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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811244/comparison-of-the-clinical-course-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-gdh-positive-toxin-negative-patients-diagnosed-by-pcr-to-those-with-a-positive-toxin-test
#1
Julia Origüen, Laura Corbella, María Ángeles Orellana, Mario Fernández-Ruiz, Francisco López-Medrano, Rafael San Juan, Manuel Lizasoain, Tamara Ruiz-Merlo, Alejandra Morales-Cartagena, Guillermo Maestro, Patricia Parra, Jennifer Villa, Rafael Delgado, José María Aguado
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the potential role of PCR-based assays in the overdiagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) by using a validated diagnostic algorithm in daily clinical practice. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study evaluating all C. difficile-positive stool samples identified at our institution during a 12-month period, to compare outcomes and recurrence rate between patients with a positive enzyme-immunoassay (EIA) for both glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and toxin A/B ("toxin-positive group"), with those with GDH-positive, toxin-negative samples in which the diagnosis was made by a positive PCR-based assay ("toxin-/PCR+ group")...
August 12, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807622/community-associated-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-emergency-department-patients-in-western-australia
#2
Deirdre A Collins, Linda A Selvey, Antonio Celenza, Thomas V Riley
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is primarily associated with hospitalised patients, however, community-associated CDI (CA-CDI) has increased in Australia. We aimed to investigate the epidemiology and outcomes of CA-CDI cases presenting to hospital emergency departments in Western Australia (WA). A retrospective case-control study of CA-CDI cases presenting at six emergency departments in WA from July 2013 to June 2014 was performed. Clinical signs, recent medication, hospitalisations and potential risk factors for CA-CDI were investigated for cases (n = 34) and unmatched controls (n = 62) who were infected with another gastrointestinal pathogen, including Campylobacter spp...
August 11, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807509/-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-angiography-in-the-diagnosis-of-infective-endocarditis-and-cardiac-device-infection-in-adult-patients-with-congenital-heart-disease-and-prosthetic-material
#3
María N Pizzi, L Dos-Subirà, Albert Roque, Nuria Fernández-Hidalgo, Hug Cuéllar-Calabria, Antonia Pijuan Domènech, María T Gonzàlez-Alujas, M T Subirana-Domènech, B Miranda-Barrio, Ignacio Ferreira-González, Juan J González-López, Albert Igual, Olga Maisterra-Santos, David García-Dorado, Joan Castell-Conesa, Benito Almirante, Manuel Escobar Amores, Pilar Tornos, Santiago Aguadé-Bruix
OBJECTIVES: Infective endocarditis (IE) and cardiac device infection (CDI) are a major complication in the growing number of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) reaching adulthood. We aimed to evaluate the added value of (18)F-FDG-PET/CT angiography (PET/CTA) in the diagnosis of IE-CDI in adults with CHD and intravascular or intracardiac prosthetic material, in whom echocardiography (ECHO) and modified Duke Criteria (DC) have limitations because of the patients' complex anatomy...
August 9, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805056/polymer-dehalogenation-enabled-fast-fabrication-of-n-s-codoped-carbon-materials-for-superior-supercapacitor-and-deionization-applications
#4
Yingna Chang, Guoxin Zhang, Biao Han, Haoyuan Li, Cejun Hu, Yingchun Pang, Zheng Chang, Xiaoming Sun
Doped carbon materials (DCM) with multiple heteroatoms hold broad interests in electrochemical catalysis and energy storage but require several steps to fabricate, which greatly hinder their practical applications. In this study, a facile strategy is developed to enable the fast fabrication of multiply doped carbon materials via room-temperature dehalogenation of polyvinyl dichloride (PVDC) promoted by KOH with the presence of different organic dopants. A N, S-codoped carbon material (NS-DCM) is demonstratively synthesized using two dopants (dimethylformamide for N doping and dimethylsulfoxide for S doping)...
August 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801865/faecal-lactoferrin-and-calprotectin-in-patients-with-clostridium-difficile-infection-a-case-control-study
#5
F Barbut, C Gouot, N Lapidus, L Suzon, R Syed-Zaidi, V Lalande, C Eckert
Calprotectin and lactoferrin are released by the gastrointestinal tract in response to infection and mucosal inflammation. Our objective was to assess the usefulness of quantifying faecal lactoferrin and calprotectin concentrations in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) patients with or without free toxins in the stools. We conducted a single-centre 22-month case-control study. Patients with a positive CDI diagnosis were compared to two control groups: group 1 = diarrhoeic patients negative for C. difficile and matched (1:1) to CDI cases on the ward location and age, and group 2 = diarrhoeic patients colonised with a non-toxigenic strain of C...
August 12, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801119/stability-and-efficacy-of-frozen-and-lyophilized-fecal-microbiota-transplant-fmt-product-in-a-mouse-model-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-cdi
#6
Zhi-Dong Jiang, Ashley Alexander, Shi Ke, Evangelia M Valilis, Shaofan Hu, Bingjie Li, Herbert L DuPont
Freezing donor fecal microbiota has simplified fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in the treatment of recurrent C. difficile infection (CDI). However, the optimal storage time for the frozen FMT products remains unknown. Using an established murine model of CDI, stability and efficacy of frozen and lyophilized FMT product was studied at time points from 2 months to 15 months. DNA was extracted from fecal samples from the mice with identification of specific bacterial species by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR)...
