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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645569/impact-of-end-stage-kidney-disease-on-costs-and-outcomes-of-clostridium-difficile-infection
#1
Abhinav Goyal, Kshitij Chatterjee, Sujani Yadlapati, Janani Rangaswami
OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of ESKD on outcomes of Clostridium difficile infection including complications of infection, length of hospital stay, overall mortality, and health care burden. DESIGN: or methods National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database created by Agency of Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) for the years 2009 through 2013 was used. Manufacturer provided sampling weights were used to produce national estimates. RESULTS: All cause unadjusted in-hospital mortality for patients with CDI and ESKD was significantly higher compared to those without ESKD (11...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645479/impact-of-the-nap-1-strain-on-disease-severity-mortality-and-recurrence-of-healthcare-associated-clostridium-difficile-infection
#2
Karri A Bauer, Jessica E W Johnston, Eric Wenzler, Debra A Goff, Charles H Cook, Joan-Miquel Balada-Llasat, Preeti Pancholi, Julie E Mangino
OBJECTIVES: Studies are conflicting regarding the association of the North American pulsed-field gel electrophoresis type 1 (NAP1) strain in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and outcomes. We evaluated the association of NAP1 with healthcare-associated CDI disease severity, mortality, and recurrence at our academic medical center. METHODS: Healthcare-associated CDI cases were identified from November 1, 2011 through January 31, 2013. Multivariable regression models were used to evaluate the associations of NAP1 with severe disease (based on the Hines VA severity score index), mortality, and recurrence...
June 20, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645266/poorer-outcomes-among-cancer-patients-diagnosed-with-clostridium-difficile-infections-in-united-states-community-hospitals
#3
Andrew Delgado, Ivan A Reveles, Felicia T Cabello, Kelly R Reveles
BACKGROUND: Cancer predisposes patients to Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) due to health care exposures and medications that disrupt the gut microbiota or reduce immune response. Despite this association, the national rate of CDI among cancer patients is unknown. Furthermore, it is unclear how CDI affects clinical outcomes in cancer. The objective of this study was to describe CDI incidence and health outcomes nationally among cancer patients in the United States (U.S.). METHODS: Data for this study were obtained from the U...
June 23, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644565/long-term-risk-of-infection-in-patients-with-crohn-s-disease-on-anti-tnf-treatment-a-prospective-single-center-cohort-study-in-china
#4
Yue Li, Hui Jun Shu, Hong Lu, Hong Yang, Ji Li, Bei Tan, Jiaming Qian
BACKGROUND: Anti-TNF agents have demonstrated to greatly improve management strategies for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Clinical trials and registry studies in Western countries have shown that infections and malignancy are the most concerned complications of anti-TNF treatment. However, data derived from clinical practice in China are limited. The aim of this study is to explore the long-term infection risk of infliximab (IFX) in treating patients with Crohn's disease (CD) from a tertiary IBD center in China...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644310/predictors-of-mortality-in-cirrhosis-inpatients-with-clostridium-difficile-infection
#5
Elliot Z Smith, Patrick G Northup, Curtis K Argo
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is a bacterial pathogen associated with significant morbidity and mortality in patients with cirrhosis. GOALS: Our primary aim is to identify variables that are predictive of poor outcomes in cirrhosis patients with C. difficile infection (CDI). We also aim to further characterize the risk factors for developing CDI and risk of mortality in this patient population. STUDY: A total of 200 subjects with a diagnosis of cirrhosis and CDI were matched to 200 cirrhosis inpatients without CDI...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642147/the-role-of-tigecycline-in-the-management-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#6
Eliza Manea, Jesús Sojo-Dorado, Raluca E Jipa, Serban N Benea, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño, Adriana Hristea
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the outcomes of patients with C.difficile infection (CDI) treated either with tigecycline associated with vancomycin, or with vancomycin alone. METHODS: This single-centre retrospective cohort study included all adults hospitalized from September 2014 through August 2015 for symptomatic, incident CDI confirmed by polymerase chain reaction for C.difficile toxin in stools. The primary outcome was the rate of favourable outcome, defined as a composite of clinical response (resolution of symptoms without need for additional CDI therapy) and achieving discharge without CDI-related surgery or intensive care; a secondary outcome was CDI recurrence...
June 19, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641525/1-1%C3%AA-carbonyldiimidazole-cdi-mediated-facile-synthesis-structural-characterization-antimicrobial-activity-and-in-silico-studies-of-coumarin-3-carboxamide-derivatives
#7
Uzma Salar, Khalid Mohammed Khan, Muhammad Imran Fakhri, Shafqat Hussain, Saima Tauseef, Shagufta Ameer, Abdul Wadood, Huma Khan, Shahnaz Perveen
BACKGROUND: Despite of the availability of variety of antibacterial agents, re-emergance of pathogenic bacteria is still a serious medical concern. So, identification of new, safer, and selective antibacterial agents is the key interest in the medicinal chemistry research. METHOD: To explore the antimicrobial activity of coumarin-3-carboxamides for a range of bacterial and fungal strains, twenty eight derivatives were synthesized by the reaction of coumarin-3-carboxylic acid with a variety of aniline derivatives in the presence of 1,1ꞌ-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI)...
