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Swimming, performance, athlete

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416896/actn3-r577x-genotype-and-performance-of-elite-middle-long-distance-swimmers-in-china
#1
Y C Li, L Q Wang, L Y Yi, J H Liu, Y Hu, Y F Lu, M Wang
The ACTN3 gene is one of the genes that have a potential influence on physical performance. Studies have shown that the 577R genotype of ACTN3 is more prevalent in sprint athletes, while the 577X genotype is more prevalent in endurance athletes. In swimming, both power and endurance related phenotypes are equally needed for swimmers to excel at the elite level. Therefore, the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism may become a genetic marker for swimmers. The study aimed to examine the association of the ACTN3 R577X genotype with the performance of elite middle-long distance (MLD) swimmers...
March 2017: Biology of Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409200/return-to-sport-after-shoulder-arthroplasty-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Joseph N Liu, Michael E Steinhaus, Grant H Garcia, Brenda Chang, Kara Fields, David M Dines, Russell F Warren, Lawrence V Gulotta
PURPOSE: With increasing incidence and indications for shoulder arthroplasty, there is an increasing emphasis on the ability to return to sports. The main goal of this study was to determine the rate of return to sport after shoulder arthroplasty. METHODS: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were followed to perform this systematic review and meta-analysis. A search was performed on MEDLINE, Scopus, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library...
April 13, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397355/sex-differences-in-athletic-performance-emerge-coinciding-with-the-onset-of-male-puberty
#3
David J Handelsman
BACKGROUND: Male performance in athletic events begins to exceed that of age-matched females during early adolescence but the timing of this divergence relative to the onset of male puberty and the rise of circulating testosterone remains poorly defined. DESIGN: This study is a secondary quantitative analysis of four published sources which aimed to define the timing of the gender divergence in athletic performance and relating it to the rise in circulating testosterone due to male puberty...
April 11, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394711/swimming-and-peak-bone-mineral-density-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Alejandro Gomez-Bruton, Jesús Montero-Marín, Alejandro González-Agüero, Alba Gómez-Cabello, Javier García-Campayo, Luis A Moreno, Jose A Casajús, Germán Vicente-Rodríguez
This meta-analysis aims to determine the effects of regular swimming on bone mineral density (BMD) in young adults (18-30 years). A systematic search was performed in Pubmed, SPORTDiscus and the Cochrane Library from the earliest possible year to March 2016. Swimmers were compared to non-athletic controls (CG) and to high-impact athletes (HIGH). Effect sizes with the Hedges g in random effects models were developed. Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analyses. Swimmers presented similar BMD values to CG in whole-body (g = -0...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357831/mermaid-health-identifying-health-issues-related-to-mermaiding
#5
Matthieu J Guitton
BACKGROUND: Mermaiding - swimming with a leg-covering monofin mimicking the tail of a mermaid - is an emerging aquatic activity, which has gained a marked popularity over the last few years. However, no study so far has documented the potential health issues or risks of injuries related to this practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study surveyed professional mermaids cumulating an estimated total of 19,147 h of in-water mermaiding, regarding their health issues and injuries...
2017: International Maritime Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350714/multiple-transportable-carbohydrate-impact-on-long-distance-triathlon-performance
#6
David S Rowlands, Stuart D Houltham
The ingestion of multiple (2:1 glucose:fructose) transportable carbohydrate in beverages at high rates (>78 g·h) during endurance exercise enhances exogenous carbohydrate oxidation, fluid absorption, gut comfort, and performance, relative to glucose alone. But during long-distance endurance competition, athletes prefer a solid-gel-drink format, and the effect size of multiple-transportable carbohydrate is unknown. PURPOSE: To determine the effect of multiple-transportable carbohydrate on triathlon competition performance when ingested within bars, gels, and drinks...
March 27, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337944/the-influence-of-gate-start-position-on-physical-performance-and-anxiety-perception-in-expert-bmx-athletes
#7
Franck Di Rienzo, Guillaume Martinent, Lucie Levêque, Tadhg MacIntyre, Christian Collet, Aymeric Guillot
The critical importance of the start phase in bicycle motocross (BMX) racing is increasingly acknowledged. Past experiments underlined that the internal lane of the starting gate provides a strong positional advantage. However, how lane position affects start performance and cognitive and somatic state anxiety remains unexplored. We examined the start performance and anxiety responses of youth national-level BMX riders in both experimental and ecological contexts. We used contextualization motor imagery routines to evaluate start performance and state anxiety from the internal and external lanes...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252429/the-heart-left-ventricle-diastolic-function-during-exercises-of-different-power-in-athletes
#8
О Nekhanevych, V Zhylyuk, V Logvinenko, Y Kramareva
The aim of the research was to investigate diastolic left ventricle function in athletes performing exercises requiring varying power using echocardiography. We surveyed 68 athletes aged from 12 to 27 years who were involved in swimming and volleyball. Echocardiography was used to assess cardiohaemodynamic changes in athletes using a bicycle ergometer to exercise at varying intensities. Exercising at submaximal and average power produces a proportional increase in indices of diastolic function of the heart: maximum speed of early diastolic mitral inflow streams (E) to 81,9±20,0 сm/s and maximum speed of early diastolic and mitral annulus velocity (е') to 16,6±5,7 сm/s...
