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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195972/individual-and-combined-influence-of-ace-and-actn3-genes-on-muscle-phenotypes-in-polish-athletes
#1
Joanna Orysiak, Joanna Mazur-Różycka, Krzysztof Busko, Jan Gajewski, Beata Szczepanska, Jadwiga Malczewska-Lenczowska
The aim of this study was to examine the association between ACE and ACTN3 genes, independently or in combination, and muscle strength and power in male and female athletes. The study involved 398 young male (n=266) and female (n=132) athletes representing various sport disciplines (ice hockey, canoeing, swimming, volleyball). All were Caucasians. The following measurements were taken: height of jump and mechanical power in countermovement jump (CMJ) and spike jump (SPJ), and muscle strength of 10 muscle groups (flexors and extensors of the elbow, shoulder, hip, knee and trunk)...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181208/individual-environment-interactions-in-swimming-the-smallest-unit-for-analysing-the-emergence-of-coordination-dynamics-in-performance
#2
Brice Guignard, Annie Rouard, Didier Chollet, John Hart, Keith Davids, Ludovic Seifert
Displacement in competitive swimming is highly dependent on fluid characteristics, since athletes use these properties to propel themselves. It is essential for sport scientists and practitioners to clearly identify the interactions that emerge between each individual swimmer and properties of an aquatic environment. Traditionally, the two protagonists in these interactions have been studied separately. Determining the impact of each swimmer's movements on fluid flow, and vice versa, is a major challenge. Classic biomechanical research approaches have focused on swimmers' actions, decomposing stroke characteristics for analysis, without exploring perturbations to fluid flows...
February 8, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174540/the-influence-of-mid-event-deception-on-psychophysiological-status-and-pacing-can-persist-across-consecutive-disciplines-and-enhance-self-paced-multi-modal-endurance-performance
#3
Daniel Taylor, Mark F Smith
Purpose: To examine the effects of deceptively aggressive bike pacing on performance, pacing, and associated physiological and perceptual responses during simulated sprint-distance triathlon. Methods: Ten non-elite, competitive male triathletes completed three simulated sprint-distance triathlons (0.75 km swim, 500 kJ bike, 5 km run), the first of which established personal best "baseline" performance (BL). During the remaining two trials athletes maintained a cycling power output 5% greater than BL, before completing the run as quickly as possible...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149404/the-effects-of-specific-drills-on-the-flip-turns-of-freestyle-swimmers-based-on-a-kinesiology-analysis
#4
Yuhong Wen, Yi Peng, Feng Zhao, Kexin Zhen
This research aimed to define the key factors in freestyle flip turns via a kinesiology analysis to diagnose swimmers. Hence, specially designed drills were created to improve swimmers' flip-turn skills and assess the effects of training. Nine Chinese national modern pentathlon athletes ranging in age from 20 to 26 years with an average of 10 years of training experience were tested and trained in this study. The Kistler Performance Analysis System for Swimming was used for the pre- and post-test analyses. A kinesiology analysis of the data from the pre-test was used for the diagnosis and specific drills were adopted for 10 weeks, 3 times per week before the post-test...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149402/accelerometer-profile-of-motion-of-the-pelvic-girdle-in-breaststroke-swimming
#5
Zbigniew Staniak, Krzysztof Buśko, Michał Górski, Anna Pastuszak
The aim of the study was to develop a method for measurement and analysis of kinematics of the pelvic girdle movement in breaststroke swimming to support training of technical skills. The measurements were performed in five elite breaststroke swimmers. A recording device for triaxial accelerations and triaxial rotational angular velocity was mounted on the dorsal part of the pelvic girdle of the athlete. The task of the athlete was to swim one length of the 50 m swimming pool with the intensity similar to competition...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018241/master-athletes-are-extending-the-limits-of-human-endurance
#6
REVIEW
Romuald Lepers, Paul J Stapley
The increased participation of master athletes (i.e., >40 years old) in endurance and ultra-endurance events (>6 h duration) over the past few decades has been accompanied by an improvement in their performances at a much faster rate than their younger counterparts. Aging does however result in a decrease in overall endurance performance. Such age-related declines in performance depend upon the modes of locomotion, event duration, and gender of the participant. For example, smaller age-related declines in cycling performance than in running and swimming have been documented...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011098/serum-igf-i-igfbp-3-and-als-concentrations-and-physical-performance-in-young-swimmers-during-a-training-season
#7
H Tourinho Filho, M Pires, E F Puggina, M Papoti, R Barbieri, C E Martinelli
INTRODUCTION: The GH/IGF-I axis is a system of growth mediators, receptors, and binding proteins that regulate somatic and tissue growth; and it has been shown that exercise programs are related to the anabolic function of this axis. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse the changes of serum IGF-I concentration and that of its binding proteins IGFBP-3 and ALS in adolescent swimmers at different stages of a training season, and compare them with physical performance parameters and body composition of the athletes...
