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Mohammad Sadegh Masoudi, Marziye Rasafian, Zahra Naghmehsanj, Fariborz Ghaffarpasand
Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting is mostly used in the treatment of hydrocephalus and many complications have been reported with this method. Abdominal Pseudocyst (APC) are relatively uncommon but important complications in patients with VP shunts. We herein report the case of a 9-year-old boy with VP shunt who presented with abdominal distension, abdominal pain, malaise, and decrease of appetite. Abdominal pelvic computed tomography confirmed a diagnosis of APC. Laparotomy was done and VP shunt was placed into the other side of peritoneal cavity again...
July 2017: African Journal of Paediatric Surgery: AJPS
D J Huels, L Bruens, M C Hodder, P Cammareri, A D Campbell, R A Ridgway, D M Gay, M Solar-Abboud, W J Faller, C Nixon, L B Zeiger, M E McLaughlin, E Morrissey, D J Winton, H J Snippert, J van Rheenen, O J Sansom
Many epithelial stem cell populations follow a pattern of stochastic stem cell divisions called 'neutral drift'. It is hypothesised that neutral competition between stem cells protects against the acquisition of deleterious mutations. Here we use a Porcupine inhibitor to reduce Wnt secretion at a dose where intestinal homoeostasis is maintained despite a reduction of Lgr5+ stem cells. Functionally, there is a marked acceleration in monoclonal conversion, so that crypts become rapidly derived from a single stem cell...
March 19, 2018: Nature Communications
Matteo Ugolini, Jenny Gerhard, Sanne Burkert, Kristoffer Jarlov Jensen, Philipp Georg, Friederike Ebner, Sarah M Volkers, Shruthi Thada, Kristina Dietert, Laura Bauer, Alexander Schäfer, Elisa T Helbig, Bastian Opitz, Florian Kurth, Saubashya Sur, Nickel Dittrich, Sumanlatha Gaddam, Melanie L Conrad, Christine S Benn, Ulrike Blohm, Achim D Gruber, Andreas Hutloff, Susanne Hartmann, Mark V Boekschoten, Michael Müller, Gregers Jungersen, Ralf R Schumann, Norbert Suttorp, Leif E Sander
Live attenuated vaccines are generally highly efficacious and often superior to inactivated vaccines, yet the underlying mechanisms of this remain largely unclear. Here we identify recognition of microbial viability as a potent stimulus for follicular helper T cell (TFH cell) differentiation and vaccine responses. Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) distinguished viable bacteria from dead bacteria through Toll-like receptor 8 (TLR8)-dependent detection of bacterial RNA. In contrast to dead bacteria and other TLR ligands, live bacteria, bacterial RNA and synthetic TLR8 agonists induced a specific cytokine profile in human and porcine APCs, thereby promoting TFH cell differentiation...
March 19, 2018: Nature Immunology
Hui Liu, Zhenghu Jia, Chengmao Yang, Mei Song, Zhe Jing, Yapu Zhao, Zhenzhou Wu, Liqing Zhao, Dongsheng Wei, Zhinan Yin, Zhangyong Hong
Aluminum salt (Alum) is one of the most important immune adjuvants approved for use in humans, however it is not suitable for vaccination against various chronic infectious diseases and cancers for not being able to induce cell-mediated (Th1) immunity. Here, we encapsulated an Alum colloid inside β-glucan particles (GPs), which are a type of natural particles derived from the yeast glucan shells, to prepare hybrid GP-Alum (GP-Al) adjuvant particles with a very uniform size of 2-4 μm. These hybrid particles can be used to load antigen proteins through a simple mixing procedure, and can be highly specifically targeted to antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and strongly activate dendritic cells (DCs) maturation and cytokine secretion...
