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Epicardial fat

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773163/epicardial-adipose-tissue-may-mediate-deleterious-effects-of-obesity-and-inflammation-on-the-myocardium
#1
REVIEW
Milton Packer
Epicardial adipose tissue has unique properties that distinguish it from other depots of visceral fat. Rather than having distinct boundaries, the epicardium shares an unobstructed microcirculation with the underlying myocardium, and in healthy conditions, produces cytokines that nourish the heart. However, in chronic inflammatory disorders (especially those leading to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction), the epicardium becomes a site of deranged adipogenesis, leading to the secretion of proinflammatory adipokines that can cause atrial and ventricular fibrosis...
May 22, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764718/metabolic-syndrome-associates-with-left-atrial-dysfunction
#2
K Nyman, M Granér, M O Pentikäinen, J Lundbom, A Hakkarainen, R Sirén, M S Nieminen, M-R Taskinen, N Lundbom, K Lauerma
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are risk factors of atrial fibrillation (AF), but limited data exist on their effect on left atrial (LA) function. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of cardiac, hepatic and intra-abdominal ectopic fat depots and cardiometabolic risk factors on LA function in non-diabetic male subjects. METHODS AND RESULTS: Myocardial and hepatic triglyceride contents were measured with 1.5T 1 H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy and LA and left ventricular function, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), epicardial and pericardial fat by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 33 men with MetS and 40 men without MetS...
February 21, 2018: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757253/association-of-cardiovascular-health-with-epicardial-adipose-tissue-and-intima-media-thickness-the-kardiovize-study
#3
Jana Hruskova, Andrea Maugeri, Helena Podroužková, Tatiana Štípalová, Juraj Jakubík, Martina Barchitta, Jose R Medina-Inojosa, Martin Homolka, Antonella Agodi, Sarka Kunzova, Ondrej Sochor, Francisco Lopez-Jimenez, Manlio Vinciguerra
Background: Intima-media thickness (IMT) has been proposed as a measurement of subclinical atherosclerosis and has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is a fat depot between the pericardium and myocardium and has been associated with coronary atherosclerosis. The relationship between IMT and EAT thickness has not been reported before. We investigated the relationship between EAT thickness, IMT, CVD risk factors, and ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) metrics using subjects from the Kardiovize Brno 2030 cohort study, a random urban sample population in Central Europe...
May 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748197/minimally-invasive-delivery-of-hydrogel-encapsulated-amiodarone-to-the-epicardium-reduces-atrial-fibrillation
#4
Jose R Garcia, Peter F Campbell, Gautam Kumar, Jonathan J Langberg, Liliana Cesar, Juline N Deppen, Eric Y Shin, Neal K Bhatia, Lanfang Wang, Kai Xu, Frank Schneider, Brian Robinson, Andrés J García, Rebecca D Levit
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. Although treatment options for AF exist, many patients cannot be maintained in normal sinus rhythm. Amiodarone is an effective medication for AF but has limited clinical utility because of off-target tissue toxicity. METHODS: Here, we use a pig model of AF to test the efficacy of an amiodarone-containing polyethylene glycol-based hydrogel. The gel is placed directly on the atrial epicardium through the pericardial space in a minimally invasive procedure using a specially designed catheter...
May 2018: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748196/interleukin-10-treatment-ameliorates-high-fat-diet-induced-inflammatory-atrial-remodeling-and-fibrillation
#5
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Obesity, characterized by systemic low-grade inflammation, is considered a well-known risk for atrial fibrillation. In fact, IL-10 (interleukin 10), which is a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine, has been reported to decrease in obese and diabetic patients. We tested the hypotheses forwarding that genetic deletion of IL-10 exacerbates high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity-caused atrial inflammation, lipidosis, fibrosis, and fibrillation and that IL-10 therapy inhibits this pathology...
