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Epicardial fat

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140808/randomized-trial-evaluating-the-effect-of-aged-garlic-extract-with-supplements-versus-placebo-on-adipose-tissue-surrogates-for-coronary-atherosclerosis-progression
#1
Irfan Zeb, Naser Ahmadi, Ferdinand Flores, Matthew J Budoff
AIMS: Increased epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), pericardial adipose tissue (PAT), periaortic adipose tissue (PaAT), and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) are mediators of metabolic risk, and are associated with the severity of coronary artery calcium (CAC). Aged garlic extract (AGE) has been shown to reduce the progression of coronary atherosclerosis. This study evaluates the effect of AGE with supplements (AGE+S) on EAT, PAT, SAT, and PaAT. METHODS: Sixty asymptomatic participants participated in a randomized trial evaluating the effect of AGE+S versus placebo on coronary atherosclerosis progression, and underwent CAC at baseline and after 12 months of treatment...
November 14, 2017: Coronary Artery Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138472/functional-characterization-of-the-ucp1-associated-oxidative-phenotype-of-human-epicardial-adipose-tissue
#2
Kanta Chechi, Pierre Voisine, Patrick Mathieu, Mathieu Laplante, Sébastian Bonnet, Frédéric Picard, Philippe Joubert, Denis Richard
Brown fat presence and metabolic activity has been associated with lower body mass index, higher insulin sensitivity and better cardiometabolic profile in humans. We, and others, have previously reported the presence of Ucp1, a marker of brown adipocytes, in human epicardial adipose tissue (eAT). Characterization of the metabolic activity and associated physiological relevance of Ucp1 within eAT, however, is still awaited. Here, we validate the presence of Ucp1 within human eAT and its 'beige' nature. Using in-vitro analytical approaches, we further characterize its thermogenic potential and demonstrate that human eAT is capable of undergoing enhanced uncoupling respiration upon stimulation...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107457/increased-epicardial-fat-volume-in-systemic-sclerosis-a-new-cardiovascular-risk-marker
#3
EDITORIAL
Matthew J Budoff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 26, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092109/epicardial-adipose-tissue-thickness-independently-predicts-severe-aortic-valve-stenosis
#4
Amir A Mahabadi, Heike A Kahlert, Iryna Dykun, Bastian Balcer, Philipp Kahlert, Tienush Rassaf
BACKGROUND: Epicardial fat tissue (EAT) is associated with coronary as well as aortic valve calcification. The study aim was to determine whether EAT thickness is different in patients with and without aortic valve stenosis (AVS). METHODS: A cohort of 200 consecutive patients with severe AVS and 200 matched patients without AVS were included retrospectively in the study. EAT thickness was quantified, using transthoracic echocardiography, as the space between the epicardial wall of the myocardium and the visceral layer of the pericardium...
May 2017: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083420/semiautomatic-epicardial-fat-segmentation-based-on-fuzzy-c-means-clustering-and-geometric-ellipse-fitting
#5
Vladimir Zlokolica, Lidija Krstanović, Lazar Velicki, Branislav Popović, Marko Janev, Ratko Obradović, Nebojsa M Ralević, Ljubomir Jovanov, Danilo Babin
Automatic segmentation of particular heart parts plays an important role in recognition tasks, which is utilized for diagnosis and treatment. One particularly important application is segmentation of epicardial fat (surrounds the heart), which is shown by various studies to indicate risk level for developing various cardiovascular diseases as well as to predict progression of certain diseases. Quantification of epicardial fat from CT images requires advance image segmentation methods. The problem of the state-of-the-art methods for epicardial fat segmentation is their high dependency on user interaction, resulting in low reproducibility of studies and time-consuming analysis...