March 12, 2018: Biomaterials
E Ridolo, I Martignago, S Masieri
Allergic Rhinitis (AR) is an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity disease caused by inhalation of an allergen to which the patients is sensitized. Etiopathogenesis of AR comprises a sensitization phase, an immediate phase and a late phase. In the sensitization phase, inhaled allergens are processed in peptides and come into contact with the nasal mucosa cells. Antigen-Presenting Cells (APCs), especially represented by Dendritic Cells (DCs), capture them through the interaction with their own MHC class II complexes and migrate to lymph nodes...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
John A Handley, Si Hong Park, Sun Ae Kim, Steven C Ricke
Commercial poultry abattoirs were evaluated to determine the efficacy of the multi-hurdle antimicrobial strategy employed to reduce the microbial load present on incoming broilers from the farm. As next generation sequencing (NGS) has been recently employed to characterize the poultry production system, this study utilized 16S High throughput sequencing (HTS) and quantitative plating data to profile the microbiota of chicken carcasses and determine the efficacy of the multi-hurdle antimicrobial system. Aerobic plate count (APC) and Enterobacteriaceae (EB) microbial counts were quantified from whole bird carcass rinsates (WBCR)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yibin Hao, Jianhua Zhang, Guoyong Shan, Ning Zhang, Wenwen Jin, Kejun Nan
Objective: to establish regulatory network of colorectal cancer involving p42.3 protein and to provide theoretical evidence for deep functional exploration of p42.3 protein in the onset and development of colorectal cancer. Methods: with protein similarity algorithm, reference protein set of p42.3 cell apoptosis was built according to structural features of p42.3. GO and KEGG databases were used to establish regulatory network of tumor cell apoptosis involving p42.3; meanwhile, the largest possible working pathway that involves p42...
December 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Concetta Saponaro, Sara Sergio, Antonio Coluccia, Maria De Luca, Giuseppe La Regina, Luca Mologni, Valeria Famiglini, Valentina Naccarato, Daniela Bonetti, Candice Gautier, Stefano Gianni, Daniele Vergara, Michel Salzet, Isabelle Fournier, Cecilia Bucci, Romano Silvestri, Carlo Gambacorti Passerini, Michele Maffia, Addolorata Maria Luce Coluccia
Nuclear activated β-catenin plays a causative role in colorectal cancers (CRC) but remains an elusive therapeutic target. Using human CRC cells harboring different Wnt/β-catenin pathway mutations in APC/KRAS or β-catenin/KRAS genes, and both genetic and pharmacological knockdown approaches, we show that oncogenic β-catenin signaling negatively regulates the expression of NHERF1 (Na+ /H+ exchanger 3 regulating factor 1), a PDZ-adaptor protein that is usually lost or downregulated in early dysplastic adenomas to exacerbate nuclear β-catenin activity...
March 19, 2018: Oncogene
Camila Rubio-Patiño, Jozef P Bossowski, Gian Marco De Donatis, Laura Mondragón, Elodie Villa, Lazaro E Aira, Johanna Chiche, Rana Mhaidly, Cynthia Lebeaupin, Sandrine Marchetti, Konstantinos Voutetakis, Aristotelis Chatziioannou, Florence A Castelli, Patricia Lamourette, Emeline Chu-Van, François Fenaille, Tony Avril, Thierry Passeron, John B Patterson, Els Verhoeyen, Béatrice Bailly-Maitre, Eric Chevet, Jean-Ehrland Ricci
Dietary restriction (DR) was shown to impact on tumor growth with very variable effects depending on the cancer type. However, how DR limits cancer progression remains largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that feeding mice a low-protein (Low PROT) isocaloric diet but not a low-carbohydrate (Low CHO) diet reduced tumor growth in three independent mouse cancer models. Surprisingly, this effect relies on anticancer immunosurveillance, as depleting CD8+ T cells, antigen-presenting cells (APCs), or using immunodeficient mice prevented the beneficial effect of the diet...
