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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771098/physical-preparation-recommendations-for-elite-rugby-sevens-performance
#1
Jake Schuster, Dan Howells, Julien Robineau, Anthony Couderc, Alex Natera, Nick Lumley, Tim J Gabbett, Nick Winkelman
Rugby Sevens, a new Olympic sport, features high intensity intermittent running and contact efforts over short match durations, normally six times across two to three days in a tournament format. Elite Rugby Sevens seasons often include over a dozen competitive tournaments across less than nine months, demanding deliberate and careful training-stress balance and workload management alongside development of the necessary physical qualities required for competition. Focus on running and repeated power skills, strength, and match-specific conditioning capacities is advised...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768893/performance-trade-offs-and-ageing-in-the-world-s-greatest-athletes
#2
Vincent Careau, Robbie S Wilson
The mechanistic foundations of performance trade-offs are clear: because body size and shape constrains movement, and muscles vary in strength and fibre type, certain physical traits should act in opposition with others (e.g. sprint versus endurance). Yet performance trade-offs are rarely detected, and traits are often positively correlated. A potential resolution to this conundrum is that within-individual performance trade-offs can be masked by among-individual variation in 'quality'. Although there is a current debate on how to unambiguously define and account for quality, no previous studies have partitioned trait correlations at the within- and among-individual levels...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759127/kinematic-stride-cycle-asymmetry-is-not-associated-with-sprint-performance-and-injury-prevalence-in-athletic-sprinters
#3
Thomas Haugen, Jørgen Danielsen, David McGhie, Øyvind Sandbakk, Gertjan Ettema
The aims of this study were to i) quantify the magnitude of kinematic stride cycle asymmetry in high-level athletic sprinters, ii) explore the association between kinematic asymmetry and maximal sprint running performance, and iii) investigate possible associations between kinematic asymmetry and injury prevalence. Twenty-two competitive sprinters (age 23 ±3 yr, height 1.81 ±0.06 m, body mass 75.5 ±5.6 kg, personal best 100-m 10.86 ±0.22 s) performed 2-3 flying sprints over 20 m. Kinematics were recorded in 3D using a motion tracking system with 21 cameras at a 250 Hz sampling rate, allowing assessment of six consecutive steps for each athlete...
July 31, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744226/the-mucosal-immune-function-is-not-compromised-during-a-period-of-high-intensity-interval-training-is-it-time-to-reconsider-an-old-assumption
#4
Dennis-Peter Born, Christoph Zinner, Billy Sperlich
Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the mucosal immune function and circadian variation of salivary cortisol, Immunoglobin-A (sIgA) secretion rate and mood during a period of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) compared to long-slow distance training (LSD). Methods: Recreational male runners (n = 28) completed nine sessions of either HIIT or LSD within 3 weeks. The HIIT involved 4 × 4 min of running at 90-95% of maximum heart rate interspersed with 3 min of active recovery while the LSD comprised of continuous running at 70-75% of maximum heart rate for 60-80 min...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731980/running-performance-nationality-sex-and-age-in-the-10-km-half-marathon-marathon-and-the-100-km-ultramarathon-iaaf-1999-2015
#5
Pantelis T Nikolaidis, Vincent O Onywera, Beat Knechtle
Nikolaidis PT, Onywera VO, and Knechtle B. Running performance, nationality, sex, and age in the 10-km, half-marathon, marathon, and the 100-km ultramarathon IAAF 1999-2015. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2189-2207, 2017-The aim of this study was to examine the performance of the world's best runners in the 10-km, half-marathon, marathon, and 100-km races by age, sex, and nationality during 1999-2015, using data from the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF). A total of 38,895 runners (17,136 women and 21,759 men) were evaluated, with 2,594 (1,360 women and 1,234 men) in the 10-km; 11,595 (5,225 women and 6,370 men) in the half-marathon; 23,973 (10,208 women and 13,765 men) in the marathon; and 733 (343 women and 390 men) in 100-km events...
August 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731979/global-positioning-system-analysis-of-a-high-school-football-scrimmage
#6
Benjamin H Gleason, Matthew L Sams, John T Salley, A Andrew Pustina, Michael H Stone
Gleason, BH, Sams, M, Salley, JT, Pustina, A, and Stone, MH. Global positioning system analysis of a high school football scrimmage. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2183-2188, 2017-The purpose of this study was to examine the physical demands of a high school American football scrimmage. Male high school football players (N = 25) participated in a spring scrimmage. Global positioning system data and game film were recorded throughout the entirety of the scrimmage to determine the total distance covered, the distance covered in different velocity bands, the number of accelerations and decelerations performed, and the work-to-rest ratio of the scrimmage...