May 2018: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740837/increased-fetal-epicardial-fat-thickness-a-novel-ultrasound-marker-for-altered-fetal-metabolism-in-diabetic-pregnancies
#6
Mehmet O Akkurt, Ozhan M Turan, Sarah Crimmins, Christopher R Harman, Sifa Turan
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether fetal epicardial fat thickness (EFT) differs in diabetic and nondiabetic pregnant women. METHODS: Retrospective case-control study of pregnancies between 24 and 36 weeks complicated by preexisting (PDM) or gestational (GDM) diabetes mellitus, matched one to one with controls for body mass index and gestational age (GA). Epicardial fat was identified as the hypoechogenic area between myocardium and visceral pericardium over the right ventricle and its thickness was measured by a single observer blinded to clinical condition and outcomes...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723863/epicardial-fat-thickness-in-patients-with-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease
#7
Antonio Concistrè, Luigi Petramala, Gianmarco Scoccia, Susanna Sciomer, Valeria Bisogni, Vincenza Saracino, Gino Iannucci, Silvia Lai, Daniela Mastroluca, Gianluca Iacobellis, Claudio Letizia
INTRODUCTION: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is associated with early organ damage such as left ventricular hypertrophy and higher cardiovascular risk when compared to essential hypertension (EH). Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is a new cardiovascular risk factor, but its role and correlation with left ventricular mass (LVM) in ADPKD is unknown. AIMS: we sought to investigate whether EAT is higher and related to LVM indexed by body surface area (LVMi) in hypertensive patients with ADPKD compared to those with EH...
May 3, 2018: Cardiorenal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702973/epicardial-adipose-tissue-and-carotid-artery-disease-protocol-for-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Leonardo Roever, Elmiro Santos Resende, Angélica Lemos Debs Diniz, Nilson Penha-Silva, João Lucas O'Connell, Paulo Fernando Silva Gomes, Hugo Ribeiro Zanetti, Anaisa Silva Roerver-Borges, Fernando César Veloso, Fernanda Rodrigues de Souza, Poliana Rodrigues Alves Duarte, Thiago Montes Fidale, Antonio Casella-Filho, Paulo Magno Martins Dourado, Antonio Carlos Palandri Chagas, Sadeq Ali-Hasan-Al-Saegh, Paulo Eduardo Ocke Reis, Rogério de Melo Costa Pinto, Gustavo B F Oliveira, Álvaro Avezum, Mansueto Neto, André Durães, Rose Mary Ferreira Lisboa da Silva, Antonio José Grande, Celise Denardi, Renato Delascio Lopes, Nitesh Nerlekar, Shahab Alizadeh, Adrian V Hernandez, Maria Inês da Rosa, Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is now widely recognized as a multifactorial disease with outcomes that arise from complex factors such as plaque components, blood flow, and inflammation. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is a metabolically active fat depot, abundant in proinflammatory cytokines, and has been correlated with the extent and severity of carotid artery disease (CD). The locations most frequently affected by carotid atherosclerosis are the proximal internal carotid artery (ie, the origin) and the common carotid artery bifurcation...
April 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700862/the-quantitative-assessment-of-epicardial-fat-distribution-on-human-hearts-implications-for-epicardial-electrophysiology
#9
Alexander R Mattson, Mario J Soto, Paul A Iaizzo
INTRODUCTION: Epicardial electrophysiological procedures rely on dependable interfacing with the myocardial tissue. For example, epicardial pacing systems must generate sustainable chronic pacing capture, while epicardial ablations must effectively deliver energy to the target hyper-excitable myocytes. The human heart has a significant adipose layer which may impede epicardial procedures. The objective of this study was to quantitatively assess the relative location of epicardial adipose on the human heart, in order to define locations where epicardial therapies might be performed successfully...
April 26, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700057/how-accurate-is-inverse-electrocardiographic-mapping-a-systematic-in-vivo-evaluation
#10
Laura R Bear, Ian J LeGrice, Gregory B Sands, Nigel A Lever, Denis S Loiselle, David J Paterson, Leo K Cheng, Bruce H Smaill
BACKGROUND: Inverse electrocardiographic mapping reconstructs cardiac electrical activity from recorded body surface potentials. This noninvasive technique has been used to identify potential ablation targets. Despite this, there has been little systematic evaluation of its reliability. METHODS: Torso and ventricular epicardial potentials were recorded simultaneously in anesthetized, closed-chest pigs (n=5), during sinus rhythm, epicardial, and endocardial ventricular pacing (70 records in total)...