2017: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077154/the-differentiation-of-beige-adipocyte-in-pericardial-and-epicardial-adipose-tissues-induces-atrial-fibrillation-development
#6
Y He, N Ma, M Tang, Z-L Jiang, H Liu, J Mei
OBJECTIVE: Growing evidence has identified that excessive accumulation of pericardial adipose tissues (PAT) and epicardial adipose tissues (EAT) is associated with atrial fibrillation (AF) development. Moreover, beige adipocytes, present in PAT and EAT, have been proved beneficial in consumption of fatty acid and promotion of weight lose by nonshivering thermogenesis. The objective of this prospective, observational study was to reveal the potential association between beige adipocytes and AF development...
October 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076884/homocysteine-visceral-adiposity-related-novel-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-and-exaggerated-blood-pressure-response-to-the-exercise-treadmill-test
#7
Pinar Türker Duyuler, Serkan Duyuler, Mevlüt Demir, Özgül Uçar Elalmiş, Ümit Güray, Mehmet İleri
OBJECTIVE: Exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise is a risk factor for the development of future hypertension. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between homocysteine, epicardial fat thickness, nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis, and exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: We included 44 normotensive and 40 patients with exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise who have normal resting blood pressure and without a previous diagnosis of hypertension...
October 25, 2017: Blood Pressure Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075334/association-of-body-mass-index-and-visceral-fat-with-aortic-valve-calcification-and-mortality-after-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement-the-obesity-paradox-in-severe-aortic-stenosis
#8
Jennifer Mancio, Paulo Fonseca, Bruno Figueiredo, Wilson Ferreira, Monica Carvalho, Nuno Ferreira, Pedro Braga, Alberto Rodrigues, Antonio Barros, Ines Falcao-Pires, Adelino Leite-Moreira, Vasco Gama Ribeiro, Nuno Bettencourt
BACKGROUND: Previous studies showed that metabolic syndrome is associated with aortic valve calcification (AVC) and poor outcomes in aortic stenosis (AS). However, if these associations change and how body fat impacts the prognosis of patients in late stage of the disease have been not yet explored. AIMS: To determine the association of body mass index (BMI) and visceral fat with AVC and mortality after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). METHODS: This was a prospective cohort of 170 severe AS patients referred to TAVR...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058029/increased-severity-of-liver-fat-content-and-liver-fibrosis-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-correlate-with-epicardial-fat-volume-in-type-2-diabetes-a-prospective-study
#9
Sharon S Brouha, Phirum Nguyen, Ricki Bettencourt, Claude B Sirlin, Rohit Loomba
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and liver fibrosis quantitatively assessed in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM)-2 correlate with increased coronary heart disease (CHD) risk using non-invasive markers. METHODS: We conducted a single-centre, prospective, cross-sectional study in 100 consecutive diabetic individuals without known CHD recruited between March 2013 and September 2014. History, physical examination, serum markers, cardiac computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-estimated proton density fat fraction (PDFF) and MR elastography (MRE) were obtained for 95 participants...
October 20, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050981/evolutional-change-in-epicardial-fat-and-its-correlation-with-myocardial-diffuse-fibrosis-in-heart-failure-patients
#10
Cho-Kai Wu, Hao-Yuan Tsai, Mao-Yuan M Su, Yi-Fan Wu, Juey-Jen Hwang, Jiunn-Lee Lin, Lian-Yu Lin, Jien-Jiun Chen
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to characterize the characteristics of epicardial fat (EAT) in different stage heart failure (HF) patients and its relationship between cardiac fibrosis. BACKGROUND: EAT is visceral adipose tissue that possesses inflammatory properties. Inflammation and obesity are associated with cardiac fibrosis, but the relationship between cardiac fibrosis and EAT is unknown. METHODS: EAT volume was measured using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in 180 subjects: 58 patients with systolic HF, 63 patients with HF and preserved ejection fraction, and 59 patients without HF...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038352/differential-relationships-of-hepatic-and-epicardial-fat-to-body-composition-in-hiv
#11
Lindsay T Fourman, Michael T Lu, Hang Lee, Kathleen V Fitch, Travis R Hallett, Jakob Park, Natalia Czerwonka, Julian Weiss, Takara L Stanley, Janet Lo, Steven K Grinspoon
HIV-infected patients commonly experience changes in central and peripheral fat content as well as ectopic fat accumulation. However, whether hepatic and epicardial fat stores relate differentially to body composition or how these associations are modified by HIV status has not been well explored. A previously recruited sample of 124 HIV-infected patients and 58 healthy controls had undergone dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and computed tomography (CT) from which body composition measures, liver-spleen ratio, and epicardial fat volume were obtained...