August 8, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800843/discectomy-without-replacement-improves-function-in-patients-with-internal-derangement-of-the-temporomandibular-joint
#7
Michael Miloro, Matthew McKnight, Michael D Han, Michael R Markiewicz
PURPOSE: Treatment of internal derangement is controversial. This study assessed the effectiveness of discectomy without replacement in improving jaw function and decreasing pain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study sample of subjects with internal derangement underwent discectomy without replacement by one surgeon at a single academic medical center. The primary predictor variables were preoperative maximal incisal opening (MIO) and Helkimo Clinical Dysfunction Index (CDI) score...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800598/an-in-silico-evaluation-of-treatment-regimens-for-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection
#8
Natalia Blanco, Betsy Foxman, Anurag N Malani, Min Zhang, Seth Walk, Alexander H Rickard, Marisa C Eisenberg
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a significant nosocomial infection worldwide, that recurs in as many as 35% of infections. Risk of CDI recurrence varies by ribotype, which also vary in sporulation and germination rates. Whether sporulation/germination mediate risk of recurrence and effectiveness of treatment of recurring CDI remains unclear. We aim to assess the role of sporulation/germination patterns on risk of recurrence, and the relative effectiveness of the recommended tapered/pulsing regimens using an in silico model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799922/fabrication-of-titanium-carburizing-electrodes-for-capacitive-deionization
#9
Wang Li, Lei Lei, Zhou Yun, Fu Jiangtao
Titanium carburizing electrodes were used as the electrodes in a capacitive deionization (CDI) process for desalination in this study. Two methods of high vacuum magnetron sputtering and chemical deposition were used for the preparation of nano-titanium carburizing electrodes (named Ti-C* and Ti-C**). By comparing the adsorption capacities of different kinds of electrode material, combined with physical and chemical characteristics and electrochemical analysis, the method of high vacuum magnetron sputtering to prepare Ti-C* electrodes have been proved successful for the CDI process...
August 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797258/work-stress-associated-cool-down-reactions-among-nurses-and-hospital-physicians-and-their-relation-to-burnout-symptoms
#10
Arndt Büssing, Zarah Falkenberg, Carina Schoppe, Daniela Rodrigues Recchia, Désirée Poier
BACKGROUND: Hospital staff experience high level of work stress and they have to find strategies to adapt and react to it. When they perceive emotional exhaustion and job dissatisfaction in response to constant work stress, one reaction might be emotional withdrawal. This emotional distancing can be seen as an adaptive strategy to keep 'functionality' in the job. Both, perception of emotional exhaustion and emotional distancing as a strategy, can be operationalized as 'Cool Down'. We assume that work stress associated variables are positively associated with Cool Down reactions, while internal and external resources are negatively associated and might function as a buffer against emotional distancing...
August 10, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796388/clostridium-difficile-infection-in-low-and-middle-human-development-index-countries-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Joseph D Forrester, Lawrence Z Cai, Chenesa Mbanje, Tanya N Rinderknecht, Sherry M Wren
OBJECTIVE: To describe the impact and epidemiology of Clostridium difficile (C.difficile) infection (CDI) in low- and middle-human development index (LMHDI) countries. METHOD: Prospectively registered, systematic literature review of existing literature in the PubMed, Ovid, and Web of Science databases describing the epidemiology and management of C.difficile in LMHDI countries. Risk factors were compared between studies when available. RESULTS: Of the 218 abstracts identified after applying search criteria, 25 studies were reviewed in detail...
August 10, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782943/n-heterocyclic-carbene-carbodiimide-nhc-cdi-adduct-or-zwitterionic-type-neutral-amidinate-supported-magnesium-ii-and-zinc-ii-complexes
#12
Ashim Baishya, Lokesh Kumar, Milan Kr Barman, Himansu S Biswal, Sharanappa Nembenna
A series of structurally characterized magnesium and zinc complexes of the form L(4-tBuPh)-M{N(SiMe3)2}2 [M = Mg (1) and Zn (2); L(4-tBuPh) = 1,3-diethyl-4,5-dimethylimidazolium-2-{N,N'-bis(4-tert-butylphenyl)amidinate}], L(4-iPrPh)-M{N(SiMe3)2}2 [M = Mg (3) and Zn (4); L(4-iPrPh) = 1,3-diethyl-4,5-dimethylimidazolium-2-{N,N'-bis(4-isopropylphenyl)amidinate}], and L(4-iPrPh)-ZnEt2 (5) bearing a zwitterionic-type neutral amidinate or N-heterocyclic carbene-carbodiimide ("NHC-CDI") adduct and monoanionic amido or alkyl ligands have been reported...