August 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721122/hypoxic-training-increases-maximal-oxygen-consumption-in-thoroughbred-horses-well-trained-in-normoxia
#7
Hajime Ohmura, Kazutaka Mukai, Yuji Takahashi, Toshiyuki Takahashi, James H Jones
Hypoxic training is effective for improving athletic performance in humans. It increases maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2max) more than normoxic training in untrained horses. However, the effects of hypoxic training on well-trained horses are unclear. We measured the effects of hypoxic training on V̇O2max of 5 well-trained horses in which V̇O2max had not increased over 3 consecutive weeks of supramaximal treadmill training in normoxia which was performed twice a week. The horses trained with hypoxia (15% inspired O2) twice a week...
2017: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714786/effects-of-a-prophylactic-knee-sleeve-on-anterior-cruciate-ligament-loading-during-sport-specific-movements
#8
Jonathan Sinclair, Paul John Taylor
CONTEXT: Prophylactic knee bracing is extensively utilized in athletic populations, to reduce the high risk from knee injuries, but their role in the attenuation of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) pathologies is not well understood. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current investigation was to investigate the effects of a prophylactic knee sleeve on ACL loading parameters linked to the aetiology of injury in recreational athletes. SETTING: Laboratory...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714744/marathon-pace-control-in-masters-athletes
#9
Derek Breen, Michelle Norris, Robin Healy, Ross Anderson
PURPOSE: Pacing strategies are key to overall performance outcome in distance running events. Presently, no literature has examined pacing strategies utilised by masters athletes, of all running levels, during a competitive marathon. Therefore, this study aimed to examine masters athletes' pacing strategies, categorised by gender, age and performance level. METHODS: Data were retrieved from the 2015 TSC New York City Marathon for 31,762 masters athletes (20,019 men and 11,743 women)...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713471/assessment-of-specificity-of-the-badcamp-agility-test-for-badminton-players
#10
Luiz de França Bahia Loureiro, Mário Oliveira Costa Dias, Felipe Couto Cremasco, Maicon Guimarães da Silva, Paulo Barbosa de Freitas
The Badcamp agility test was created to evaluate agility of badminton players. The Badcamp is a valid and reliable test, however, a doubt about the need for the use of this test exists as simpler tests could provide similar information about agility in badminton players. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the specificity of the Badcamp, comparing the performance of badminton players and athletes from other sports in the Badcamp and the shuttle run agility test (SRAT). Sixty-four young male and female athletes aged between 14 and 16 years participated in the study...
June 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709154/contributions-to-leg-stiffness-in-high-compared-with-low-arched-athletes
#11
Douglas W Powell, Max R Paquette, D S Blaise Williams
PURPOSE: High-arched (HA) athletes exhibit greater lower extremity stiffness during functional tasks than low-arched (LA) athletes. The contributions of skeletal and muscular structures to stiffness may underlie the distinct injury patterns observed in these athletes. The purpose of this study was to compare skeletal and muscular contributions to leg stiffness in HA and LA athletes during running and landing tasks. METHODS: Ten HA and 10 LA female athletes performed five overground running trials at a self-selected pace and five step off bilateral landing trials from a height of 30 cm...
August 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707644/going-the-extra-mile-lessons-learned-from-running-coaches-applied-to-medicine
#12
Ryan Graddy, Scott Wright
Master clinicians and successful long-distance runners have a lot in common. Both are dedicated to continuous improvement and are flexible in their approach, allowing for adaptation to meet unplanned challenges. Given these similarities and the important role of coaches in athletics, there is an opportunity for medical educators to learn from excellent running coaching. The authors spent time with three respected running coaches at different levels (high school, college, and postcollegiate online) and identified six principles employed by these coaches that seem to be particularly relevant for promoting skill development in medicine...
January 2017: Education for Health: Change in Training & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706923/influence-of-abo-blood-group-on-sports-performance
#13
Giuseppe Lippi, Giorgio Gandini, Gian Luca Salvagno, Spyros Skafidas, Luca Festa, Elisa Danese, Martina Montagnana, Fabian Sanchis-Gomar, Cantor Tarperi, Federico Schena
BACKGROUND: Despite being a recessive trait, the O blood group is the most frequent worldwide among the ABO blood types. Since running performance has been recognized as a major driver of evolutionary advantage in humans, we planned a study to investigate whether the ABO blood group may have an influence on endurance running performance in middle-aged recreational athletes. METHODS: The study population consisted of 52 recreational, middle-aged, Caucasian athletes (mean age: 49±13 years, body mass index, 23...
