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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936625/the-reproducibility-of-4-km-time-trial-tt-performance-following-individualised-sodium-bicarbonate-supplementation-a-randomised-controlled-trial-in-trained-cyclists
#1
Lewis Anthony Gough, Sanjoy Kumar Deb, Andy Sparks, Lars Robert McNaughton
BACKGROUND: Individual time to peak blood bicarbonate (HCO3(-)) has demonstrated good to excellent reproducibility following ingestion of both 0.2 g kg(-1) body mass (BM) and 0.3 g kg(-1) BM sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), but the consistency of the time trial (TT) performance response using such an individualised NaHCO3 ingestion strategy remains unknown. This study therefore evaluated the reproducibility of 4-km TT performance following NaHCO3 ingestion individualised to time to peak blood bicarbonate...
September 21, 2017: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930879/repeat-effort-performance-is-reduced-24-h-following-acute-dehydration-in-mixed-martial-arts-athletes
#2
Oliver R Barley, Fiona Iredale, Dale W Chapman, Amanda Hopper, Chris Abbiss
This study sought to determine the influence of acute dehydration on physical performance and physiology in Mixed Martial Arts (MMA). MMA athletes (n=14; age: 23±4 years), completed in a randomised counterbalanced order a dehydration protocol, (DHY: 3 h cycling at 60 W in 40°C to induce 5% dehydration) or thermoneutral control (25°C: CONT) exercise, followed by ad libitum fluid/food intake. Performance testing (a repeat sled push test, medicine ball chest throw and vertical jump) was completed 3 and 24 h following the intervention, while urine and blood samples were collected before, 20 min, 3 and 24 h following the intervention...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902115/repeated-high-intensity-cycling-performance-is-unaffected-by-timing-of-carbohydrate-ingestion
#3
Ren-Jay Shei, Hunter L Paris, Christopher P Beck, Robert F Chapman, Timothy D Mickleborough
To determine whether carbohydrate feeding taken immediately before, early, or late in a series of high-intensity cycling exercises affected cycling performance 16 trained, male cyclists (> 6hr post-prandial) performed three, 4-km cycling time trials (TT1, TT2, TT3) separated by 15 min of active recovery on four separate occasions. Carbohydrate feeding (80g) was given either before TT1 (PRE1), before TT2 (PRE2), before TT3 (PRE3), or not at all (control, CTL). Treatment order was randomized. Sweet-placebo was given prior to the other time trials...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895388/probiotic-strains-as-the-element-of-nutritional-profile-in-physical-activity-%C3%A2-new-trend-or-better-sports-results
#4
Joanna Smarkusz, Lucyna Ostrowska, Katarzyna Witczak-Sawczuk
A diet, individually customized to the needs of sportsmen and sportswomen prepares them better for competition and achievement of better sports results. However, disorders of the gastrointestinal tract and frequently recurrent upper respiratory tract infections pose a common problem observed among athletes of disciplines such as triathlon, cycling and marathon. Diarrhea, splashing in the intestines or gastrointestinal bleeding make it difficult to start and win in the race. Recently researchers have paid special attention to the therapeutic effect of probiotic strains on the human body...
2017: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894645/re-examination-of-the-contribution-of-substrates-to-energy-expenditure-during-high-intensity-intermittent-exercise-in-endurance-athletes
#5
Zübeyde Aslankeser, Şükrü Serdar Balcı
BACKGROUND: It has been believed that the contribution of fat oxidation to total energy expenditure is becoming negligible at higher exercise intensities (about 85% VO2max). The aim of the present study was to examine the changes in substrate oxidation during high-intensity interval exercise in young adult men. METHODS: A total of 18 healthy well-trained (aged 19.60 ± 0.54 years, BMI = 22.19 ± 0.64 kg/m(2), n = 10) and untrained (aged 20.25 ± 0.41 years, BMI = 22...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872385/new-records-in-human-power
#6
Thomas Haugen, Gøran Paulsen, Stephen Seiler, Øyvind Sandbakk
Maximal aerobic and anaerobic power are crucial performance determinants in most sports disciplines. Numerous studies have published power data from elite athletes over the years, particularly in runners, cyclists, rowers and cross-country skiers. In this invited review, we define the current "world records" in human upper limits of aerobic and anaerobic power. Currently, V̇O2max values of ~7.5 and 7.0 L·min(-1) in male cross-country (XC) skiers and rowers, respectively, and/or ~90 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) in XC skiers, cyclists and runners can be described as upper human limits for aerobic power...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872383/weight-management-practices-of-australian-olympic-combat-sport-athletes
#7
Reid Reale, Gary Slater, Louise M Burke
PURPOSE: Combat sport athletes undertake chronic and rapid weight loss (RWL) practices to qualify for weight divisions lower than their training weight. Variation between sports in the prevalence, methods, and magnitude of weight loss as well as recovery practices may be influenced by factors including competition level and culture. Differences in methodologies of previous research in combat sports make direct comparisons difficult, thus this study aimed to examine weight loss practices among all Olympic combat sports in Australia, using standardised methodology...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872380/optimizing-heat-acclimation-for-endurance-athletes-high-vs-low-intensity-training
#8
Cyril Schmit, Rob Duffield, Christophe Hausswirth, Jeanick Brisswalter, Yann Le Meur
PURPOSE: We sought to determine the effect of high- vs. low-intensity training in the heat and ensuing taper period in the heat on endurance performance. METHODS: Nineteen well-trained triathletes undertook 5 days of normal training and a 1-week taper, including either low- (HA-L, n=10) or high-intensity (HA-H, n=9) training sessions in the heat (30°C, 50% of relative humidity). A control group (n=10) reproduced their usual training in thermoneutral conditions...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859415/performance-tradeoffs-ontogenetic-conflict-and-multisport-athletes-how-is-an-ironman-triathlete-like-a-frog
#9
Ryan Calsbeek, Debora Goedert
Life-history theory is a cornerstone of modern evolutionary biology that addresses myriad phenomena ranging from demography and population structure to the evolution of aging and senescence. Trade-offs may arise in a number of contexts, from allocation-based (e.g., egg size vs. egg number) to genomic conflicts (e.g., intralocus sexual conflict in which genes that perform well in males perform poorly in females). Here we test for performance tradeoffs in human athletes. We show that in Ironman triathletes, swimming performance trades off with cycling and running performance...