June 22, 2017: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641091/increasing-rates-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-mexican-hospitals
#8
Laura Palau Dávila, Elvira Garza-González, Patricia Rodríguez-Zulueta, Rayo Morfín-Otero, Eduardo Rodríguez-Noriega, Diana Villar-Compte, Juan C Rodríguez-Aldama, Adrián Camacho-Ortiz
INTRODUCTION: The epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has changed in the last two decades. There is a lack of information regarding incidence and severity of CDI, especially in the developing world. METHODS: This was a retrospective and observational study from four hospitals of three Mexican cities. Patients were diagnosed with CDI when presented with loose stools and had at least one of the following tests positive: toxins assay, real-time PCR, or an endoscopic image compatible with pseudomembranous colitis...
June 19, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637570/risk-factors-that-predict-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infections-in-surgical-patients
#9
Craig A Messick, Jeff P Hammel, Tracy Hull
Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infection (CDI) is a serious problem mostly studied during patients' index infections. The aim of this study is to define the incidence of primary and recurrent postoperative (postop) CDI in a single institution's entire surgical population and to identify risk factors that influence disease recurrence. Using electronic medical records from 2002 to 2012, charts were reviewed from all patients with laboratory-proven (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or polymerase chain reaction methods) C...
June 1, 2017: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636484/bezlotoxumab-anti-toxin-b-monoclonal-antibody-to-prevent-recurrence-of-clostridium-difficile-infection
#10
Javier A Villafuerte Gálvez, Ciarán P Kelly
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common nosocomial infection in the U.S. 25% of CDI patients go on to develop recurrent CDI (rCDI) following current standard of care (SOC) therapy, leading to morbidity, mortality and economic loss. The first passive immunotherapy drug targeting C.difficile toxin B (bezlotoxumab) has been approved recently by the FDA and EMA for prevention of rCDI. Areas covered: A body of key studies was selected and reviewed by the authors. The unmet needs in CDI care were ascertained with emphasis in rCDI, including the epidemiology, pathophysiology and current management...
June 21, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633368/impact-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-hospitalization-and-patient-quality-of-life
#11
Mark H Wilcox, Harblas Ahir, John E Coia, Andrew Dodgson, Susan Hopkins, Martin J Llewelyn, Chris Settle, Susan Mclain-Smith, Stephen W Marcella
Objectives: Data quantifying outcomes of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI) are lacking. We sought to determine the UK hospital resource use and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) associated with rCDI hospitalizations. Patients and methods: A non-interventional study in six UK acute hospitals collected retrospective clinical and resource use data from medical records of 64 adults hospitalized for rCDI and 64 matched inpatient controls with a first episode only (f)CDI...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631639/prevalence-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-among-the-patients-attending-a-tertiary-care-teaching-hospital
#12
Lavanya Segar, Joshy M Easow, Sreenivasan Srirangaraj, Mohammad Hanifah, Noyal M Joseph, K S Seetha
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile, a most important nosocomial enteric pathogen, is recognized globally as responsible for antibiotic-associated diarrhea and colitis. It is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality due to widespread use of antibiotics. AIMS: The study was done to determine the prevalence of C. difficile infection (CDI) among the patients attending a tertiary care teaching hospital in Puducherry. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: We performed a prospective cohort study in Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629042/functionalization-of-zno-nanoparticles-by-3-mercaptopropionic-acid-for-aqueous-curcumin-delivery-synthesis-characterization-and-anticancer-assessment
#13
Seyed-Behnam Ghaffari, Mohammad-Hossein Sarrafzadeh, Zahra Fakhroueian, Shadab Shahriari, M Reza Khorramizadeh
Inherent biocompatibility and stability of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) and their biomedical potentials make them an emerging candidate for drug delivery. The aim of this study was to develop and assess a simple procedure for surface functionalization of ZnO-NPs by 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) for water-soluble curcumin delivery. Carboxyl-terminated ZnO nanoparticles were successfully made using ZnCl2 and NaOH in the presence of MPA. The functional groups were activated by 1,1'-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) and the curcumin bonding was carried out at room temperature for 24h...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623367/bovine-antibodies-targeting-primary-and-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-disease-are-a-potent-antibiotic-alternative
#14
Melanie L Hutton, Bliss A Cunningham, Kate E Mackin, Shelley A Lyon, Meagan L James, Julian I Rood, Dena Lyras
The increased incidence of antibiotic resistant 'superbugs' has amplified the use of broad spectrum antibiotics worldwide. An unintended consequence of antimicrobial treatment is disruption of the gastrointestinal microbiota, resulting in susceptibility to opportunistic pathogens, such as Clostridium difficile. Paradoxically, treatment of C. difficile infections (CDI) also involves antibiotic use, leaving patients susceptible to re-infection. This serious health threat has led to an urgent call for the development of new therapeutics to reduce or replace the use of antibiotics to treat bacterial infections...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622739/impact-of-a-collaborative-strategy-to-reduce-the-inappropriate-use-of-acid-suppressive-therapy-in-non-intensive-care-unit-patients
#15
Kristen D Belfield, Arpi G Kuyumjian, Rafael Teran, Mariette Amadi, Melissa Blatt, Keri Bicking
BACKGROUND: Stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP) is inappropriately prescribed in more than 30% of non-intensive care unit (ICU) patients, leading to unnecessary adverse events as well as increases in economic burden. OBJECTIVE: There was an increasing trend in the prophylactic use of acid suppressive therapy (AST) in non-critically ill patients at our institution, which prompted this initiative aimed at reducing the inappropriate use of AST in non-ICU patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective interventional study that consisted of formulation of a guideline, education to the hospitalist service, and intervention by clinical pharmacists...
