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Epicardial fat

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629772/impact-of-the-cardiovascular-system-associated-adipose-tissue-on-atherosclerotic-pathology
#1
REVIEW
Dimitry A Chistiakov, Andrey V Grechko, Veronika A Myasoedova, Alexandra A Melnichenko, Alexander N Orekhov
Cardiac obesity makes an important contribution to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. One of the important pathways of this contribution is the inflammatory process that takes place in the adipose tissue. In this review, we consider the role of the cardiovascular system-associated fat in atherosclerotic cardiovascular pathology and a non-atherosclerotic cause of coronary artery disease, such as atrial fibrillation. Cardiovascular system-associated fat not only serves as the energy store, but also releases adipokines that control local and systemic metabolism, heart/vascular function and vessel tone, and a number of vasodilating and anti-inflammatory substances...
June 8, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628064/exercise-training-reduces-intrathoracic-fat-regardless-of-defective-glucose-tolerance
#2
Sanna M Honkala, Kumail K Motiani, Jari-Joonas Eskelinen, Anna Savolainen, Virva Saunavaara, Kirsi A Virtanen, Eliisa Löyttyniemi, Jukka Kapanen, Juhani Knuuti, Kari K Kalliokoski, Jarna C Hannukainen
PURPOSE: Epicardial (EAT) and pericardial (PAT) fat masses and myocardial triglyceride content (MTC) are enlarged in obesity and insulin resistance. We studied whether the high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) similarly decrease ectopic fat in and around the heart and whether the decrease is similar in healthy subjects and subjects with defective glucose tolerance (DGT). METHODS: A total of 28 healthy men (body mass index = 20...
July 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626797/intrathoracic-fat-measurements-using-multidetector-computed-tomography-mdct-feasibility-and-reproducibility
#3
Jadranka Stojanovska, El-Sayed H Ibrahim, Aamer R Chughtai, Elizabeth A Jackson, Barry H Gross, Jon A Jacobson, Alexander Tsodikov, Brian Daneshvar, Benjamin D Long, Thomas L Chenevert, Ella A Kazerooni
Intrathoracic fat volume, more specifically, epicardial fat volume, is an emerging imaging biomarker of adverse cardiovascular events. The purpose of this work is to show the feasibility and reproducibility of intrathoracic fat volume measurement applied to contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography images. A retrospective cohort study of 62 subjects free of cardiovascular disease (55% females, age = 49 ± 11 years) conducted from 2008 to 2011 formed the study group. Intrathoracic fat volume was defined as all fat voxels measuring -50 to -250 Hounsfield Unit within the intrathoracic cavity from the level of the pulmonary artery bifurcation to the heart apex...
March 2017: Tomography: a Journal for Imaging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624865/bone-marrow-fat-contributes-to-insulin-sensitivity-and-adiponectin-secretion-in-premenopausal-women
#4
Federica Ermetici, Silvia Briganti, Alessandra Delnevo, Paola Cannaò, Giovanni Di Leo, Stefano Benedini, Ileana Terruzzi, Francesco Sardanelli, Livio Luzi
PURPOSE: Bone marrow fat is a functionally distinct adipose tissue that may contribute to systemic metabolism. This study aimed at evaluating a possible association between bone marrow fat and insulin sensitivity indices. METHODS: Fifty obese (n = 23) and non-obese (n = 27) premenopausal women underwent proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure vertebral bone marrow fat content and unsaturation index at L4 level. Abdominal visceral, subcutaneous fat, and epicardial fat were also measured using magnetic resonance imaging...
June 17, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616806/ipragliflozin-reduces-epicardial-fat-accumulation-in-non-obese-type-2-diabetic-patients-with-visceral-obesity-a-pilot-study
#5
Tatsuya Fukuda, Ryotaro Bouchi, Masahiro Terashima, Yuriko Sasahara, Masahiro Asakawa, Takato Takeuchi, Yujiro Nakano, Masanori Murakami, Isao Minami, Hajime Izumiyama, Koshi Hashimoto, Takanobu Yoshimoto, Yoshihiro Ogawa
INTRODUCTION: Epicardial fat (EF) was reported to be independently associated with cardiovascular disease regardless of obesity. We have previously reported that a sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, luseogliflozin, reduces the EF volume (EFV) in parallel with the reduction of body weight in obese patients (BMI ≥25 kg/m(2)) with type 2 diabetes. However, it is unknown whether SGLT2 inhibitors could reduce EFV in non-obese patients (BMI <25 kg/m(2)) with type 2 diabetes...
June 14, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605281/re-plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1-and-pericardial-fat-in-individuals-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-by-bayomi-et-al-metab-syndr-relat-disord-doi-10-1089-met-2017-0031
#6
Angelo Avogaro
Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a member of the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) superfamily, which inactivates tissue plasminogen activator (tPA); therefore, increased level of PAI-1 antigen counteracts the anticoagulant effect of tPA and facilitates the fibrin clot formation. Plasma PAI-1 antigen and activity levels are associated with increased body mass index and with features of the insulin resistance syndrome like obesity and diabetes. Visceral adipose tissue produces more PAI-1 than subcutaneous adipose tissue: This increased production of PAI-1 from the visceral adipose tissue is one important link between visceral obesity and cardiovascular disease...