March 1, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Joo Myung Lee, Gilwoo Choi, Bon-Kwon Koo, Doyeon Hwang, Jonghanne Park, Jinlong Zhang, Kyung-Jin Kim, Yaliang Tong, Hyun Jin Kim, Leo Grady, Joon-Hyung Doh, Chang-Wook Nam, Eun-Seok Shin, Young-Seok Cho, Su-Yeon Choi, Eun Ju Chun, Jin-Ho Choi, Bjarne L Nørgaard, Evald Christiansen, Koen Niemen, Hiromasa Otake, Martin Penicka, Bernard de Bruyne, Takashi Kubo, Takashi Akasaka, Jagat Narula, Pamela S Douglas, Charles A Taylor, Hyo-Soo Kim
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the utility of noninvasive hemodynamic assessment in the identification of high-risk plaques that caused subsequent acute coronary syndrome (ACS). BACKGROUND: ACS is a critical event that impacts the prognosis of patients with coronary artery disease. However, the role of hemodynamic factors in the development of ACS is not well-known. METHODS: Seventy-two patients with clearly documented ACS and available coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) acquired between 1 month and 2 years before the development of ACS were included...
March 9, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
Sanupong Prompreecha, Thanapat Sastraruji, Phumisak Louwakul, Tanida Srisuwan
INTRODUCTION: The use of dentin preconditioning techniques in regenerative endodontic procedures is currently promising. Several growth factors have been detected on dentin after ultrasonic irrigation with EDTA. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dynamic irrigation with different solution regimens on apical papilla cell (APC) attachment in an ex vivo immature tooth model. METHODS: Various dynamic irrigation techniques, needle irrigation (NI), NI with EndoActivator, and NI with passive ultrasonic irrigation, were used with different solution regimens, normal saline solution (NSS), EDTA, and chlorhexidine digluconate followed by EDTA, in enlarged root canal models where calcium hydroxide-medicated dentin slices were inserted...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Endodontics
Alice G Vassiliou, Anastasia Kotanidou, Zafeiria Mastora, Carlo Tascini, Gianluigi Cardinali, Stylianos E Orfanos
INTRODUCTION: A soluble (s) form of the endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) circulates in plasma and inhibits activated protein C (APC) activities. The clinical impact of sEPCR and its involvement in the septic process is under investigation. This study determined the frequencies of EPCR haplotypes H1 and H3 to investigate possible associations with plasma admission levels of sEPCR in an intensive care unit (ICU) cohort of septic patients. METHODS: Three polymorphisms in the EPCR gene were genotyped in 239 Caucasian critically ill patients, and their plasma sEPCR levels were also measured at the time of admission to the ICU...
March 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Monika Raab, Mourad Sanhaji, Yves Matthess, Albrecht Hörlin, Ioana Lorenz, Christina Dötsch, Nils Habbe, Oliver Waidmann, Elisabeth Kurunci-Csacsko, Ron Firestein, Sven Becker, Klaus Strebhardt
The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) acts as a molecular safeguard in ensuring faithful chromosome transmission during mitosis, which is regulated by a complex interplay between phosphatases and kinases including PLK1. Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) germline mutations cause aneuploidy and are responsible for familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Here we study the role of PLK1 in colon cancer cells with chromosomal instability promoted by APC truncation (APC-ΔC). The expression of APC-ΔC in colon cells reduces the accumulation of mitotic cells upon PLK1 inhibition, accelerates mitotic exit and increases the survival of cells with enhanced chromosomal abnormalities...
March 16, 2018: Nature Communications
Karolin Eifler, Sabine A G Cuijpers, Edwin Willemstein, Jonne A Raaijmakers, Dris El Atmioui, Huib Ovaa, René H Medema, Alfred C O Vertegaal
Signal transduction by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) regulates a myriad of nuclear processes. Here we report on the role of SUMO in mitosis in human cell lines. Knocking down the SUMO conjugation machinery results in a delay in mitosis and defects in mitotic chromosome separation. Searching for relevant SUMOylated proteins in mitosis, we identify the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a master regulator of metaphase to anaphase transition. The APC4 subunit is the major SUMO target in the complex, containing SUMO acceptor lysines at positions 772 and 798...
