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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544102/a-multicenter-retrospective-case-cohort-study-of-the-epidemiology-and-risk-factors-for-clostridium-difficile-infection-among-cord-blood-transplant-recipients
#1
Carolyn D Alonso, David A Braun, Ishan Patel, Mona Akbari, Daniel Jungmyung Oh, Tomi Jun, Malgorzata McMasters, Sarah P Hammond, Brett Glotzbecker, Corey Cutler, Daniel Leffler, Karen K Ballen, Ciarán P Kelly
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause of health-care associated infectious diarrhea. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology and risk factors for CDI in the 100 days following umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) at three Boston hospitals. METHODS: We performed a multicenter, retrospective, case-cohort study of 226 UCBT recipients at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, and Dana Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center from 2003-2012...
May 24, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542111/clostridium-difficile-infection-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#2
Deepa Nanayakkara, Neha Nanda
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major healthcare-associated infection that causes significant morbidity and an economic impact in the United States. In this review, we provide an overview of Clostridium difficile infection in solid organ transplant recipients with an emphasis on recent literature. RECENT FINDINGS: C. difficile in solid organ transplant population has unique risk factors. Fecal microbiota transplantation has shown favorable results in treatment of recurrent C...
May 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539957/the-relationship-of-sexual-abuse-with-self-esteem-depression-and-problematic-internet-use-in-korean-adolescents
#3
Bung-Nyun Kim, Subin Park, Min-Hyeon Park
The association of sexual victimization with self-esteem, depression, and problematic internet use was examined in Korean adolescents. A total of 695 middle and high school students were recruited (413 boys, 282 girls, mean age, 14.06±1.37 years). The participants were administered the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report-Short Form (ETISR-SF), Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), and Young's Internet Addiction Test (IAT). The associations between sexual abuse and the level of self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and problematic internet use were analyzed...
May 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539351/bacteriophage-transfer-during-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-clostridium-difficile-infection-is-associated-with-treatment-outcome
#4
Tao Zuo, Sunny H Wong, Kelvin Lam, Rashid Lui, Kitty Cheung, Whitney Tang, Jessica Y L Ching, Paul K S Chan, Martin C W Chan, Justin C Y Wu, Francis K L Chan, Jun Yu, Joseph J Y Sung, Siew C Ng
OBJECTIVE: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is effective for the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Studies have shown bacterial colonisation after FMT, but data on viral alterations in CDI are scarce. We investigated enteric virome alterations in CDI and the association between viral transfer and clinical outcome in patients with CDI. DESIGN: Ultra-deep metagenomic sequencing of virus-like particle preparations and bacterial 16S rRNA sequencing were performed on stool samples from 24 subjects with CDI and 20 healthy controls...
May 24, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537583/impact-of-the-n-6-n-3-long-chain-pufa-ratio-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-on-offspring-neurodevelopment-5-year-follow-up-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
C Brei, L Stecher, S Brunner, R Ensenauer, F Heinen, P D Wagner, J Hermsdörfer, H Hauner
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Evidence regarding the effect of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) supplementation during pregnancy on offspring's neurodevelopment is not conclusive. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In this analysis, the effect of a reduced n-6:n-3 LCPUFA ratio in the diet of pregnant/lactating women (1.2 g n-3 LCPUFA together with an arachidonic acid (AA)-balanced diet between 15th wk of gestation-4 months postpartum vs control diet) on child neurodevelopment at 4 and 5 years of age was assessed...
May 24, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533000/clinical-immunological-and-microbiological-predictors-of-poor-outcome-in-clostridium-difficile-infection
#6
E Reigadas, L Alcalá, M Marín, A Martín, E Bouza
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) causes increased morbidity and mortality. Clinical data cannot clearly predict poor CDI outcome. Data on the value of microbiological predictors is scarce. OBJECTIVE: To identify early predictors of poor outcome of CDI. METHODS: We prospectively included patients with CDI aged >2years. Clinical, immunological (Toxin B IgG/Ig A and Toxin A IgG/Ig A), microbiological factors (bacterial load, toxin quantification, sporulation, germination, and metronidazole susceptibility) were evaluated to identify early independent predictors of poor outcome...
May 11, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532448/the-effects-of-a-treatment-combination-of-anti-vegf-injections-laser-coagulation-and-cryotherapy-on-patients-with-type-3-coat-s-disease
#7
Songfeng Li, Guangda Deng, Jinghua Liu, Yan Ma, Hai Lu
BACKGROUND: To examined the curative effect of vitreous injection with ranibizumab,laser coagulation and cryotherapy in treating stage 3 Coats' disease with exudative retinal detachment. METHODS: Seventeen patients with stage 3 Coats' disease were enrolled in the study. All eyes were treated with vitreous injection of ranibizumab as initial treatment, and subsequent treatment depended on the absorption of subretinal fluid, Including cryotherapy and laser photocoagulation...