December 18, 2016: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974154/in-air-versus-underwater-comparison-of-3d-reconstruction-accuracy-using-action-sport-cameras
#8
Gustavo R D Bernardina, Pietro Cerveri, Ricardo M L Barros, João C B Marins, Amanda P Silvatti
Action sport cameras (ASC) have achieved a large consensus for recreational purposes due to ongoing cost decrease, image resolution and frame rate increase, along with plug-and-play usability. Consequently, they have been recently considered for sport gesture studies and quantitative athletic performance evaluation. In this paper, we evaluated the potential of two ASCs (GoPro Hero3+) for in-air (laboratory) and underwater (swimming pool) three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis as a function of different camera setups involving the acquisition frequency, image resolution and field of view...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967270/effects-of-4-weeks-of-%C3%AE-alanine-supplementation-on-swim-performance-parameters-in-water-polo-players
#9
Gabriel Motta Pinheiro Brisola, Fabio Milioni, Marcelo Papoti, Alessandro Moura Zagatto
PURPOSE: In water polo several high-intensity efforts are performed, leading to the fatigue process due to accumulation of hydrogen ions, and thus β-alanine supplementation could be an efficient strategy to increase the intramuscular acid buffer. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether 4 weeks of β-alanine supplementation enhances parameters related to water polo performance. METHODS: Twenty-two highly-trained male water polo players of national level were randomly assigned to receive either 28 days of β-alanine or a placebo (4...
December 14, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965597/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-effects-on-athletes-cognitive-performance-an-exploratory-proof-of-concept-trial
#10
Davimar M M Borducchi, July Silveira Gomes, Henrique Akiba, Quirino Cordeiro, José Henrique M Borducchi, Lívia Stocco Sanches Valentin, Gabrielle M Borducchi, Álvaro Machado Dias
Among the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games' unforgettable moments, one could not overlook performances by Phelps and Bolt, which challenge old premises about the maximum extension of individual supremacism in ultracompetitive modalities and the doping scandals. Different media channels resonated these two trends, with an unseen rise on discussions about traits and practices that may set ultrahigh performance athletes apart from the more ordinary ones. Yet, some key issues remain undebated. This paper aims to add to this debate, with a proof of concept trial, which investigates whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may serve as an aid for professional athletes...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940620/how-to-build-a-deep-diver-the-extreme-morphology-of-mesoplodonts
#11
D Ann Pabst, William A McLellan, Sentiel A Rommel
Mesoplodont beaked whales are extreme divers, diving for over 45 mins and to depths of over 800 m. These dives are of similar depth and duration to those of the giant sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) whose body mass can be 50 times larger. Velten et al. (2013) provided anatomical data that demonstrated that on-board oxygen stores were sufficient to aerobically support the extreme dives of mesoplodonts if their diving metabolic rates are low. Because no physiological data yet exist, we utilized an anatomical approach-the body composition technique-to examine the relative metabolic rates of mesoplodonts...
December 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930743/effects-of-four-weeks-of-%C3%AE-alanine-supplementation-on-repeated-sprint-ability-in-water-polo-players
#12
Gabriel Motta Pinheiro Brisola, Guilherme Giannini Artioli, Marcelo Papoti, Alessandro Moura Zagatto
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of four weeks of β-alanine supplementation on repeated sprint ability in water polo players. Twenty-two male water polo players participated in the study, divided randomly into two homogeneous groups (placebo and β-alanine groups). The study design was double-blind, parallel and placebo controlled. Before and after the supplementation period (28 days), the athletes performed two specific repeated sprint ability tests interspaced by a 30-minute swimming test...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918675/biomechanics-in-paralympics-implications-for-performance
#13
Floor Morriën, Matthew J D Taylor, Florentina J Hettinga
PURPOSE: To provide an overview of biomechanical studies in Paralympic research and their relevance for performance in Paralympic sports. METHODS: Search terms ' Paralympic Biomechanics', 'Paralympic Sport Performance', 'Paralympic Athlete Performance', and Paralympic Athlete' were entered into the electronic database PubMed. RESULTS: Thirty-four studies were included. Biomechanical studies in Paralympics mainly contributed to performance enhancement by technical optimization (n=32) and/or injury prevention (n=6)...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871205/the-effects-of-two-different-swimming-training-periodization-on-physiological-parameters-at-various-exercise-intensities
#14
Vicente Javier Clemente-Suárez, Athanasios Dalamitros, João Ribeiro, Ana Sousa, Ricardo J Fernandes, J Paulo Vilas-Boas
This study analysed the effects of two different periodization strategies on physiological parameters at various exercise intensities in competitive swimmers. Seventeen athletes of both sexes were divided to two groups, the traditional periodization (TPG, n = 7) and the reverse periodization group (RPG, n = 10). Each group followed a 10-week training period based on the two different periodization strategies. Before and after training, swimming velocity (SV), energy expenditure (EE), energy cost (EC) and percentage of aerobic (%Aer) and anaerobic (%An) energy contribution to the swimming intensities corresponding to the aerobic threshold (AerT), the anaerobic threshold (AnT) and the velocity at maximal oxygen uptake (vVO2max) were measured...