August 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847143/description-of-three-female-24-h-ultra-endurance-race-winners-in-various-weather-conditions-and-disciplines
#10
Daniela Chlíbková, Thomas Rosemann, Beat Knechtle, Pantelis T. Nikolaidis, Alena Žákovská, Karl Sudi
A The incidence of exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) is higher in women than in men. We present three cases of a very mild post-race EAH in female winners of three 24-h ultra races in various weather conditions and disciplines with post-race plasma sodium [Na⁺] levels of 134 mM (Case 1), 133 mM (Case 2) and 134 mM (Case 3). Moreover, Case 1 and Case 2 showed elevated creatine kinase concentrations of >10,000 U/l with an absence of renal function abnormality. The common characteristics were female sex, veteran recreational category, long race experience in the particular sports discipline, excellent race performance, similar total weekly training hours and the presence of luteal phase of the menstrual cycle during the race...
August 31, 2017: Chinese Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841537/effect-of-static-and-dynamic-muscle-stretching-as-part-of-warm-up-procedures-on-knee-joint-proprioception-and-strength
#11
Gregory S Walsh
BACKGROUND: The importance of warm up procedures prior to athletic performance is well established. A common component of such procedures is muscle stretching. There is conflicting evidence regarding the effect of static stretching (SS) as part of warm up procedures on knee joint position sense (KJPS) and the effect of dynamic stretching (DS) on KJPS is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dynamic and static stretching as part warm up procedures on KJPS and knee extension and flexion strength...
August 22, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821447/time-perception-pacing-and-exercise-intensity-maximal-exercise-distorts-the-perception-of-time
#12
A M Edwards, A McCormick
INTRODUCTION: Currently there are no data examining the impact of exercise on the perception of time, which is surprising as optimal competitive performance is dependent on accurate pacing using knowledge of time elapsed. METHODS: With institutional ethics approval, 12 recreationally active adult participants (f=7, m=5) undertook both 30s Wingate cycles and 20min (1200s) rowing ergometer bouts as short and long duration self-paced exercise trials, in each of three conditions on separate occasions: 1) light exertion: RPE 11, 2) heavy exertion: RPE 15, 3) maximal exertion: RPE 20...
August 15, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818999/short-term-arrival-strategies-for-endurance-exercise-performance-at-moderate-altitude
#13
Joshua L Foss, Keren Constantini, Timothy D Mickleborough, Robert F Chapman
For sea level-based endurance athletes who compete at moderate and high altitudes, many are not logistically able to arrive at altitude weeks prior to the event to fully acclimatize. For those who can only arrive at altitude the night before competition, we asked if there is a physiological and performance advantage in reducing altitude exposure time to two hours prior to competition. On three separate visits, ten cyclists completed overnight laboratory exposures of: 1) a 14-hour exposure to normobaric hypoxia (16...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810170/the-role-of-speed-and-incline-in-the-spontaneous-choice-of-technique-in-classical-roller-skiing
#14
Gertjan Ettema, Espen Kveli, Magne Øksnes, Øyvind Sandbakk
Cross-country skiers change technique depending on terrain (incline) and effort (work rate; speed at a particular incline or resistance). The literature is not unequivocal about the influence of incline or speed on the choice of technique, i.e., which of these act as a 'control parameter'. Identifying task related control parameters for spontaneous technique shifts assists elucidating which mechanisms are active for triggering technique transitions. The aim of this study was to investigate whether speed or incline acted as such control parameter for technique shifts during classic style roller skiing...
