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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804824/laboratory-testing-for-activated-protein-c-resistance-apcr
#1
Soma Mohammed, Emmanuel J Favaloro
Activated protein C resistance (APCR) describes a hemostatic disorder characterized by a poor anticoagulant response to activated protein C (APC). This results in an increased risk of venous thrombosis, including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Protein C is a natural anticoagulant that is synthesized in the liver and is activated to APC via proteolysis. APC then degrades Factors Va and VIIIa. APCR describes the reduced inability of APC to cleave Factors Va and VIIIa, which therefore promotes increased thrombin generation and potentially leads to a prothrombotic state...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800929/directing-t-cell-fate-how-thymic-antigen-presenting-cells-coordinate-thymocyte-selection
#2
REVIEW
Elise R Breed, S Thera Lee, Kristin A Hogquist
The development of a self-tolerant and effective T cell receptor repertoire is dependent on interactions coordinated by various antigen presenting cells (APC) within the thymus. T cell receptor-self-peptide-MHC interactions are essential for determining T cell fate, however different cytokine and co-stimulatory signals provided by the diverse APCs within the thymus are also critical. Here, we outline the different localization and functional capabilities of thymic APCs. We also discuss how these distinct APCs work collectively to facilitate the establishment of a diverse T cell receptor repertoire that is tolerant to an array of different self-antigens...
August 8, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798047/mtor-regulates-metabolic-adaptation-of-apcs-in-the-lung-and-controls-the-outcome-of-allergic-inflammation
#3
Charles Sinclair, Gayathri Bommakanti, Luiz Gardinassi, Jens Loebbermann, Matthew Joseph Johnson, Paul Hakimpour, Thomas Hagan, Lydia Benitez, Andrei Todor, Deepa Machiah, Timothy Oriss, Anuradha Ray, Steven Bosinger, Rajesh Ravindran, Shuzhao Li, Bali Pulendran
Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) occupy diverse anatomical tissues, but their tissue-restricted homeostasis remains poorly understood. Here, working in mouse models of inflammation, we found that mTOR-dependent metabolic adaptation was required at discrete locations. mTOR was dispensable for DC homeostasis in secondary lymphoid tissues but necessary to regulate cellular metabolism and accumulation of CD103(+) DCs and alveolar macrophages in lung. Moreover, while numbers of mTOR-deficient lung CD11b(+) DCs were not changed, they were metabolically reprogrammed to skew allergic inflammation from eosinophilic Th2 to neutrophilic Th17 polarity...
August 10, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796231/impact-of-fecal-hb-levels-on-advanced-neoplasia-detection-and-the-diagnostic-miss-rate-for-colorectal-cancer-screening-in-high-risk-vs-average-risk-subjects-a-multi-center-study
#4
Satimai Aniwan, Thawee Ratanachu-Ek, Supot Pongprasobchai, Julajak Limsrivilai, Ong-Ard Praisontarangkul, Pises Pisespongsa, Pisaln Mairiang, Apichat Sangchan, Jaksin Sottisuporn, Naruemon Wisedopas, Pinit Kullavanijaya, Rungsun Rerknimitr
OBJECTIVES: The Asia-Pacific Colorectal Screening (APCS) scoring system was developed to identify high-risk subjects for advanced neoplasia. However, the appropriate fecal immunochemical test (FIT) cutoff for high-risk population may be different from that of average-risk population. We aimed to evaluate the FIT performance at different cutoffs in high-risk subjects undergoing colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled asymptomatic subjects aged 50-75 years...