May 22, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529025/how-to-establish-and-run-a-stool-bank
#8
REVIEW
Elisabeth M Terveer, Yvette H van Beurden, Abraham Goorhuis, Jos F M L Seegers, Martijn P Bauer, E van Nood, Marcel G W Dijkgraaf, Chris J J Mulder, Christina M J E Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Hein W Verspaget, Josbert J Keller, Ed J Kuijper
Since 2013, several stool banks have been developed following publications reporting on clinical success of "Fecal Microbiota Transplantation" (FMT) for recurrent Clostridium difficile infections (CDI). However, protocols for donor screening, fecal suspension preparation and transfer of the fecal suspension differ between various countries and institutions. Moreover, no European consensus exists regarding the legislative aspects of the fecal suspension product. Internationally standardized recommendations about the above mentioned aspects have not yet been established...
May 18, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516109/serum-derived-bovine-immunoglobulin-as-novel-adjunct-in-complicated-clostridium-difficile-colitis-treatment
#9
Samson Ferm, Nims Varadi, Constantine Fisher, Ellen Gutkin
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a well-known complication of antibiotic therapy. It is associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and cost in the hospital setting. The main symptoms include watery diarrhea, abdominal pain, and distension, but CDI can also present as toxic megacolon, bowel perforation with peritonitis, sepsis and renal failure. Therapy includes metronidazole and oral vancomycin, with rectal vancomycin and fecal transplant reserved for more complicated cases. Adjunctive treatments such as probiotics have been tried with mixed results...
2017: ACG Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514053/a-cluster-randomized-theory-guided-oral-hygiene-trial-in-adolescents-a-latent-growth-model
#10
J Aleksejūnienė, V Brukienė
OBJECTIVES: (i) To test whether theory-guided interventions are more effective than conventional dental instruction (CDI) for changing oral hygiene in adolescents and (ii) to examine whether such interventions equally benefit both genders and different socio-economic (SES) groups. METHODS: A total of 244 adolescents were recruited from three schools, and cluster randomization allocated adolescents to one of the three types of interventions: two were theory-based interventions (Precaution Adoption Process Model or Authoritative Parenting Model) and CDI served as an active control...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Dental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513974/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-outcomes-in-immunocompetent-and-immunocompromised-patients-a-single-center-experience
#11
Sally Alrabaa, Ripal Jariwala, Kristen Zeitler, Jose Montero
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major infectious disease focus for which fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been used with success in various patient populations. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of FMT in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients to review outcomes at our center, with a focus on identifying risk factors for FMT failure in solid organ transplant (SOT) patients. FMT was conducted using universal banked frozen stool via naso-duodenal tube in patients with recurrent CDI of 3 or more episodes per our institutional protocol...
May 17, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512094/intrinsic-toxin-derived-peptides-destabilize-and-inactivate-clostridium-difficile-tcdb
#12
Jason L Larabee, Sarah J Bland, Jonathan J Hunt, Jimmy D Ballard
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major cause of hospital-associated, antibiotic-induced diarrhea, which is largely mediated by the production of two large multidomain clostridial toxins, TcdA and TcdB. Both toxins coordinate the action of specific domains to bind receptors, enter cells, and deliver a catalytic fragment into the cytosol. This results in GTPase inactivation, actin disassembly, and cytotoxicity. TcdB in particular has been shown to encode a region covering amino acids 1753 to 1851 that affects epitope exposure and cytotoxicity...
May 16, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511200/enteric-infection-in-relapse-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-the-utility-of-stool-microbial-pcr-testing
#13
Jordan E Axelrad, Andrew Joelson, Yael R Nobel, Garrett Lawlor, Peter H R Green, Simon Lichtiger, Benjamin Lebwohl
BACKGROUND: The similar presentations in relapse of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and enteric infection pose substantial barriers to diagnosis and treatment. The objective of this study was to investigate the incidence, etiology, predictors, and treatment of enteric infection in patients with IBD. METHODS: We reviewed the records of 214 patients with IBD who underwent 295 gastrointestinal pathogen panel and Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) stool tests during an exacerbation of symptoms...
June 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510584/identification-of-novel-risk-factors-for-community-acquired-clostridium-difficile-infection-using-spatial-statistics-and-geographic-information-system-analyses
#14
Deverick J Anderson, Leoncio Flavio Rojas, Shera Watson, Lauren P Knelson, Sohayla Pruitt, Sarah S Lewis, Rebekah W Moehring, Emily E Sickbert Bennett, David J Weber, Luke F Chen, Daniel J Sexton
BACKGROUND: The rate of community-acquired Clostridium difficile infection (CA-CDI) is increasing. While receipt of antibiotics remains an important risk factor for CDI, studies related to acquisition of C. difficile outside of hospitals are lacking. As a result, risk factors for exposure to C. difficile in community settings have been inadequately studied. MAIN OBJECTIVE: To identify novel environmental risk factors for CA-CDI. METHODS: We performed a population-based retrospective cohort study of patients with CA-CDI from 1/1/2007 through 12/31/2014 in a 10-county area in central North Carolina...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506317/changes-in-microbial-ecology-after-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-recurrent-c-difficile-infection-affected-by-underlying-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#15
Sahil Khanna, Yoshiki Vazquez-Baeza, Antonio González, Sophie Weiss, Bradley Schmidt, David A Muñiz-Pedrogo, John F Rainey, Patricia Kammer, Heidi Nelson, Michael Sadowsky, Alexander Khoruts, Stefan L Farrugia, Rob Knight, Darrell S Pardi, Purna C Kashyap
BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota play a key role in maintaining homeostasis in the human gut. Alterations in the gut microbial ecosystem predispose to Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and gut inflammatory disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from a healthy donor can restore gut microbial diversity and pathogen colonization resistance; consequently, it is now being investigated for its ability to improve inflammatory gut conditions such as IBD...