May 2018: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694442/epicardial-and-visceral-adipose-tissue-in-relation-to-subclinical-atherosclerosis-in-a-chinese-population
#11
Nang Ei Ei Khaing, Tai E Shyong, Jeannette Lee, Cinnie Yentia Soekojo, Alvin Ng, Rob M Van Dam
BACKGROUND: Body fatness is associated with risk of coronary heart disease and it has been postulated that epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) may have a particularly detrimental effect because of its localized toxic effects. We therefore aimed to examine the association between EAT and coronary artery calcification and compared this with associations for visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and other regional fat depots. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 487 Chinese participants aged 50 years old and above, living in Singapore...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688734/assessing-the-relation-of-epicardial-fat-thickness-and-volume-quantified-by-256-slice-computed-tomography-scan-with-coronary-artery-disease-and-cardiovascular-risk-factors
#12
Maryam Mohammadzadeh, Vahid Mohammadzadeh, Madjid Shakiba, Marzieh Motevalli, Azadeh Abedini, Sakineh Kadivar, Pouya Entezari, Ali Mohammadzadeh
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the association between epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) and coronary artery disease (CAD) as well as cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: Complete medical records of subjects were reviewed and cardiovascular risk factors were recorded. Epicardial fat volume (EFV) and epicardial fat thickness (EFT) were measured using digital volumetry of acquired images using a 256-slice CT-scanner. Calcium score was measured using Agatston method in non-contrast images...
March 1, 2018: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683104/association-of-epicardial-fat-thickness-with-clinical-and-polysomnographic-parameters-in-non-obese-obstructive-sleep-apnoea-patients
#13
S Derin, I Altun, S Koseoglu, C Sahin, M Yilmaz, F Akin, M Sahan
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the relationship of epicardial fat thickness with severity of obstructive sleep apnoea, and clinical and polysomnographic parameters, and to determine independent predictors for epicardial fat thickness. METHODS: A total of 84 patients with a body mass index of less than 30 kg/m2 and suspected sleep-disordered breathing were included in the study. The correlations of epicardial fat thickness with polysomnographic and clinical data, and severity of obstructive sleep apnoea, were investigated...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675684/the-role-of-epicardial-fat-in-pericardial-diseases
#14
REVIEW
George Lazaros, Alexios Antonopoulos, Charalambos Antoniades, Dimitris Tousoulis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite the recent advancements in diagnostic modalities and therapeutic options available, the pathophysiology of pericardial syndromes remains poorly understood. In this review article, we explore the possible links between cardiac adiposity and pericardial syndromes. RECENT FINDINGS: Over the last years, the notion of cardiac adipose tissue has radically changed, and its pivotal role in myocardial diseases has been acknowledged. Recent evidence suggests a cross-talk between epicardial fat and the heart...
April 19, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622968/atherosclerosis-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-patients-with-and-without-liver-cirrhosis
#15
Ashraf Abd El-Khalik Barakat, Fatma Mohammad Nasr, Amna Ahmed Metwaly, Sherif Morsy, Mervat Eldamarawy
Background: Chronic Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and liver cirrhosis may be associated with atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease (CAD). There are two phases to atherosclerosis, Subclinical and Clinical. Assessment of atherosclerosis may be started at its Subclinical phase by the evaluation of Epicardial Fat Thickness (EpFT) and Carotid Intima Thickness (CIMT). Aim of the study: The aim of the study was to evaluate Clinical and Subclinical atherosclerosis in chronic HCV patients with and without liver cirrhosis by evaluating CIMT and EpFT and correlating the results with Child-Pugh functional scoring of cirrhosis as well as with ultrasound and laboratory parameters that define the severity of liver disease...