August 10, 2017: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796063/descriptive-epidemiological-study-of-vaginal-cancer-using-data-from-the-osaka-japan-population-based-cancer-registry-long-term-analysis-from-a-clinical-viewpoint
#5
Asami Yagi, Yutaka Ueda, Mamoru Kakuda, Yusuke Tanaka, Tomomi Egawa-Takata, Akiko Morimoto, Tadashi Iwamiya, Shinya Matsuzaki, Eiji Kobayashi, Kiyoshi Yoshino, Keisuke Fukui, Yuri Ito, Tomio Nakayama, Tadashi Kimura
Vaginal cancer is such a rare tumor that epidemiological and clinical information for it is based mainly on studies of small numbers of cases. The aim of the present study was to perform a descriptive epidemiological analysis of vaginal cancer using a significantly larger population-based dataset from the Japanese Osaka Cancer Registry.The age-standardized incidence of vaginal cancer per 1,000,000 persons, from 1976 to 2010, was calculated and examined for trends. Relative-survival analysis was applied to estimate a more up-to-date 10-year period calculation, using data from recently followed-up patients...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792912/adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-and-inherited-thrombophilia
#6
Dominik Dłuski, Radzisław Mierzyński, Elżbieta Poniedziałek-Czajkowska, Bożena Leszczyńska-Gorzelak
AIM: (1) To evaluate the prevalence of inherited thrombophilia in pregnant women with adverse pregnancy outcomes: intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), preeclampsia (PE) and placental abruption. (2) To assess the impact of inherited thrombophilia on the nature of obstetric complications. (3) To assess levels of protein S, protein C, antithrombin III and homocysteine in pregnant women with adverse pregnancy outcomes. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study comprised 162 pregnant women...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792655/multiple-pilomatrixomas-in-a-survivor-of-wnt-activated-medulloblastoma-leading-to-the-discovery-of-a-germline-apc-mutation-and-the-diagnosis-of-familial-adenomatous-polyposis
#7
Charles R Bendelsmith, Mary M Skrypek, Sachin R Patel, Dinel A Pond, Amy M Linabery, Anne E Bendel
Because children diagnosed with WNT-activated medulloblastoma have a 10-year overall survival rate of 95%, active long-term follow-up is critically important in reducing mortality from other causes. Here, we describe an 11-year-old adopted female who developed multiple pilomatrixomas 3 years after diagnosis of WNT-activated medulloblastoma, an unusual finding that prompted deeper clinical investigation. A heterozygous germline APC gene mutation was discovered, consistent with familial adenomatous polyposis...
August 9, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791770/a-novel-apc-promoter-1b-deletion-shows-a-founder-effect-in-italian-patients-with-classical-familial-adenomatous-polyposis-phenotype
#8
Monica Marabelli, Viviana Gismondi, Maria Teresa Ricci, Annalisa Vetro, Raefa Abou Khouzam, Valentina Rea, Marco Vitellaro, Orsetta Zuffardi, Liliana Varesco, Guglielmina Nadia Ranzani
Familial adenomatous polyposis is a Mendelian syndrome in which germline loss-of-function mutations of APC are associated with multiple adenomatous polyps of the large bowel, a multiplicity of extracolonic features, and a high lifetime risk of colorectal cancer. Different APC germline mutations have been identified, including sequence changes, genomic rearrangements, and expression defects. Recently, very rare families have been associated with constitutive large deletions encompassing the APC-5' regulatory region, while leaving the remaining gene sequence intact; the regulatory region contains a proximal and a distal promoter, called 1A and 1B, respectively...
August 9, 2017: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791728/smoking-is-associated-with-hypermethylation-of-the-apc-1a-promoter-in-colorectal-cancer-the-colocare-study
#9
Timothy M Barrow, Hagen Klett, Reka Toth, Jürgen Böhm, Biljana Gigic, Nina Habermann, Dominique Scherer, Petra Schrotz-King, Stephanie Skender, Clare Abbenhardt-Martin, Lin Zielske, Martin Schneider, Alexis Ulrich, Peter Schirmacher, Esther Herpel, Hermann Brenner, Hauke Busch, Melanie Boerries, Cornelia M Ulrich, Karin B Michels
Smoking tobacco is a known risk factor for the development of colorectal cancer, and for mortality associated with the disease. Smoking has been reported to be associated with changes in DNA methylation in blood and in lung tumour tissues, although there has been scant investigation of how epigenetic factors may be implicated in the increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. To identify epigenetic changes associated with smoking behaviours, we performed epigenome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in colorectal tumours from 36 never smokers, 47 former smokers and 13 active smokers, and adjacent mucosa from 49 never smokers, 64 former smokers and 18 active smokers...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791283/increasing-incidence-of-colorectal-cancer-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-aged-15-39-years-in-western-australia-1982-2007-examination-of-colonoscopy-history
#10
Lakkhina Troeung, Nita Sodhi-Berry, Angelita Martini, Eva Malacova, Hooi Ee, Peter O'Leary, Iris Lansdorp-Vogelaar, David B Preen
AIMS: To examine trends in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and colonoscopy history in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) aged 15-39 years in Western Australia (WA) from 1982 to 2007. DESIGN: Descriptive cohort study using population-based linked hospital and cancer registry data. METHOD: Five-year age-standardized and age-specific incidence rates of CRC were calculated for all AYAs and by sex. Temporal trends in CRC incidence were investigated using Joinpoint regression analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791124/combining-dendritic-cells-and-b-cells-for-presentation-of-oxidised-tumour-antigens-to-cd8-t-cells
#11
Melanie L Grant, Nicholas Shields, Silke Neumann, Katrin Kramer, Andrea Bonato, Christopher Jackson, Margaret A Baird, Sarah L Young
The dendritic cell (DC) is the foremost antigen-presenting cell (APC) for ex vivo expansion of tumour-specific patient T cells. Despite marked responses in some patients following reinfusion of DC-activated autologous or HLA-matched donor T cells, overall response rates remain modest in solid tumours. Furthermore, most studies aim to generate immune responses against defined tumour-associated antigens (TAA), however, meta-analysis reveals that those approaches have less clinical success than those using whole tumour cells or their components...
