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Epicardial fat

Clothilde Philouze, Philippe Obert, Stéphane Nottin, Asma Benamor, Olivier Barthez, Falah Aboukhoudir
BACKGROUND: Discrepancies are present in the literature on resting myocardial mechanics in patients with uncomplicated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Data are noticeably sparse regarding circumferential function and torsional mechanics. Resting deformation imaging may not be sensitive enough to detect subtle dysfunctions. The aim of this study was thus to comprehensively evaluate myocardial mechanics in patients with T2DM at rest and to investigate whether dobutamine stress echocardiography could unmask functional alterations that would remain otherwise subtle at rest...
March 8, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
Hiroshi Mikamo, Meizi Jiang, Mahito Noro, Yasuo Suzuki, Nobuyuki Hiruta, Hiroyuki Unoki-Kubota, Wolfgang J Schneider, Hideaki Bujo
The upregulation of brown or brown-like beige adipocytes is a potential strategy for the prevention or treatment of diabetes and coronary artery diseases in obese patients. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) differs significantly from subcutaneous fat tissue (SAT) in metabolic properties. To investigate properties of EAT further, thermogenesis gene expression was investigated in human autopsy and murine samples, and adipocytes differentiated from EAT mesenchymal cells. Subsequently, analyzed EAT volume alterations were observed to be associated with weight reduction in obese patients by imaging...
March 6, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Alberto Francisco Rubio-Guerra, Daniel Rabindranath Benítez-Maldonado, José Juan Lozano-Nuevo, Karla Corina Arana-Pazos, Saul Huerta-Ramirez, Jorge Luis Narváez-Rivera
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Epicardial fat has been associated with increased cardiovascular risk and the development of atherosclerosis. Transthoracic echocardiography provides a reliable measurement of epicardial fat thickness (EFT). The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between EFT and biochemical parameters of metabolic risk. MATERIAL AND METHOD: We assessed 211 patients who underwent echocardiography; EFT was measured by two cardiologists. In addition, patients' glycaemia, lipid profile and serum uric acid were measured...
February 28, 2018: Medicina Clínica
Daniel Constantino Yazbek, Aluizio Barbosa Carvalho, Cinara Sa Barros, Jose Osmar Medina Pestana, Carlos Eduardo Rochitte, Raul Dias Dos Santos Filho, Maria Eugênia F Canziani
BACKGROUND: Epicardial fat (EF) has been related to increased cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease patients. Kidney transplantation is associated with weight gain, especially within the first 12 months. Recently an association between EF and left ventricular mass (LVM) has been suggested in kidney transplant (KTX) recipients. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the EF in KTX recipients and its association with cardiovascular parameters in a 12-month follow-up study. METHODS: EF volume was determined using thoracic computed tomography...
2018: PloS One
Maryam Nabati, Maryam Favaedi, Masoud Kheirgoo, Jamshid Yazdani, Mozhdeh Dabirian
Background Epicardial fat is a true visceral fat deposit with adverse effects through the secretion of numerous proinflammatory and proatherogenic cytokines. Previous studies showed an association between aortic valve sclerosis and coronary artery disease. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between epicardial fat thickness and aortic valve sclerosis. Method The study involved 225 patients who were admitted for coronary angiography due to new-onset angina. They underwent transthoracic echocardiography and epicardial fat thickness was determined...
January 1, 2018: Asian Cardiovascular & Thoracic Annals
Adam M Lubert, Jimmy C Lu, Albert P Rocchini, Mark D Norris, Sunkyung Yu, Prachi P Agarwal, Maryam Ghadimi Mahani, Adam L Dorfman
Epicardial fat produces multiple proinflammatory cytokines and is associated with adverse cardiovascular events. Inflammation and resultant endothelial dysfunction may play a role in progressive myocardial dysfunction among adults with single ventricle physiology after Fontan palliation, but the potential impact of increased epicardial fat volume (EFV) has not been studied. This study sought to determine if there is greater EFV in Fontan patients compared with a group of repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF) patients...