June 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697691/the-relationship-between-mechanical-stiffness-and-athletic-performance-markers-in-sub-elite-footballers
#14
Judd T Kalkhoven, Mark L Watsford
This study investigated the relationship between several measures of lower-body stiffness and physical performance variables in 22 sub-elite male football players (mean ± SD; 21.9 ± 1.5 yr; 1.79 ± 0.06 m; 72.2 ± 7.2 kg). The participants were assessed for individual muscle stiffness of the Rectus Femoris (RF), Biceps Femoris (BF) and Medial Gastrocnemius (MG) muscles and vertical stiffness (Kvert) was also assessed assessed running acceleration, maximal sprint speed, agility, vertical jumping and muscular strength...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682935/muscle-activity-and-physiological-responses-during-running-in-water-and-on-dry-land-at-submaximal-and-maximal-efforts
#15
Kenji Masumoto, Kyle C Mefferd, Riley Iyo, John A Mercer
We investigated muscle activity, oxygen uptake, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion during running in water and on dry land at submaximal and maximal efforts. Eleven recreational runners performed deep water running (DWR) and treadmill running (TMR) graded exercise tests on separate days. On the third test day, the participants exercised at their 60%, 80%, and 100% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) by matching specific stride frequencies or running speeds. VO2max, maximal heart rate (HRmax), and rating of perceived exertion at maximal effort (RPEmax) were measured...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674605/changes-in-running-economy-respiratory-exchange-ratio-and-vo2max-in-runners-following-a-10-day-altitude-training-camp
#16
Sebastian R Diebel, Ian Newhouse, David S Thompson, Vineet B K Johnson
Running economy (RE) and VO2max are important predictors of endurance performance for elite and semi-elite endurance athletes, with RE being an appropriate predictor in a homogenous running population. Altitude training has been observed to change RE (mL.kg(-1).min(-1)), and VO2max due to alterations resulting from acclimatization. This study tracked changes in RE and VO2max before and after a 10-day altitude training camp at 1828 meters. VO2max, RE expressed calorically, and respiratory exchange ratio (RER), were measured below anaerobic threshold (AT) to observe differences between pre-and post-altitude training...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674598/cortisol-and-alpha-amylase-changes-during-an-ultra-running-event
#17
Whitney P Deneen, Alexis B Jones
Elevated stress hormone concentrations can positively affect an athlete's overall performance during a competition, and in many cases, are necessary to be able to perform exercise. During extreme exercise, the body's ability to utilize energy efficiently can affect an athlete's performance. Elevated hormonal concentrations can have many benefits in regards to an athlete's overall performance during a competition. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of long distance running, such as seen during an ultra-running event (distances beyond 26...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672065/lean-mass-explains-the-association-between-muscular-fitness-and-bone-outcomes-in-13-year-old-boys
#18
Esther Ubago-Guisado, Dimitris Vlachopoulos, Augusto César Ferreira de Moraes, Ana Torres-Costoso, Kelly Wilkinson, Brad Metcalf, Javier Sánchez-Sánchez, Leonor Gallardo, Luis Gracia-Marco
AIM: This study investigated the associations between fitness indices and bone outcomes in young males. METHODS: Data were collected between autumn and winter 2014-2015 on 121 males with a mean age of 13.1 ±0.1 years: 41 swimmers, 37 footballers, 29 cyclists and 14 non-athletes. Participants were recruited from athletic clubs and schools across South West England. Lean mass, areal bone mineral density and hip structural estimates were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry...
July 3, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659414/how-do-prosthetic-stiffness-height-and-running-speed-affect-the-biomechanics-of-athletes-with-bilateral-transtibial-amputations
#19
Owen N Beck, Paolo Taboga, Alena M Grabowski
Limited available information describes how running-specific prostheses and running speed affect the biomechanics of athletes with bilateral transtibial amputations. Accordingly, we quantified the effects of prosthetic stiffness, height and speed on the biomechanics of five athletes with bilateral transtibial amputations during treadmill running. Each athlete performed a set of running trials with 15 different prosthetic model, stiffness and height combinations. Each set of trials began with the athlete running on a force-measuring treadmill at 3 m s(-1), subsequent trials incremented by 1 m s(-1) until they achieved their fastest attainable speed...
June 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639443/relationship-between-the-handball-specific-complex-test-nonspecific-field-tests-and-the-match-performance-score-in-elite-professional-handball-players
#20
Souhail Hermassi, Mohamed S Chelly, Rainer Wollny, Birgit Hoffmeyer, Georg Fieseler, Stephan Schulze, Lars Irlenbusch, Karl-Stefan Delank, Roy J Shephard, Thomas Bartels, René Schwesig
BACKGROUND: This study assessed the validity of the handball-specific complex-test (HBCT) and two nonspecific field tests in professional elite handball athletes, using the match performance score (MPS) as the gold standard of performance. METHODS: Thirteen elite male handball players (age: 27.4 ± 4.8 years; premier German league) performed the HBCT, the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test (Yo-Yo-IR1-test) and a repeated shuttle sprint ability (RSA) test at the beginning of pre-season training...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
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