June 12, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604567/epicardial-fat-pathophysiology-and-clinical-significance
#7
Elijah Douglass, Shana Greif, William Frishman
Over the last decade and a half there has been much interest in understanding the role of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) in cardiac pathology. EAT is a visceral adipose deposit with putative paracrine function. In the non-diseased state, EAT releases cardioprotective cytokines and chemokines to the coronary vasculature. In pathological states, EAT releases an inflammatory cytokine profile that is believed to contribute to the development and progression of coronary artery disease (CAD). EAT imaging with echocardiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging has demonstrated a correlation between EAT size and CAD...
May 3, 2017: Cardiology in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594865/gender-linked-impact-of-epicardial-adipose-tissue-volume-in-patients-who-underwent-coronary-artery-bypass-graft-surgery-or-non-coronary-valve-surgery
#8
Gulinu Maimaituxun, Michio Shimabukuro, Hotimah Masdan Salim, Minoru Tabata, Daisuke Yuji, Yoshihisa Morimoto, Takeshi Akasaka, Tomomi Matsuura, Shusuke Yagi, Daiju Fukuda, Hirotsugu Yamada, Takeshi Soeki, Takaki Sugimoto, Masashi Tanaka, Shuichiro Takanashi, Masataka Sata
BACKGROUND: Traditional and non-traditional risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) are different between men and women. Gender-linked impact of epicardial adipose tissue volume (EATV) in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) remains unknown. METHODS: Gender-linked impact of EATV, abdominal fat distribution and other traditional ASCVD risk factors were compared in 172 patients (men: 115; women: 57) who underwent CABG or non-coronary valvular surgery (non-CABG)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592149/the-comparison-of-angiographic-scoring-systems-with-the-predictors-of-atherosclerosis
#9
Kamuran Kalkan, Hikmet Hamur, Erkan Yildirim, Emrah Ipek, Emrah Ermis, Mustafa Ozturk, Huseyin Karal, Ali Fuat Korkmaz, Murat Bayantemur, Selami Demirelli
Syntax score (SS) and Gensini score (GS) are used to determine the complexity and severity of coronary artery disease. Although there are some studies indicating the individual relationship of these scoring systems with the carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and epicardial fat tissue (EFT), there was no previous study that compared the SS and GS in that respect. We aimed to assess the relationship of SS and GS with predictors of atherosclerosis. We enrolled 522 patients. There were positive correlations between GS and SS tertiles with cIMT and EFT...
January 1, 2017: Angiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582578/proteomics-of-the-epicardial-fat-secretome-and-its-role-in-post-operative-atrial-fibrillation
#10
Alessandro Viviano, Xiaoke Yin, Anna Zampetaki, Marika Fava, Mark Gallagher, Manuel Mayr, Marjan Jahangiri
Aims: Post-operative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is a predictor of morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery. Latent predisposing factors may reside in the epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) due to its anatomical position and high protein production rate. In order to explore a possible mechanistic link, we characterized proteins secreted by the EAT preceding the onset of POAF. Methods and results: Epicardial adipose tissue samples were collected from 76 consecutive patients with no history of AF undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery, 50 samples for proteomic analysis and 26 for gene expression studies, further divided according to development of POAF...
June 5, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582523/the-interplay-between-adipose-tissue-and-the-cardiovascular-system-is-fat-always-bad
#11
Ioannis Akoumianakis, Charalambos Antoniades
Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, clinical research has revealed a paradoxically protective role for obesity in patients with chronic diseases including CVD, suggesting that the biological "quality" of adipose tissue (AT) may be more important than overall AT mass or body weight. Importantly, AT is recognized as a dynamic organ secreting a wide range of biologically active adipokines, microRNAs, gaseous messengers and other metabolites that affect the cardiovascular system in both endocrine and paracrine ways...
June 5, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578897/inadvertent-anastomosis-of-the-left-internal-mammary-artery-to-the-great-cardiac-vein
#12
Shahryar G Saba, John N Makaryus, Shoshanah Kahn, Rakesh Shah, Perwaiz Meraj
We present an uncommon and underreported complication of coronary artery bypass graft surgery: erroneous anastomosis of the left internal mammary artery to the great cardiac vein. The iatrogenic aorto-coronary arteriovenous fistula with left-to-right shunting resulted in dilation of the coronary sinus, a supporting secondary finding. Factors predisposing to this inadvertent anastomosis include an intramyocardial segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery, demonstrated in this case, as well as epicardial fat and potentially fibrosis of the underlying myocardium...
May 19, 2017: Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine: Including Molecular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569615/assessment-of-relationships-between-novel-inflammatory-markers-and-presence-and-severity-of-preeclampsia-epicardial-fat-thickness-pentraxin-3-and-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio
#13
Huseyin Altug Cakmak, Burcu Dincgez Cakmak, Cigdem Abide Yayla, Ebru Inci Coskun, Mehmet Erturk, Ibrahim Keles
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation of three new inflammatory markers with presence and severity of preeclampsia and to compare the predictive values of all markers for presence of this setting. METHODS: In this study, a total of 100 consecutive pregnants with a diagnosis of preeclampsia and 40 healthy pregnants between October 2014 and April 2015 were included. Epicardial fat tissue was calculated by two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography, and pentraxin-3 and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio were measured by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and routine blood count analysis, respectively...