July 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790231/inflammation-immunity-and-hypertension
#12
Arisya Agita, M Thaha Alsagaff
The immune system, inflammation and hypertension are related to each other. Innate and adaptive immunity system triggers an inflammatory process, in which blood pressure may increase, stimulating organ damage. Cells in innate immune system produce ROS, such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, which aimed at killing pathogens. Long-term inflammation process increases ROS production, causing oxidative stress which leads to endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial function is to regulate blood vessel tone and structure...
April 2017: Acta Medica Indonesiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790195/the-tyrosine-phosphatase-shp-1-promotes-t-cell-adhesion-by-activating-the-adaptor-protein-crkii-in-the-immunological-synapse
#13
Inbar Azoulay-Alfaguter, Marianne Strazza, Michael Peled, Hila K Novak, James Muller, Michael L Dustin, Adam Mor
The adaptor protein CrkII regulates T cell adhesion by recruiting the guanine nucleotide exchange factor C3G, an activator of Rap1. Subsequently, Rap1 stimulates the integrin LFA-1, which leads to T cell adhesion and interaction with antigen-presenting cells (APCs). The adhesion of T cells to APCs is critical for their proper function and education. The interface between the T cell and the APC is known as the immunological synapse. It is characterized by the specific organization of proteins that can be divided into central supramolecular activation clusters (c-SMACs) and peripheral SMACs (p-SMACs)...
August 8, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790112/burden-and-profile-of-somatic-mutation-in-duodenal-adenomas-from-patients-with-familial-adenomatous-and-mutyh-associated-polyposis
#14
Laura Elizabeth Thomas, Joanna J Hurley, Elena Meuser, Sian Jose, Kevin E Ashelford, Matthew Mort, Shelley Idziaszczyk, Julie Maynard, Helena Leon Brito, Manon Harry, Angharad Walters, Meera Raja, Sarah Jane Walton, Sunil Dolwani, Geraint T Williams, Meleri Morgan, Morgan Moorghen, Susan K Clark, Julian R Sampson
Duodenal polyposis and cancer are important causes of morbidity and mortality in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP). This study aimed to comprehensively characterize somatic genetic changes in FAP and MAP duodenal adenomas to better understand duodenal tumorigenesis in these disorders.<br /><br />Experimental Design: Sixty-nine adenomas were biopsied during endoscopy in 16 FAP and 10 MAP patients with duodenal polyposis. Ten FAP and 10 MAP adenomas and matched blood DNA samples were exome sequenced, 42 further adenomas underwent targeted sequencing and 47 were studied by array comparative genomic hybridization...
August 8, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783857/trends-in-the-prevalence-of-live-macrosomic-newborns-according-to-gestational-age-strata-in-brazil-2001-2010-and-2012-2014
#15
Maria Isabel do Nascimento, Daniele Francine Pereira, Calliana Lopata, Carina Ladeia Flores Oliveira, Ariane Arruda de Moura, Maria Júlia da Silva Mattos, Lucas Saraiva da Silva
Purpose To describe the trends in the prevalence of macrosomia (birth weight ≥ 4,000 g) according to gestational age in Brazil in the periods of 2001-2010 and 2012-2014. Methods Ecological study with data from the Brazilian Live Birth Information System (SINASC, in the Portuguese acronym) regarding singleton live newborns born from 22 gestational weeks. The trends in Brazil as a whole and in each of its five regions were analyzed according to preterm (22-36 gestational weeks) and term (37-42 gestational weeks) strata...