March 16, 2018: Nature Communications
Xiangfeng Wang, Hu Fang, Yong Cheng, Lin Li, Xiaohui Sun, Tao Fu, Peide Huang, Anping Zhang, Zhimin Feng, Chunxue Li, Xuanlin Huang, Guangyan Li, Peina Du, Huanming Yang, Xiaodong Fang, Fan Li, Qiang Gao, Baohua Liu
Synchronous colorectal cancers (syCRCs), which present two or more lesions at diagnosis, are rare and pose a great challenge for clinical management. Although some predisposing factors associated with syCRCs have been studied with limited accession, the full repertoire of genomic events among the lesions within an individual and the causes of syCRCs remain unclear. We performed whole-exome sequencing of 40 surgical tumour samples of paired lesions from 20 patients to characterize the genetic alterations. Lesions from same patient showed distinct landscapes of somatic aberrations and shared few mutations, which suggests that they originate and develop independently although they shared the similar genetic background...
March 13, 2018: Carcinogenesis
Dorothy W Gietzen, Sarah H Lindström, James W Sharp, Pok Swee Teh, Michael J Donovan
Background: Low protein amounts are used in ketogenic diets (KDs), where an essential (indispensable) amino acid (IAA) can become limiting. Because the chemically sensitive, seizurogenic, anterior piriform cortex (APC) is excited by IAA limitation, an imbalanced KD could exacerbate seizure activity. Objective: We questioned whether dietary IAA depletion worsens seizure activity in rodents fed KDs. Methods: In a series of 6 trials, male rats or gerbils of both sexes (6-8/group) were given either control diets (CDs) appropriate for each trial, a KD, or a threonine-devoid (ThrDev) diet for ≥7 d, and tested for seizures using various stimuli...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Claudia Caroline Veloso da Silva-Camargo, Rosimeri Kuhl Svoboda Baldin, Nayanne Louise Costacurta Polli, Amanda Pereira Agostinho, Marcia Olandosk, Lúcia de Noronha, Vanessa Santos Sotomaior
Objective: Features of colorectal cancer such as natural history, molecular, chromosomal, and epigenetic alterations have been well described. However, there is still a lack of accurate prognostic markers, which is evident by the lower overall survival rates of patients with advanced cancer. Although alterations in parkin protein expression have been described in colorectal cancer, the functional significance of this protein remains unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the involvement of parkin expression in colorectal adenocarcinoma development and progression by evaluating the association between its expression, clinicopathological parameters, and expression of known proteins involved in colorectal cancer...
February 2018: Cancer Biology & Medicine
Lingbin Du, Youqing Wang, Xiaohui Sun, Huizhang Li, Xinwei Geng, Minghua Ge, Yimin Zhu
BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer is the most common malignant disease of the endocrine system. Previous studies indicate a rapid increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in recent decades, and this increase has aroused the great public concern. The aim of this study was to analyze the trends in incidence, mortality and clinical-pathological patterns of thyroid cancer in Zhejiang province. METHODS: Population-based incidence and mortality rates of thyroid cancer were collected from eight cancer registries in Zhejiang from 2000 to 2012...
March 15, 2018: BMC Cancer
Gonçalo Forjaz de Lacerda, Scott P Kelly, Joana Bastos, Clara Castro, Alexandra Mayer, Angela B Mariotto, William F Anderson
BACKGROUND: Female breast cancer incidence rates have been increasing in Portugal for years. We, therefore, conducted the first nationwide breast cancer study to assess regional differences. METHODS: Cases were obtained from population-based cancer registries covering the country's Mainland (South, North, Centre), as well as the two Autonomous Regions (Azores and Madeira), for the time-period 1998 through 2011. Analyses were restricted to ages 30-84 years and stratified by region...
March 12, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
Camillia K Lui, William C Kerr, Nina Mulia, Yu Ye
BACKGROUND: Low socioeconomic status (SES) has been associated with lower alcohol consumption, but also with heavier drinking. To explain this contradictory relationship, we examined SES differences in drinking patterns from an age-period-cohort (APC) perspective. METHODS: Data are from seven waves of the U.S. National Alcohol Surveys from 1979 to 2010. As a proxy for SES, educational attainment was used. Past-year alcohol volume was calculated from frequency (never-to-every day) and usual quantity (1-2, 3-4, or 5-6 drinks)...
March 7, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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