June 2017: The Egyptian heart journal: (EHJ): official bulletin of the Egyptian Society of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603491/assessment-of-epicardial-fat-and-carotid-intima-media-thickness-in-gestational-hypertension
#16
Cihan Altin, Mustafa Yilmaz, Hasmet M Ozsoy, Esin Gezmis, Serdar Balci, Mustafa A Tekindal, Leyla E Sade, Haldun Muderrisoglu
AIM: Gestational hypertension (GHT) is a common disorder of pregnancy characterized by new onset hypertension without the presence of detectable proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation. Epicardial fat thickness (EFT) and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) are suggested as new predictors of subclinical atherosclerosis. Although the relationship between these parameters and essential hypertension has been demonstrated, this association in patients with GHT is still unknown. We aimed to investigate CIMT and EFT in patients with GHT...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589111/effects-of-resistance-training-on-mri-derived-epicardial-fat-volume-and-arterial-stiffness-in-women-with-obesity-a-randomized-pilot-study
#17
Maria Fernandez-Del-Valle, Joaquin U Gonzales, Shelby Kloiber, Sunanda Mitra, Jon Klingensmith, Eneko Larumbe-Zabala
AIM: To date, few studies have analyzed the effects of exercise on cardiac adipose tissue. Overall, exercise programs did not meet the recommendations for significant weight loss, the utilization of resistance training was minimal, and the conclusions derived from these studies have diminished exercise as a strategy for cardiac fat loss. PURPOSE: The objective of this pilot study was to analyze the effects of 3-week high-intensity, moderate-volume muscular endurance resistance training (RT) on cardiac fat and arterial stiffness...
March 27, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572324/left-atrial-epicardial-fat-volume-is-associated-with-atrial-fibrillation-a-prospective-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-3d-dixon-study
#18
Shiro Nakamori, Maryam Nezafat, Long H Ngo, Warren J Manning, Reza Nezafat
BACKGROUND: Recent studies demonstrated a strong association between atrial fibrillation (AF) and epicardial fat around the left atrium (LA). We sought to assess whether epicardial fat volume around the LA is associated with AF, and to determine the additive value of LA-epicardial fat measurements to LA structural remodeling for identifying patients with AF using 3-dimensional multi-echo Dixon fat-water separated cardiovascular magnetic resonance. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 105 subjects were studied: 53 patients with a history of AF and 52 age-matched patients with other cardiovascular diseases but no history of AF...
March 23, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571589/impact-of-weight-loss-on-epicardial-fat-and-carotid-intima-media-thickness-after-laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy-a-prospective-study
#19
C Altin, V Erol, E Aydin, M Yilmaz, M A Tekindal, L E Sade, H Gulay, H Muderrisoglu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of mortality in obese patients. We aimed to investigate the influence of significant weight loss following laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) on carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) and epicardial fat thickness (EFT) which are the independent predictors of subclinical atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients were recruited for standard indications. A total of 105 patients (79 women and 26 men) with the mean age of 43...
February 9, 2018: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563352/local-thickness-of-epicardial-adipose-tissue-surrounding-the-left-anterior-descending-artery-is-a-simple-predictor-of-coronary-artery-disease-new-prediction-model-in-combination-with-framingham-risk-score
#20
Gulinu Maimaituxun, Michio Shimabukuro, Daiju Fukuda, Shusuke Yagi, Yukina Hirata, Takashi Iwase, Shoichiro Takao, Tomomi Matsuura, Takayuki Ise, Kenya Kusunose, Takeshi Tobiume, Koji Yamaguchi, Hirotsugu Yamada, Takeshi Soeki, Tetsuzo Wakatsuki, Masafumi Harada, Masataka Sata
BACKGROUND: Compared with global cardiac adiposity, the local accumulation of fat surrounding coronary arteries might have a more direct impact on coronary artery disease (CAD). Here, we compared the local epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) thickness and global cardiac adiposity volumes for predicting CAD.Methods and Results:A total of 197 consecutive subjects underwent 320-slice multi-detector computed tomography coronary angiography and were segregated into CAD (≥1 coronary artery branch stenosis ≥50%) and non-CAD groups...
March 21, 2018: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
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