August 7, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782647/host-factors-are-more-important-in-predicting-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-than-ribotype-and-use-of-antibiotics
#13
Yvette H van Beurden, Shabir Nezami, Chris J J Mulder, Christina M J E Vandenbroucke-Grauls
OBJECTIVE: A frequent complication of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is recurrent disease. The aim of this study was to determine whether early recurrence risk was higher after infection with ribotype 027 (outbreak strain) compared to infection with endemic strain types of C. difficile METHODS: Consecutive patients diagnosed with CDI between May 2013 and March 2014 were included (outbreak strain, and non-outbreak strains). Patients who developed recurrent CDI within 30 days after completion of CDI treatment, were compared to patients without a recurrence...
August 3, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782372/the-incidence-and-outcomes-from-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-hospitalized-adults-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#14
George Saffouri, Arjun Gupta, Edward V Loftus, Larry M Baddour, Darrell S Pardi, Sahil Khanna
OBJECTIVES: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) may worsen outcomes in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but large database-driven studies have conflicting results. The study objective is to analyze clinical features and outcomes in patients with CDI and IBD using the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) database from 2005 to 2009. MATERIALS AND METHODS: NHDS collects the clinical information on patients dismissed from non-Federal short-stay United States hospitals...
August 6, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780742/is-there-a-relationship-between-the-presence-of-the-binary-toxin-genes-in-clostridium-difficile-strains-and-the-severity-of-c-difficile-infection-cdi
#15
C E Berry, K A Davies, D W Owens, M H Wilcox
Some strains of Clostridium difficile produce a binary toxin, in addition to the main C. difficile virulence factors (toxins A and B). There have been conflicting reports regarding the role of binary toxin and its relationship to the severity of C. difficile infection (CDI). Samples, isolates and clinical data were collected as part of a prospective multicentre diagnostic study. Clostridium difficile isolates (n = 1259) were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to detect binary toxin genes cdtA and cdtB...
August 5, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776206/healthcare-associated-clostridium-difficile-infections-are-sustained-by-disease-from-the-community
#16
Angus McLure, Archie C A Clements, Martyn Kirk, Kathryn Glass
Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) are some of the most common hospital-associated infections worldwide. Approximately 5% of the general population is colonised with the pathogen, but most are protected from disease by normal intestinal flora or immune responses to toxins. We developed a stochastic compartmental model of CDI in hospitals that captures the condition of the host's gut flora and the role of adaptive immune responses. A novel, derivative-based method for sensitivity analysis of individual-level outcomes was developed and applied to the model...
August 3, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773205/construction-of-a-novel-three-dimensional-pedot-rvc-electrode-structure-for-capacitive-deionization-testing-and-performance
#17
Ali Aldalbahi, Mostafizur Rahaman, Periyasami Govindasami, Mohammed Almoiqli, Tariq Altalhi, Amine Mezni
This article discusses the deposition of different amount of microstuctured poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) on reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) by electrochemical method to prepare three-dimensional (3D) PEDOT/RVC electrodes aimed to be used in capacitive deionization (CDI) technology. A CDI unit cell has been constructed here in this study. The performance of CDI cell in the ion removal of NaCl onto the sites of PEDOT/RVC electrode has been systematically investigated in terms of flow-rate, applied electrical voltage, and increasing PEDOT loading on PEDOT/RVC electrodes...
July 24, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771654/predictors-of-30-day-mortality-in-hospitalized-patients-with-clostridium-difficile-infection
#18
Jayakrishna Chintanaboina, Seyedehsan Navabi, Kristen Suchniak-Mussari, Benjamin Stern, Simranjit Bedi, Erik B Lehman, Andrew Tinsley
OBJECTIVES: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality and is the most common nosocomial infection in the United States, with associated annual costs of approximately $3 billion. The epidemiology of CDI has changed with the identification of novel risk factors for incident and recurrent CDI. The aim of this study was to identify the predictors of 30-day mortality in hospitalized patients with CDI. METHODS: We identified all of the patients diagnosed as having CDI from January 2011 to December 2014 at our university-setting hospital...
August 2017: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771484/effectiveness-of-community-based-condom-distribution-interventions-to-prevent-hiv-in-the-united-states-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Mohsen Malekinejad, Andrea Parriott, Janet C Blodgett, Hacsi Horvath, Ram K Shrestha, Angela B Hutchinson, Paul Volberding, James G Kahn
BACKGROUND: Despite significant public health implications, the extent to which community-based condom distribution interventions (CDI) prevent HIV infection in the United States is not well understood. METHODS: We systematically reviewed research evidence applying Cochrane Collaboration methods. We used a comprehensive search strategy to search multiple bibliographic databases for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs published from 1986-2017...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771381/psychometric-properties-and-factor-structures-of-the-korean-version-of-children-s-depression-rating-scale-revised
#20
Kyoung-Min Kim, Sojeong Nam, Jae-Won Choi, A-Hyun Jung, Soon-Beom Hong, Jun Won Kim, Soo Yeon Kim, Eunji Kim, Jae-Won Kim
OBJECTIVE: The Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) is a valid instrument for the assessment of depressive symptoms in youth, but this measure is yet to be validated in Korea. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the validity of the Korean version of the CDRS-R and to determine its factor structures. METHODS: This study included 66 youths between 12 and 17 years of age who participated as part of an ongoing study investigating biomarkers of the antidepressant response and suicidal events in depressed youth...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
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