January 9, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
Ashley Beecy, Bríain Ó Hartaigh, Joshua Schulman-Marcus, Khalil Anchouche, Heidi Gransar, Subhi Al'Aref, Kimberly Elmore, Fay Y Lin, James K Min, Jessica M Peña
BACKGROUND: This study examines the relationship between epicardial fat volume (EFV) and lesion-specific ischemia by fractional flow reserve (FFR). METHODS: In a study of 173 patients (63.0 ± 8.3 years) undergoing FFR, EFV was determined using cardiac computed tomography. Relationships between EFV and FFR were assessed using multivariable linear and logistic regression. RESULTS: Using multivariable linear and logistic regression, no association between EFV and FFR was observed (β [SE] = -0...
February 2, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Yu I Pigolkin, Zh V Dorosheva, N S Oganesyan, D V Gornostaev
The detection of grade II-III central obesity on a corpse in conjunction with the identification of two additional criteria (such as arterial hypertension and impaired glucose tolerance) provides, if combined with the autopsy data (including the visual reduction of muscular mass, the increased total amount of the adipose tissue, gynecomastia in men together with hypertrophied abdominal adipose tissue accumulation, decreased face and body pilosis), a basis for diagnostics of metabolic syndrome (MS). The objective parameters for this purpose are waist circumference measurements, corpse weight and height, the degree of visceral obesity, narrowing of the renal arteries as a result of their compression by the surrounding adipose tissue, and accumulation of epicardial fat confirmed by the results of the biochemical analysis...
2018: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
Justus M B Anumonwo, Todd Herron
Anatomical evidence in several species shows highly heterogeneous fat distribution in the atrial and ventricular myocardium. Atrial appendages have fat deposits, and more so on the posterior left atrium. Although such fat distributions are considered normal, fatty infiltration is regarded arrhythmogenic, and various cardiac pathophysiological conditions show excess myocardial fat deposits, especially in the epicardium. Hypotheses have been presented for the physiological and pathophysiological roles of epicardial fat, however this issue is poorly understood...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Sandeep Hedgire, Vinit Baliyan, Evan J Zucker, Daniel O Bittner, Pedro Staziaki, Richard A P Takx, Jan-Erik Scholtz, Nandini Meyersohn, Udo Hoffmann, Brian Ghoshhajra
Purpose To evaluate the frequency and implications of perivascular fat stranding on coronary computed tomography (CT) angiograms obtained for suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Materials and Methods This retrospective registry study was approved by the institutional review board. The authors reviewed the medical records and images of 1403 consecutive patients (796 men, 607 women; mean age, 52.8 years) who underwent coronary CT angiography at the emergency department from February 2012 to March 2016. Fat attenuation, length and number of circumferential quadrants of the affected segment, and attenuation values in the unaffected epicardial and subcutaneous fat were measured...
February 5, 2018: Radiology
Lourdes Basurto Acevedo, Susana Barrera Hernández, María de Jesús Fernández Muñoz, Renata Patricia Saucedo García, Ana Karen Rodríguez Luna, Carlos Martínez Murillo
INTRODUCTION: A decrease in fibrinolytic activity and an increase in the thickness of the epicardial adipose tissue have been observed in patients with coronary artery disease. The aim of this study was to determine the association between epicardial adipose tissue and fibrinolytic activity by measuring the concentration of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 56 apparently healthy women aged 45 to 60 years...
January 29, 2018: Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis
Ken Harada, Hitomi Suzuki, Shun Matsunaga, Tomohiro Onishi, Yoshinori Nishikawa, Hiroshi Funakubo, Kumiko Mamiya, Tomoyuki Nagao, Norihiro Shinoda, Shinichi Sakai, Masataka Kato, Nobuyuki Marui, Hideki Ishii, Tetsuya Amano, Tatsuaki Matsubara, Toyoaki Murohara
AIM: Increased epicardial fat volume (EFV) is an independent risk factor for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Although EFV increases with body mass index (BMI), some ACS patients have an increased EFV but normal BMI. We here investigated the clinical characteristics of nonobese ACS patients with an increased EFV. METHODS: A total of 197 Japanese patients hospitalized for ACS was evaluated for EFV, abdominal visceral fat area (VFA), and lipid and glucose profiles. Control subjects comprised 141 individuals who were suspected of having ACS but whose coronary computed tomography findings were normal...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
Daniel Bos, Maarten J G Leening
Non-contrast cardiac computed tomography in order to obtain the coronary artery calcium score has become an established diagnostic procedure in the clinical setting, and is commonly employed in clinical and population-based research. This state-of-the-art review paper highlights the potential gain in information that can be obtained from the non-contrast coronary calcium scans without any necessary modifications to the scan protocol. This includes markers of cardio-metabolic health, such as the amount of epicardial fat and liver fat, but also markers of general health including bone density and lung density...