May 15, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506028/comparison-of-the-hospital-acquired-clostridium-difficile-infection-risk-of-using-proton-pump-inhibitors-versus-histamine-2-receptor-antagonists-for-prophylaxis-and-treatment-of-stress-ulcers-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Mohamed Azab, Loomee Doo, Daniel H Doo, Yousif Elmofti, Muazer Ahmed, John Jay Cadavona, Xibei B Liu, Amaan Shafi, Moon Kyung Joo, Ji Won Yoo
Background/Aims: Although proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been widely used for the prevention and treatment of stress gastric ulcers in hospital settings, there are concerns that PPIs increase the risk of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). However, little is known about the risk of CDI following PPI and histamine-2 receptor antagonist (H2RA) use. We evaluated the comparative hospital-acquired CDI occurrence risk associated with the concurrent use of PPIs versus H2RAs. Methods: A systematic search of PubMed, MEDLINE/ Ovid, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Web of Science, and Google Scholar through August 19, 2016, identified 12 studies that reported the hospital-acquired CDI occurrence following H2RA and PPI use for the prevention and treatment of stress gastric ulcers...
May 17, 2017: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501926/an-outbreak-of-clostridium-difficile-pcr-ribotype-027-in-spain-risk-factors-for-recurrence-and-a-novel-treatment-strategy
#17
E Bouza, L Alcalá, M Marín, M Valerio, E Reigadas, P Muñoz, M González-Del Vecchio, V de Egea
An outbreak of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) caused by ribotype 027 (B1/NAP1) began in our hospital in November 2014, and produced 141 episodes in the following months. The aim of this study is to describe this outbreak, assess risk factors for recurrence of CDI-027 and to analyze the implementation of a novel treatment strategy. This is a prospective study of all patients with CDI-027, from November 2014 to November 2015. The epidemiological data were collected daily for each patient. We compared clinical characteristics and treatment between patients with and without recurrence of CDI-027...
May 13, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501554/molecular-typing-of-clostridium-difficile-isolates-cultured-from-patient-stool-samples-and-gastroenterological-medical-devices-in-a-single-iranian-hospital
#18
Masoumeh Azimirad, Marcela Krutova, Otakar Nyc, Zahra Hasani, Leili Afrisham, Masoud Alebouyeh, Mohammad Reza Zali
This study aimed to characterize Clostridium difficile isolates cultured from stool samples of patients with C. difficile infection (CDI) and swabs from a medical environment in a gastroenterology centre in Tehran, Iran. A total of 158 samples (105 stool samples from hospitalized patients and 53 swabs from medical devices and the environment) were collected from January 2011 to August 2011 and investigated for the presence of C. difficile by direct anaerobic culture on a selective media for C. difficile. C...
May 10, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500988/comparison-of-faradaic-reactions-in-capacitive-deionization-cdi-and-membrane-capacitive-deionization-mcdi-water-treatment-processes
#19
Wangwang Tang, Di He, Changyong Zhang, Peter Kovalsky, T David Waite
Capacitive deionization (CDI) and membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) are the most common cell architectures in the use of CDI for water treatment. In this work, the Faradaic reactions occurring in batch-mode CDI and MCDI processes were compared by investigating the variation of H2O2 and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations, pH, conductivity and current during charging and discharging under different charging voltages. During charging, the H2O2 concentration in CDI increased rapidly and then decreased while almost no H2O2 was generated in MCDI due to the inability of oxygen to penetrate the ion exchange membrane...
May 5, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498996/protective-factors-in-the-intestinal-microbiome-against-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-recipients-of-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#20
Yeon Joo Lee, Esther S Arguello, Robert R Jenq, Eric Littmann, Grace J Kim, Liza C Miller, Lilan Ling, Cesar Figueroa, Elizabeth Robilotti, Miguel-Angel Perales, Juliet N Barker, Sergio Giralt, Marcel R M van den Brink, Eric G Pamer, Ying Taur
Background: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a frequent complication in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), who receive intensive treatments that significantly disrupt the intestinal microbiota. In this study, we examined the microbiota composition of allo-HSCT recipients to identify bacterial colonizers that confer protection against CDI after engraftment. Methods: Feces collected from adult recipients allo-HSCT at engraftment were analyzed; 16S ribosomal RNA genes were sequenced and analyzed from each sample...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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