October 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034006/canagliflozin-reduces-epicardial-fat-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#12
Shusuke Yagi, Yukina Hirata, Takayuki Ise, Kenya Kusunose, Hirotsugu Yamada, Daiju Fukuda, Hotimah Masdan Salim, Gulinu Maimaituxun, Susumu Nishio, Yuriko Takagawa, Saori Hama, Tomomi Matsuura, Koji Yamaguchi, Takeshi Tobiume, Takeshi Soeki, Tetsuzo Wakatsuki, Ken-Ichi Aihara, Masashi Akaike, Michio Shimabukuro, Masataka Sata
BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether canagliflozin, a selective sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, reduces epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) thickness, which is associated with insulin resistance and is a risk factor for coronary artery disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: We administered 100 mg of canagliflozin for 6 months to 13 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We evaluated glycemic control, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) area and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) area, and skeletal muscle mass by using impedance methods, and EAT thickness by using echocardiography...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016744/novel-effects-of-dapagliflozin-on-epicardial-adipose-tissue-with-insulin-resistance-high-levels-of-inflammatory-chemokines-production-and-low-differentiation-ability
#13
Esther Díaz-Rodríguez, Rosa M Agra, Ángel L Fernández, B Adrio, Tomás García-Caballero, José R González-Juanatey, Sonia Eiras
Aims: In patients with cardiovascular disease, epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is characterized by insulin resistance, high pro-inflammatory chemokines and low differentiation ability. Since dapagliflozin reduces body fat and cardiovascular events in diabetic patients, we wanted to know its effect on EAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Methods and results: Adipose samples were obtained from 52 patients undergoing heart surgery. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) expression was determined by real time PCR (n = 20), Western blot and immunohistochemistry...
September 11, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988444/usefulness-of-epicardial-impedance-evaluation-for-epicardial-mapping-and-determination-of-epicardial-ablation-site-for-ventricular-tachycardia-a-pilot-study
#14
Takeshi Kitamura, Seiji Fukamizu, Satoshi Miyazawa, Iwanari Kawamura, Rintaro Hojo, Yuya Aoyama, Mitsuhiro Nishizaki, Harumizu Sakurada, Masayasu Hiraoka
BACKGROUND: During epicardial mapping, determination of appropriate ablation sites in low voltage areas (LVA) is challenging because of large epicardial areas covered by adipose tissue. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impedance difference between epicardial fat and the epicardial LVA using multiple detector computed tomography (MDCT). METHODS: We enrolled patients who underwent ventricular tachycardia (VT) ablation via the epicardial approach after endocardial ablation failure...
October 8, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986055/gender-differences-in-the-association-of-epicardial-adipose-tissue-and-coronary-artery-calcification-epicheart-study-eat-and-coronary-calcification-by-gender
#15
Jennifer Mancio, Marilia Pinheiro, Wilson Ferreira, Monica Carvalho, Antonio Barros, Nuno Ferreira, Luis Vouga, Vasco Gama Ribeiro, Adelino Leite-Moreira, Ines Falcao-Pires, Nuno Bettencourt
BACKGROUND: The association of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) and coronary artery calcification (CAC) seems to differ by gender. However, few studies have controlled for body size, and the ideal method for body size indexing has not been explored. OBJECTIVES: To analyse the effect of gender related-body size and-body fat differences on the association of EAT with CAC. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort of 371 severe aortic stenosis patients (77±8...
