhang, Chen Yao, Xinsong Li
In this report, a newly liposomal formulation of paclitaxel (PTX) based on dual paclitaxel succinate glycerophosphorylcholine (Di-PTX-GPC) prodrug was developed. The Di-PTX-GPC prodrug was synthesised by conjugating PTX with GPC through esterification under N,N'-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) and 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) catalytic system. Di-PTX-GPC liposomes were prepared by thin film method and characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results indicated that the liposomes have an average diameter of 157...
April 12, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411694/predictors-of-failure-and-complications-of-catheter-directed-interventions-for-pulmonary-embolism
#16
Efthymios D Avgerinos, Adham N Abou Ali, Nathan L Liang, Elizabeth Genovese, Michael J Singh, Michel S Makaroun, Rabih A Chaer
OBJECTIVE: Catheter-directed interventions (CDIs) are increasingly performed for acute pulmonary embolism (PE) as they are presumed to provide similar therapeutic benefits to systemic thrombolysis while decreasing the dose of thrombolytic required and the associated risks. This study aimed to identify factors associated with CDI failure and to describe anticipated complications. METHODS: Consecutive patients who underwent CDI for massive or submassive PE between 2009 and 2015 were identified; outcomes and complications were retrospectively collected...
May 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery. Venous and Lymphatic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410344/preoperative-clostridium-difficile-infection-does-not-affect-pouch-outcomes-in-patients-with-ulcerative-colitis-who-undergo-ileal-pouch-anal-anastomosis
#17
Amy L Lightner, Chung Sang Tse, Kevin Quinn, John R Bergquist, Felicity Enders, Richard Pendegraft, Sahil Khanna, Laura Raffals
BACKGROUND: The operation of choice for patients with chronic ulcerative colitis (CUC) is restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA). Pouchitis is the most common complication after IPAA. The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is higher in CUC patients than the general population and can lead to significant disease flares and higher rates of colectomy. We sought to determine the risk of pouchitis in patients with precolectomy CDI and 90-day postoperative IPAA complications...
April 13, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405601/risk-for-clostridium-difficile-infection-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplant-remains-elevated-in-the-postengraftment-period
#18
Erik R Dubberke, Kimberly A Reske, Margaret A Olsen, Kerry M Bommarito, Sondra Seiler, Fernanda P Silveira, Tom M Chiller, John DiPersio, Victoria J Fraser
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a frequent cause of diarrhea among allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. It is unknown whether risk factors for CDI vary by time posttransplant. METHODS: We performed a 3-year prospective cohort study of CDI in allogeneic HCT recipients. Participants were enrolled during their transplant hospitalizations. Clinical assessments were performed weekly during hospitalizations and for 12 weeks posttransplant, and monthly for 30 months thereafter...
April 2017: Transplantation Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404757/trends-in-the-incidence-and-outcomes-of-hospitalized-cancer-patients-with-clostridium-difficile-infection-a-nationwide-analysis
#19
Arjun Gupta, Raseen Tariq, Ryan D Frank, Gary W Jean, Muhammad S Beg, Darrell S Pardi, David H Johnson, Sahil Khanna
Background: Patients with cancer have several risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), but the impact of CDI on outcomes in this population needs elucidation. We analyzed the incidence of CDI and its impact on outcomes in patients with cancer using the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) database from 2001 to 2010. Methods: Diagnosis codes were used to identify patients with cancer and CDI events. Demographics, diagnoses, length of stay (LOS), and discharge information were abstracted. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models with weighted analysis were conducted to study CDI incidence and CDI-associated outcomes...
April 2017: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404671/an-update-on-antimicrobial-resistance-in-clostridium-difficile-resistance-mechanisms-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing
#20
Zhong Peng, Dazhi Jin, Hyeun Bum Kim, Charles W Stratton, Bin Wu, Yi-Wei Tang, Xingmin Sun
Oral antibiotics such as metronidazole, vancomycin and fidaxomicin are therapies of choice for CDI. Several important mechanisms for C. difficile antibiotic resistance have been described; these include the acquisition of antibiotic resistance genes via transfer of mobile genetic elements, selective pressure in vivo resulting in gene mutations, altered expression of redox-active proteins, iron metabolism and DNA repair, as well as biofilm formation. This update summarizes new information published since 2010 on phenotypic and genotypic resistance mechanisms in C...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
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