January 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236311/laryngoscopy-during-swimming-a-novel-diagnostic-technique-to-characterize-swimming-induced-laryngeal-obstruction
#9
Emil S Walsted, Laura L Swanton, Ken van van Someren, Tessa E Morris, Matthew Furber, Vibeke Backer, James H Hull
Exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO) is a key differential diagnosis for respiratory symptoms in athletes and is particularly prevalent in aquatic athletes. A definitive diagnosis of EILO is dependent on laryngoscopy, performed continuously, while an athlete engages in the sport that precipitates their symptoms. This report provides the first description of the feasibility of performing continuous laryngoscopy during exercise in a swimming environment. The report describes the methodology and safety of the use of continuous laryngoscopy while swimming...
February 25, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225523/the-age-related-performance-decline-in-ironman-triathlon-starts-earlier-in-swimming-than-in-cycling-and-running
#10
Ilja Käch, Christoph A Rüst, Pantelis T Nikolaidis, Thomas Rosemann, Beat Knechtle
In Ironman triathlon, the number of overall male and female finishers increased in the last 30 years, while an improvement in performance has been reported. Studies concluding these numbers only analysed the top ten athletes per age group instead of all finishers, therefore a selection bias might have occurred. The aim of the present study was to investigate participation, performance and the age-related performance decline of all pro and age group triathletes ranked in all Ironman triathlons held worldwide between 2002 and 2015...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214540/cognitive-performance-of-male-and-female-c57bl-6j-mice-after-repetitive-concussive-brain-injuries
#11
Alexander G Velosky, Laura B Tucker, Amanda H Fu, Jiong Liu, Joseph T McCabe
In contact sports, repetitive concussive brain injury (rCBI) is the prevalent form of head injury seen in athletes. The need for effective treatment is urgent as rCBI has been associated with a host of cognitive, behavioral and neurological complaints. There has been a growing trend in the use of female animals in pre-clinical research, but few studies have investigated possible sex differences following rCBI. The goal of the current study was to determine any differences between male and female C57BL/6J mice on assessments of learning and memory after repetitive concussive injury...
May 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195972/individual-and-combined-influence-of-ace-and-actn3-genes-on-muscle-phenotypes-in-polish-athletes
#12
Joanna Orysiak, Joanna Mazur-Różycka, Krzysztof Busko, Jan Gajewski, Beata Szczepanska, Jadwiga Malczewska-Lenczowska
The aim of this study was to examine the association between ACE and ACTN3 genes, independently or in combination, and muscle strength and power in male and female athletes. The study involved 398 young male (n=266) and female (n=132) athletes representing various sport disciplines (ice hockey, canoeing, swimming, volleyball). All were Caucasians. The following measurements were taken: height of jump and mechanical power in countermovement jump (CMJ) and spike jump (SPJ), and muscle strength of 10 muscle groups (flexors and extensors of the elbow, shoulder, hip, knee and trunk)...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181208/individual-environment-interactions-in-swimming-the-smallest-unit-for-analysing-the-emergence-of-coordination-dynamics-in-performance
#13
Brice Guignard, Annie Rouard, Didier Chollet, John Hart, Keith Davids, Ludovic Seifert
Displacement in competitive swimming is highly dependent on fluid characteristics, since athletes use these properties to propel themselves. It is essential for sport scientists and practitioners to clearly identify the interactions that emerge between each individual swimmer and properties of an aquatic environment. Traditionally, the two protagonists in these interactions have been studied separately. Determining the impact of each swimmer's movements on fluid flow, and vice versa, is a major challenge. Classic biomechanical research approaches have focused on swimmers' actions, decomposing stroke characteristics for analysis, without exploring perturbations to fluid flows...