August 12, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775069/the-effect-of-a-pre-hop-on-the-muscle-tendon-interaction-during-vertical-jumps
#15
Jeroen Aeles, Glen A Lichtwark, Dries Peeters, Christophe Delecluse, Ilse Jonkers, Benedicte Vanwanseele
Many movements use stretch-shortening cycles of a muscle-tendon unit (MTU) for storing and releasing elastic energy. The required stretching of medial gastrocnemius (MG) tendinous tissue during jumps, however, requires large length changes of the muscle fascicles, due to the lack of MTU length changes. This has a negative impact on the force generating capacity of the muscle fascicles. The purpose of this study was to induce a MG MTU stretch prior to shortening by adding a pre-hop to the squat jump. Eleven well-trained athletes specialized in jumping performed a pre-hop squat jump (PHSJ) and a standard squat jump (SSJ)...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771051/the-role-of-the-rating-of-perceived-exertion-template-in-pacing
#16
Wouter Schallig, Tim Veneman, Dionne A Noordhof, José A Rodríguez-Marroyo, John P Porcari, Jos J de Koning, Carl Foster
The rating of perceived exertion (RPE) template is thought to regulate pacing and has been shown to be very robust in different circumstances. PURPOSE: The primary purpose was to investigate whether the RPE template can be manipulated by changing the race distance during the course of a time trial. The secondary purpose was to study how athletes cope with this manipulation, especially in terms of the RPE template. METHODS: Trained male subjects (N=10) performed three cycling time trials: a 10 km (TT10), a 15 km (TT15) and a manipulated 15 km (TTman)...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763504/full-course-macro-kinematic-analysis-of-a-10-km-classical-cross-country-skiing-competition
#17
Finn Marsland, Colin Mackintosh, Hans-Christer Holmberg, Judith Anson, Gordon Waddington, Keith Lyons, Dale Chapman
In this study micro-sensors were employed to analyse macro-kinematic parameters during a classical cross-country skiing competition (10 km, 2-lap). Data were collected from eight male participants during the Australian championship competition wearing a single micro-sensor unit (MinimaxX™, S4) positioned on their upper back. Algorithms and visual classification were used to identify skiing sub-techniques and calculate velocities, cycle lengths (CL) and cycle rates (CR) over the entire course. Double poling (DP) was the predominant cyclical sub-technique utilised (43 ± 5% of total distance), followed by diagonal stride (DS, 16 ± 4%) and kick double poling (KDP, 5 ± 4%), with the non-propulsive Tuck technique accounting for 24 ± 4% of the course...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759127/kinematic-stride-cycle-asymmetry-is-not-associated-with-sprint-performance-and-injury-prevalence-in-athletic-sprinters
#18
Thomas Haugen, Jørgen Danielsen, David McGhie, Øyvind Sandbakk, Gertjan Ettema
The aims of this study were to i) quantify the magnitude of kinematic stride cycle asymmetry in high-level athletic sprinters, ii) explore the association between kinematic asymmetry and maximal sprint running performance, and iii) investigate possible associations between kinematic asymmetry and injury prevalence. Twenty-two competitive sprinters (age 23 ±3 yr, height 1.81 ±0.06 m, body mass 75.5 ±5.6 kg, personal best 100-m 10.86 ±0.22 s) performed 2-3 flying sprints over 20 m. Kinematics were recorded in 3D using a motion tracking system with 21 cameras at a 250 Hz sampling rate, allowing assessment of six consecutive steps for each athlete...
July 31, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739612/benign-paroxysmal-positional-vertigo-bppv-diagnosis-and-treatment-in-an-elite-professional-football-soccer-player
#19
Lisa Burrows, Rob Price
A 33-year-old male professional football player suffered from acute-onset dizziness following a lower limb soft tissue treatment in prone lying. Symptoms included spinning vertigo lasting for 30's, headache, visual vertigo and disorientation. Clinical examination of balance and vestibular systems confirmed a left posterior canalithiasis benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) and excluded other central and peripheral causes of dizziness. Two cycles of a left Epley manoeuvre were performed. An Epley manoeuvre abolished the BPPV and negated the need for medication...
July 24, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737585/biomarkers-in-sports-and-exercise-tracking-health-performance-and-recovery-in-athletes
#20
Elaine C Lee, Maren S Fragala, Stavros A Kavouras, Robin M Queen, John Luke Pryor, Douglas J Casa
Lee, EC, Fragala, MS, Kavouras, SA, Queen, RM, Pryor, JL, and Casa, DJ. Biomarkers in sports and exercise: tracking health, performance, and recovery in athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(10): 2920-2937, 2017-Biomarker discovery and validation is a critical aim of the medical and scientific community. Research into exercise and diet-related biomarkers aims to improve health, performance, and recovery in military personnel, athletes, and lay persons. Exercise physiology research has identified individual biomarkers for assessing health, performance, and recovery during exercise training...
October 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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