November 21, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788589/improved-reliability-of-the-urine-lactate-concentration-under-controlled-hydration-after-maximal-exercise
#15
Stefanos Nikolaidis, Ioannis Kosmidis, Triantafullia Koulidou, Sotiris Panagakis, George Tsalis, Dimitris Loupos, Vassilis Mougios
CONTEXT: Urine lactate may be a novel biomarker of lactate production capacity but its reliability has been unsatisfactory so far. OBJECTIVE: To compare the reliability of urine lactate between controlled hydration and no hydration after maximal exercise. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Athletes performed swimming exercise four times: two followed by consumption of 1 L of water and two followed by no water intake. Blood and urine lactate was measured...
October 28, 2016: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766021/dehydroepiandrosterone-supplementation-combined-with-whole-body-vibration-training-affects-testosterone-level-and-body-composition-in-mice
#16
Wen-Chyuan Chen, Yi-Ming Chen, Chi-Chang Huang, Yen-Dun Tzeng
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), the most abundant sex steroid, is primarily secreted by the adrenal gland and a precursor hormone used by athletes for performance enhancement. Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a well-known light-resistance exercise by automatic adaptations to rapid and repeated oscillations from a vibrating platform, which is also a simple and convenient exercise for older adults. However, the potential effects of DHEA supplementation combined with WBV training on to body composition, exercise performance, and hormone regulation are currently unclear...
2016: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736252/heart-rate-recovery-after-warm-up-in-swimming-a-useful-predictor-of-training-heart-rate-response
#17
Sander P M Ganzevles, Arnold de Haan, Peter J Beek, Hein A M Daanen, Martin J Truijens
For training to be optimal, daily training load has to be adapted to the momentary status of the individual athlete, which is often difficult to establish. Therefore, the present study was performed to investigate the predictive value of heart rate recovery (HRR) during a standardized warm-up for training load. Training load was quantified by the variation in heart rate during standardized training in competitive swimmers. Eight female and five male swimmers of Dutch national level participated in the study...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727200/combined-strength-exercises-in-dry-land-and-in-the-water-to-improve-swimming-parameters-of-athletes-with-paraplegia
#18
Kestutis Skucas, Vaida Pokvytyte
BACKGROUND: Of the research was to examine the effects of twelve weeks of combined dry land strength and resistance swimming training for increasing upper body strength, swimming performance and stroking parameters in swimmers with paraplegia and to determine correlation between these parameters. METHODS: The preliminary, the second (after 4 weeks), the third (after 8 weeks) and the last (after 12 weeks) testing were performed. The measurements consisted of the following assessments: the assessment of isometric strength in dry land (tension force), the assessment of swimming performance and stroke parameters during 50m backstroke, the assessment of strength during tethered swimming (tension force)...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717653/the-time-dependence-of-the-effect-of-ischemic-preconditioning-on-successive-sprint-swimming-performance
#19
Felipe D Lisbôa, Tiago Turnes, Rogério S O Cruz, João A G Raimundo, Gustavo S Pereira, Fabrizio Caputo
OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to determine the effects of ischemic preconditioning on performance in three successive 50-m swimming trials and to measure stroke rate, stroke length and blood lactate accumulation. DESIGN: Counterbalanced, repeated-measures cross-over study. METHODS: On two separate days, eleven competitive male swimmers (20±3 years, 182±5cm, 77±5kg) performed three successive 50-m trials in a 50-m swimming pool, preceded by intermittent bilateral cuff inflation (4× 5-min of blood flow restriction+5-min of cuff deflation) at either 220 for thighs and 180mmHg for arms (ischemic preconditioning) or 20mmHg for both limbs (control-treatment)...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703854/sex-differences-in-pacing-during-ultraman-hawaii
#20
Beat Knechtle, Pantelis T Nikolaidis
BACKGROUND: To date, little is known for pacing in ultra-endurance athletes competing in a non-stop event and in a multi-stage event, and especially, about pacing in a multi-stage event with different disciplines during the stages. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the effect of age, sex and calendar year on triathlon performance and variation of performance by events (i.e., swimming, cycling 1, cycling 2 and running) in 'Ultraman Hawaii' held between 1983 and 2015...
2016: PeerJ
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