December 15, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974326/relationships-between-periventricular-epicardial-adipose-tissue-accumulation-coronary-microcirculation-and-left-ventricular-diastolic-dysfunction
#16
Koki Nakanishi, Shota Fukuda, Atsushi Tanaka, Kenichiro Otsuka, Haruyuki Taguchi, Kenei Shimada
BACKGROUND: Obesity is related to left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction, although its pathophysiological mechanism remains unclear. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is an ectopic fat with paracrine effects on coronary circulation and myocardium. We hypothesized that left ventricle-specific (periventricular) EAT may deteriorate diastolic function by impairing coronary microcirculation. METHODS: In protocol 1, 74 patients without obstructive narrowing of the left anterior descending artery on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) underwent coronary flow reserve (CFR) examination to evaluate the relationship between EAT and coronary microcirculation...
November 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974325/is-reduction-in-coronary-blood-flow-the-mechanism-by-which-epicardial-fat-produces-left-ventricular-diastolic-dysfunction
#17
EDITORIAL
Simon W Rabkin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954947/association-of-epicardial-visceral-and-subcutaneous-fat-with-cardiometabolic-diseases
#18
Fumi Sato, Norikazu Maeda, Takayuki Yamada, Hideyuki Namazui, Shiro Fukuda, Tomoaki Natsukawa, Hirofumi Nagao, Jun Murai, Shigeki Masuda, Yoshimitsu Tanaka, Yoshinari Obata, Yuya Fujishima, Hitoshi Nishizawa, Tohru Funahashi, Iichiro Shimomura
BACKGROUND: Excess of visceral fat is a central factor in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and atherosclerosis. However, little is known about how much epicardial fat affects cardiometabolic disorders in comparison with visceral or subcutaneous fat.Methods and Results:Participants suspected as having angina pectoris underwent cardiac computed tomography (CT) imaging. Of them, 374 subjects were analyzed the association of clinical characteristics and CT-based fat distribution measured as epicardial fat volume (EFV), visceral fat area (VFA), and subcutaneous fat area (SFA)...
September 27, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948552/adipokine-and-cytokine-profiles-of-epicardial-and-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-in-patients-with-coronary-heart-disease
#19
O V Gruzdeva, O E Akbasheva, Yu A Dyleva, L V Antonova, V G Matveeva, E G Uchasova, E V Fanaskova, V N Karetnikova, S V Ivanov, O L Barbarash
The content of adipokines, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were studied in adipocytes isolated from epicardial and subcutaneous adipose tissue of 24 coronary heart disease patients. The content of leptin and soluble leptin receptor in adipocytes of epicardial adipose tissue was higher by 28.6 and 56.9% and the level of adiponectin was lower by 33% than in adipocytes of the subcutaneous fat. In culture of epicardial adipocytes, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1 were higher. Subcutaneous adipose tissue adipocytes were characterized by higher levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and FGF-β...
September 25, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939053/association-between-endothelial-dysfunction-epicardial-fat-and-sub-clinical-atherosclerosis-during-menopause
#20
Julio Oscar Cabrera-Rego, Daisy Navarro-Despaigne, Liudmila Staroushik-Morel, Karel Díaz-Reyes, Marcos M Lima-Martínez, Gianluca Iacobellis
BACKGROUND: Menopausal transition is critical for the development of early, subclinical vascular damage. Multiple factors, such as atherosclerosis, increased epicardial fat, and endothelial dysfunction can play a role. Hence, the objective of this study was the comparison of epicardial adipose tissue and carotid intima media thickness in order to establish the best predictor of carotid stiffness in middle-aged women with endothelial dysfunction. METHODS: A total of 43 healthy women aged 40-59 years old with endothelial dysfunction previously demonstrated by flow mediated dilation were recruited to have anthropometric, biochemical, hormonal and ultrasound determinations of carotid intima media thickness and epicardial fat thickness...
September 19, 2017: Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis
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