January 30, 2018: European Radiology
Marysia S Tweet, Nila J Akhtar, Sharonne N Hayes, Patricia Jm Best, Rajiv Gulati, Philip A Araoz
BACKGROUND: The coronary computed tomography angiography features of acute spontaneous coronary artery dissection, an important cause of acute coronary syndrome in young women, have not been assessed. METHODS: The "Virtual" Multicenter Mayo Clinic Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection Registry was established in 2010 and includes retrospective and prospective patient data. Retrospective assessment of acute coronary computed tomography angiography images was performed for 14 patients (16 vessels) who had images performed within two days of invasive coronary angiography diagnosis of acute spontaneous coronary artery dissection...
January 1, 2018: European Heart Journal. Acute Cardiovascular Care
Persia Shahriari, D Frestad, M M Michelsen, N D Mygind, A Pena, J D Hove, I Gustafsson, E Prescott
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Atherosclerosis
Asli Akin Belli, Ilknur Altun, Ibrahim Altun
BACKGROUND: Rosacea is a chronic facial skin disease associated with excessive inflammatory response to various triggers. Although some studies have supported the increased risk of cardiovascular diseases in rosacea, it has not been completely accepted. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate epicardial fat thickness and carotid intima-media thickness as cardiovascular risk predictors in rosacea patients. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study including 40 rosacea patients and 40 controls...
November 2017: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
David de Gonzalo-Calvo, Cristina Colom, David Vilades, Andrea Rivas-Urbina, Abdel-Hakim Moustafa, Montserrat Pérez-Cuellar, Jose Luis Sánchez-Quesada, Antonio Pérez, Vicenta LLorente-Cortes
Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is a metabolically active tissue intimately associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Quantification of EAT volume is an interesting clinical tool for the evaluation of cardiometabolic disease. Nevertheless, current methodology presents serious disadvantages. The soluble form of the receptor LRP1 (sLRP1) is a non-invasive biomarker of EAT in general population. Here, we analysed the potential of circulating sLRP1 as biomarker of EAT volume in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM)...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Valeria Calcaterra, Hellas Cena, Pietro Mariano Casali, Gianluca Iacobellis, Riccardo Albertini, Mara De Amici, Annalisa de Silvestri, Calogero Comparato, Gloria Pelizzo
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular risk is reported in disabled children and epicardial fat (EF) is considered an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD). No data on the EF thickness (EFT) evaluation in disabled children have been published. OBJECTIVE: We investigated EFT in neurologically impaired (NI) children; its relationship with their metabolic profile was also considered. METHODS: Clinical data, body composition estimation, biochemical profile, and ultrasound-measured EFT were performed in 32 disabled patients (12...
January 18, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Huub J van Eyk, Linda D van Schinkel, Vasudev Kantae, Charlotte E A Dronkers, Jos J M Westenberg, Albert de Roos, Hildo J Lamb, J Wouter Jukema, Amy C Harms, Thomas Hankemeier, Mario van der Stelt, Ingrid M Jazet, Patrick C N Rensen, Johannes W A Smit
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Endocannabinoids (ECs) are associated with obesity and ectopic fat accumulation, both of which play a role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in type 2 diabetes (T2D). The effect of prolonged caloric restriction on ECs in relation to fat distribution and cardiac function is still unknown. Therefore, our aim was to investigate this relationship in obese T2D patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). SUBJECTS/METHODS: In a prospective intervention study, obese T2D patients with CAD (n = 27) followed a 16 week very low calorie diet (VLCD; 450-1000 kcal/day)...
January 17, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Dong-Won Lee, Min Soo Cho, Eun Yeong Choe, Seung Woo Park, Yun-Mi Song, Sang-Chol Lee, Joohon Sung
BACKGROUND: The conventional concept of positive association between general obesity and bone health was challenged in recent studies reporting the different effects of specific fat deposition on bone health. In the present study, we investigated the association between epicardial fat and bone health. METHODS: We measured echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness (EFT) and bone mineral content (BMC) in a twin-family cohort of Koreans (n = 1,198; 525 men, 460 pre- and 213 post-menopausal women)...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology
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