August 2017: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782911/simulation-of-aortopulmonary-collateral-flow-in-fontan-patients-for-use-in-prediction-of-interventional-outcomes
#16
Petter Frieberg, Pia Sjöberg, Johan Revstedt, Einar Heiberg, Petru Liuba, Marcus Carlsson
PURPOSE: Patients with complex congenital heart disease may need to be converted to a Fontan circulation with systemic venous return surgically connected to the pulmonary circulation. These patients frequently form aortopulmonary collaterals (APC), that is arterial inflows to the pulmonary artery vascular tree. The aim of this study was to develop a method to calculate the effect of APC on the pulmonary flow distribution based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements and computational fluid dynamics simulations in order to enable prediction of interventional outcomes in Fontan patients...
August 7, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782857/solvent-induced-cd-mofs-with-adjustable-guest-evacuated-porosity-application-in-the-controllable-assembly-of-mof-derived-porous-carbon-materials-for-supercapacitors
#17
Zuo Xi Li, Man-Li Yue, Yi-Fan Jiang, Lin Zhang, Cheng-Yan Yu, Kang-Yu Zou
In this work, Cd-MOFs 1-5 have been synthesized from solvothermal reactions of Cd(NO3)2 with ipa and bib under different solvent systems. 1 shows a 3D diamondoid framework with 1D rhombic and hexagonal channels, and the porosity is 12.9%. 2 exhibits a 2D (4,4) layer with a 1D parallelogram channel and porosity of 23.6%. 3 reveals an 8-connected dense network with the Schäfli symbol of [424.64] based on the Cd6 cluster. 4-5 are isomorphous, and display an absolutely double-bridging 2D (4,4) layer with 1D tetragonal channels and porosity of 29...
August 7, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782241/a-novel-mutation-of-adenomatous-polyposis-coli-apc-gene-results-in-the-formation-of-supernumerary-teeth
#18
Fang Yu, Wenping Cai, Beizhan Jiang, Laijun Xu, Shangfeng Liu, Shouliang Zhao
Supernumerary teeth are teeth that are present in addition to normal teeth. Although several hypotheses and some molecular signalling pathways explain the formation of supernumerary teeth, but their exact disease pathogenesis is unknown. To study the molecular mechanisms of supernumerary tooth-related syndrome (Gardner syndrome), a deeper understanding of the aetiology of supernumerary teeth and the associated syndrome is needed, with the goal of inhibiting disease inheritance via prenatal diagnosis. We recruited a Chinese family with Gardner syndrome...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778079/nationwide-cohort-study-on-the-epidemiology-and-survival-outcomes-of-thyroid-cancer
#19
Fu-Chao Liu, Huan-Tang Lin, Shu-Fu Lin, Chang-Fu Kuo, Ting-Ting Chung, Huang-Ping Yu
In the past three decades, the thyroid cancer incidence has surged globally. Herein, the Taiwan National Health Insurance database was used to identify thyroid cancer patients and to estimate the prevalence and incidence of thyroid cancer during 1997-2012. The Taiwan Cancer Registry and the National Death Registry databases were crosslinked to obtain information on the histological subtypes and survival rates. Joinpoint regression analysis was used for estimating the average annual percentage changes (APCs) in prevalence, incidence, and survival...
July 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777346/food-processing-the-influence-of-the-maillard-reaction-on-immunogenicity-and-allergenicity-of-food-proteins
#20
REVIEW
Malgorzata Teodorowicz, Joost van Neerven, Huub Savelkoul
The majority of foods that are consumed in our developed society have been processed. Processing promotes a non-enzymatic reaction between proteins and sugars, the Maillard reaction (MR). Maillard reaction products (MRPs) contribute to the taste, smell and color of many food products, and thus influence consumers' choices. However, in recent years, MRPs have been linked to the increasing prevalence of diet- and inflammation-related non-communicable diseases including food allergy. Although during the last years a better understanding of immunogenicity of MRPs has been achieved, still only little is known about the structural/chemical characteristics predisposing MRPs to interact with antigen presenting cells (APCs)...
August 4, 2017: Nutrients
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