June 1, 2017: Hypertension in Pregnancy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559657/epicardial-adipose-tissue-thickness-and-carotid-intima-media-thickness-in-hemodialysis-patients
#14
Elcin Aydın, Cihan Altın, Onur Sakallıoğlu, Mustafa Yılmaz, Esin Gezmiş, Leyla Elif Sade, Haldun Müderrisoğlu
BACKGROUND: It is well-known that cardiovascular risk and all-cause mortality is increased in hemodialysis patients. Epicardial fat thickness (EFT), which reflects visceral adiposity, has been suggested as a new cardiometabolic risk factor. The purpose of this study was to investigate EFT in hemodialysis patients. METHODS: A total of 144 consecutive patients (60 hemodialysis patients and 84 controls) were enrolled into the study, and patients with diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) were excluded...
May 2017: Acta Cardiologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558080/the-relation-between-epicardial-fat-thickness-and-prognostic-risk-scores
#15
Sevket Balta, Cengiz Ozturk, Turgay Celik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549293/automated-recognition-of-the-pericardium-contour-on-processed-ct-images-using-genetic-algorithms
#16
É O Rodrigues, L O Rodrigues, L S N Oliveira, A Conci, P Liatsis
This work proposes the use of Genetic Algorithms (GA) in tracing and recognizing the pericardium contour of the human heart using Computed Tomography (CT) images. We assume that each slice of the pericardium can be modelled by an ellipse, the parameters of which need to be optimally determined. An optimal ellipse would be one that closely follows the pericardium contour and, consequently, separates appropriately the epicardial and mediastinal fats of the human heart. Tracing and automatically identifying the pericardium contour aids in medical diagnosis...
May 17, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539672/possitive-correlation-between-adipocyte-fatty-acid-binding-protein-and-epicardial-fat-in-patients-with-a-family-history-of-cardiovascular-disesase
#17
Eliska Sovova, Milan Sova, Jana Zapletalova, David Stejskal, Marketa Sovova, Marketa Kaletova, Gabriela Svobodova, Irena Kuca, Michal Janak, Milan Kaminek
BACKGROUND: Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP) is a promising link between metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis. Epicardial fat (EPI) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the correlation between EPI and A-FABP in asymptomatic patients with a family history of CVD. METHODS: 59 subjects (39 males) (median = 54 years old) were enrolled in the study and their EPI thickness and A-FABP levels were assessed...
May 16, 2017: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514806/human-epicardial-fat-expresses-glucagon-like-peptide-1-and-2-receptors-genes
#18
Gianluca Iacobellis, Vladimir Camarena, David W Sant, Gaofeng Wang
Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is an easily measurable visceral fat of the heart with unique anatomy, functionality, and transcriptome. EAT can serve as a therapeutic target for pharmaceutical agents targeting the fat. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and GLP-2 analogues are newer drugs showing beneficial cardiovascular and metabolic effects. Whether EAT expresses GLP- 1 and 2 receptors (GLP-1R and GLP-2R) is unknown. RNA-seq analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were performed to evaluate the presence of GLP-1R and GLP-2R in EAT and subcutaneous fat (SAT) obtained from 8 subjects with coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus undergoing elective cardiac surgery...
May 17, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464933/fat-deposition-in-the-left-ventricle-descriptive-and-observacional-study-in-autopsy
#19
Ricella Maria Souza da Silva, Roberto José Vieira de Mello
BACKGROUND: The human heart contains varying amounts of fat deposits. Cardiac physiological fat occurs predominantly in the right ventricle (RV). The discovery and characterization of adipose tissue along the left ventricle (LV) has been rarely reported. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of fatty deposits in epicardial, pericoronay and myocardial compartments in the LV, and to trace the epidemiological profile and clinical associations with this finding. METHODS: Epidemiological and morphological data and heart samples were collected from corpses submitted to necropsy...
May 2, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464274/association-between-echocardiographic-epicardial-fat-thickness-and-circulating-endothelial-progenitor-cell-level-in-patients-with-stable-angina-pectoris
#20
Ting-Yung Chang, Chien-Yi Hsu, Chun-Chih Chiu, Ruey-Hsing Chou, Hsin-Lei Huang, Chin-Chou Huang, Hsin-Ban Leu, Po-Hsun Huang, Jaw-Wen Chen, Shing-Jong Lin
BACKGROUND: Epicardial adipose tissue is associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). Circulating endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) level represents a marker of endothelial dysfunction and vascular health. However, the relationship between epicardial fat and circulating EPC remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate association between echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness (EFT) and circulating EPC level. HYPOTHESIS: Epicardial fat causes inflammation and contributes to progression of CAD...
May 2, 2017: Clinical Cardiology
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