July 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622631/equilibria-model-for-ph-variations-and-ion-adsorption-in-capacitive-deionization-electrodes
#16
Ali Hemmatifar, Diego I Oyarzun, James W Palko, Steven A Hawks, Michael Stadermann, Juan G Santiago
Ion adsorption and equilibrium between electrolyte and microstructure of porous electrodes are at the heart of capacitive deionization (CDI) research. Surface functional groups are among the factors which fundamentally affect adsorption characteristics of the material and hence CDI system performance in general. Current CDI-based models for surface charge are mainly based on a fixed (constant) charge density, and do not treat acid-base equilibria of electrode microstructure including so-called micropores. We here expand current models by coupling the modified Donnan (mD) model with weak electrolyte acid-base equilibria theory...
May 20, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621001/early-vocabulary-development-in-children-with-bilateral-cochlear-implants
#17
Taina Välimaa, Sari Kunnari, Päivi Laukkanen-Nevala, Eila Lonka
BACKGROUND: Children with unilateral cochlear implants (CIs) may have delayed vocabulary development for an extended period after implantation. Bilateral cochlear implantation is reported to be associated with improved sound localization and enhanced speech perception in noise. This study proposed that bilateral implantation might also promote early vocabulary development. Knowledge regarding vocabulary growth and composition in children with bilateral CIs and factors associated with it may lead to improvements in the content of early speech and language intervention and family counselling...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610932/automatic-environmental-disinfection-with-hydrogen-peroxide-and-ion-silver-versus-manual-environmental-disinfection-with-sodium-hypochlorite-a-multicenter-randomized-before-and-after-trial
#18
D Mosci, G W Marmo, L Sciolino, C Zaccaro, R Antonellini, L Accogli, T Lazzarotto, M Mongardi, M P Landini
AIMS: 1. Compare the effectiveness of an automated disinfection system with hydrogen peroxide <8% and silver ion versus a manual method with 0.5% sodium hypochlorite solution to evaluate the reduction of microbial mesophilic contamination and Clostridium difficile (CD) presence; 2. Evaluate the organizational impact of these two technologies in terms of time required for the process. METHODS: A randomized multicenter trial performed in four public and private health facilities in the Emilia-Romagna Region, in different wards including medicine, orthopaedics, long-term care, recovery and functional rehabilitation, which were previously occupied by patients with Clostridium difficile Infection (CDI)...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607673/risk-factors-for-clostridium-difficile-infections-an-overview-of-the-evidence-base-and-challenges-in-data-synthesis
#19
Paul Eze, Evelyn Balsells, Moe H Kyaw, Harish Nair
BACKGROUND: Recognition of a broad spectrum of disease and development of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and recurrent CDI (rCDI) in populations previously considered to be at low risk has renewed attention on differences in the risk profile of patients. In the absence of primary prevention for CDI and limited treatment options, it is important to achieve a deep understanding of the multiple factors that influence the risk of developing CDI and rCDI. METHODS: We conducted a review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses on risk factors for CDI and rCDI published between 1990 and October 2016...
June 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607468/clostridium-difficile-flagella-induce-a-pro-inflammatory-response-in-intestinal-epithelium-of-mice-in-cooperation-with-toxins
#20
Jameel Batah, Hussein Kobeissy, Phuong Trang Bui Pham, Cécile Denève-Larrazet, Sarah Kuehne, Anne Collignon, Claire Janoir-Jouveshomme, Jean-Christophe Marvaud, Imad Kansau
Clostridium difficile is the most important enteropathogen involved in gut nosocomial post-antibiotic infections. The emergence of hypervirulent strains has contributed to increased mortality and morbidity of CDI. The C. difficile toxins contribute directly to CDI-associated lesions of the gut, but other bacterial factors are needed for the bacteria to adhere and colonize the intestinal epithelium. The C. difficile flagella, which confer motility and chemotaxis for successful intestinal colonization, could play an additional role in bacterial pathogenesis by contributing to the inflammatory response of the host and mucosal injury...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
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