February 8, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174540/the-influence-of-mid-event-deception-on-psychophysiological-status-and-pacing-can-persist-across-consecutive-disciplines-and-enhance-self-paced-multi-modal-endurance-performance
#14
Daniel Taylor, Mark F Smith
Purpose: To examine the effects of deceptively aggressive bike pacing on performance, pacing, and associated physiological and perceptual responses during simulated sprint-distance triathlon. Methods: Ten non-elite, competitive male triathletes completed three simulated sprint-distance triathlons (0.75 km swim, 500 kJ bike, 5 km run), the first of which established personal best "baseline" performance (BL). During the remaining two trials athletes maintained a cycling power output 5% greater than BL, before completing the run as quickly as possible...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149404/the-effects-of-specific-drills-on-the-flip-turns-of-freestyle-swimmers-based-on-a-kinesiology-analysis
#15
Yuhong Wen, Yi Peng, Feng Zhao, Kexin Zhen
This research aimed to define the key factors in freestyle flip turns via a kinesiology analysis to diagnose swimmers. Hence, specially designed drills were created to improve swimmers' flip-turn skills and assess the effects of training. Nine Chinese national modern pentathlon athletes ranging in age from 20 to 26 years with an average of 10 years of training experience were tested and trained in this study. The Kistler Performance Analysis System for Swimming was used for the pre- and post-test analyses. A kinesiology analysis of the data from the pre-test was used for the diagnosis and specific drills were adopted for 10 weeks, 3 times per week before the post-test...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149402/accelerometer-profile-of-motion-of-the-pelvic-girdle-in-breaststroke-swimming
#16
Zbigniew Staniak, Krzysztof Buśko, Michał Górski, Anna Pastuszak
The aim of the study was to develop a method for measurement and analysis of kinematics of the pelvic girdle movement in breaststroke swimming to support training of technical skills. The measurements were performed in five elite breaststroke swimmers. A recording device for triaxial accelerations and triaxial rotational angular velocity was mounted on the dorsal part of the pelvic girdle of the athlete. The task of the athlete was to swim one length of the 50 m swimming pool with the intensity similar to competition...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018241/master-athletes-are-extending-the-limits-of-human-endurance
#17
REVIEW
Romuald Lepers, Paul J Stapley
The increased participation of master athletes (i.e., >40 years old) in endurance and ultra-endurance events (>6 h duration) over the past few decades has been accompanied by an improvement in their performances at a much faster rate than their younger counterparts. Aging does however result in a decrease in overall endurance performance. Such age-related declines in performance depend upon the modes of locomotion, event duration, and gender of the participant. For example, smaller age-related declines in cycling performance than in running and swimming have been documented...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011098/serum-igf-i-igfbp-3-and-als-concentrations-and-physical-performance-in-young-swimmers-during-a-training-season
#18
H Tourinho Filho, M Pires, E F Puggina, M Papoti, R Barbieri, C E Martinelli
INTRODUCTION: The GH/IGF-I axis is a system of growth mediators, receptors, and binding proteins that regulate somatic and tissue growth; and it has been shown that exercise programs are related to the anabolic function of this axis. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse the changes of serum IGF-I concentration and that of its binding proteins IGFBP-3 and ALS in adolescent swimmers at different stages of a training season, and compare them with physical performance parameters and body composition of the athletes...
December 18, 2016: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974154/in-air-versus-underwater-comparison-of-3d-reconstruction-accuracy-using-action-sport-cameras
#19
Gustavo R D Bernardina, Pietro Cerveri, Ricardo M L Barros, João C B Marins, Amanda P Silvatti
Action sport cameras (ASC) have achieved a large consensus for recreational purposes due to ongoing cost decrease, image resolution and frame rate increase, along with plug-and-play usability. Consequently, they have been recently considered for sport gesture studies and quantitative athletic performance evaluation. In this paper, we evaluated the potential of two ASCs (GoPro Hero3+) for in-air (laboratory) and underwater (swimming pool) three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis as a function of different camera setups involving the acquisition frequency, image resolution and field of view...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967270/effects-of-4-weeks-of-%C3%AE-alanine-supplementation-on-swim-performance-parameters-in-water-polo-players
#20
Gabriel Motta Pinheiro Brisola, Fabio Milioni, Marcelo Papoti, Alessandro Moura Zagatto
PURPOSE: In water polo several high-intensity efforts are performed, leading to the fatigue process due to accumulation of hydrogen ions, and thus β-alanine supplementation could be an efficient strategy to increase the intramuscular acid buffer. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether 4 weeks of β-alanine supplementation enhances parameters related to water polo performance. METHODS: Twenty-two highly-trained male water polo players of national level were randomly assigned to receive either 28 days of β-alanine or a placebo (4...
December 14, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
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