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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913912/genetic-counselor-practices-involving-pediatric-patients-with-fap-an-investigation-of-their-self-reported-strategies-for-genetic-testing-and-hepatoblastoma-screening
#1
Caitlin E Lawson, Thomas M Attard, Hongying Dai, Seth Septer
Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a cancer predisposition syndrome that causes early-onset polyposis and is associated with an increased risk for hepatoblastoma. There is currently a lack of consensus on when to order APC (adenomatous polyposis coli) gene testing or implement surveillance for hepatoblastoma. An online questionnaire was completed by 62 genetic counselors to capture their current practices regarding these questions. Extracolonic findings associated with FAP that were most likely to prompt APC testing in an otherwise asymptomatic 10 year-old child with a negative family history were multiple desmoid tumors, congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE), jaw osteomas, and hepatoblastoma...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913199/the-involvement-of-m2-macrophage-polarization-inhibition-in-fenretinide-mediated-chemopreventive-effects-on-colon-cancer
#2
Rong Dong, Yanling Gong, Wen Meng, Meng Yuan, Hong Zhu, Meidan Ying, Qiaojun He, Ji Cao, Bo Yang
Clinical studies have shown that fenretinide (4-HPR) is an attractive chemopreventive agent for cancer treatment. However, to date, few studies have demonstrated the mechanism of the preventive effect of 4-HPR. In our current study, we revealed that 4-HPR could significantly suppress IL-4/IL-13 induced M2-like polarization of macrophages, which was demonstrated by the reduced expression of M2 surface markers, the down-regulation of M2 marker genes, and the inhibition of M2-like macrophages promoted angiogenesis...
November 29, 2016: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903963/cdh1-regulates-e2f1-degradation-in-response-to-differentiation-signals-in-keratinocytes
#3
Randeep K Singh, Lina Dagnino
The E2F1 transcription factor plays key roles in skin homeostasis. In the epidermis, E2F1 expression is essential for normal proliferation of undifferentiated keratinocytes, regeneration after injury and DNA repair following UV radiation-induced photodamage. Abnormal E2F1 expression promotes nonmelanoma skin carcinoma. In addition, E2F1 must be downregulated for proper keratinocyte differentiation, but the relevant mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. We show that differentiation signals induce a series of post-translational modifications in E2F1 that are jointly required for its downregulation...
November 26, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902968/selenite-inhibits-glutamine-metabolism-and-induces-apoptosis-by-regulating-gls1-protein-degradation-via-apc-c-cdh1-pathway-in-colorectal-cancer-cells
#4
Junzhang Zhao, Rui Zhou, Kaiyuan Hui, Yang Yang, QiuYue Zhang, Yali Ci, Lei Shi, Caimin Xu, Fang Huang, Yu Hu
Glutaminolysis is important for metabolism and biosynthesis of cancer cells, and GLS is essential in the process. Selenite is widely regarded as a chemopreventive agent against cancer risk. Emerging evidence suggests that it also has chemotherapeutic potential in various cancer types, but the mechanism remains elusive. We demonstrate for the first time that supranutritional dose of selenite suppresses glutaminolysis by promoting GLS1 protein degradation and apoptosis. Mechanistically, selenite promotes association of APC/C-CDH1 with GLS1 and leads to GLS1 degradation by ubiquitination, this process is related to induction of PTEN expression...
November 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902613/lobular-capillary-hemangioma-of-the-tracheobronchial-tree-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#5
Xiaojian Qiu, Zhiwu Dong, Jie Zhang, Jin Yu
RATIONALE: Lobular capillary hemangioma (LCH) of the tracheobronchial tree is a rare benign tumor, whose characteristics and treatments remain relatively unknown. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 39-year-old man with hemoptysis caused by neoplasm in the bronchus intermedius was admitted to our hospital. DIAGNOSES: The patient was diagnosed with LCH. INTERVENTIONS: The lesions were removed with biopsy forceps, and cryotherapy was performed...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898464/donor-derived-exosomes-the-trick-behind-the-semidirect-pathway-of-allorecognition
#6
Adrian E Morelli, William Bracamonte-Baran, William J Burlingham
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The passenger leukocyte hypothesis predicts that after transplantation, donor antigen-presenting cells (APCs) from the graft present donor MHC molecules to directly alloreactive T cells in lymphoid organs. However, in certain transplantation models, recent evidence contradicts this long-standing concept. New findings demonstrate that host, instead of donor, APCs play a prominent role in allosensitization against donor MHC molecules via the semidirect pathway. A similar mechanism operates in development of T-cell split tolerance to noninherited maternal antigens...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898031/inherited-variants-in-wnt-pathway-genes-influence-outcomes-of-prostate-cancer-patients-receiving-androgen-deprivation-therapy
#7
Jiun-Hung Geng, Victor C Lin, Chia-Cheng Yu, Chao-Yuan Huang, Hsin-Ling Yin, Ta-Yuan Chang, Te-Ling Lu, Shu-Pin Huang, Bo-Ying Bao
Aberrant Wnt signaling has been associated with many types of cancer. However, the association of inherited Wnt pathway variants with clinical outcomes in prostate cancer patients receiving androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has not been determined. Here, we comprehensively studied the contribution of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Wnt pathway genes to the clinical outcomes of 465 advanced prostate cancer patients treated with ADT. Two SNPs, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) rs2707765 and rs497844, were significantly (p ≤ 0...
November 26, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897178/functional-exploration-of-colorectal-cancer-genomes-using-drosophila
#8
Erdem Bangi, Claudio Murgia, Alexander G S Teague, Owen J Sansom, Ross L Cagan
The multigenic nature of human tumours presents a fundamental challenge for cancer drug discovery. Here we use Drosophila to generate 32 multigenic models of colon cancer using patient data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. These models recapitulate key features of human cancer, often as emergent properties of multigenic combinations. Multigenic models such as ras p53 pten apc exhibit emergent resistance to a panel of cancer-relevant drugs. Exploring one drug in detail, we identify a mechanism of resistance for the PI3K pathway inhibitor BEZ235...
November 29, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895703/changing-patterns-of-lung-liver-and-head-and-neck-non-aids-defining-cancers-relative-to-hiv-status-in-tanzania-between-2002-2014
#9
Julee A Campbell, Amr S Soliman, Crispin Kahesa, Sioban D Harlow, Diwani Msemo
BACKGROUND: Tanzania, like other low-income countries, has an increasing cancer burden that remains underestimated. Infection-associated malignancies, particularly HIV-infection, represent a great proportion of cancer burden in Tanzania and throughout Africa. Availability of HIV treatment and improved survival of HIV patients are suggested factors related to increasing prevalence of non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs). This study examined patterns of NADCs and proportions of HIV-positivity at the Ocean Road Cancer Institute (ORCI)...
2016: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895035/microrna-210-enhances-fibrous-cap-stability-in-advanced-atherosclerotic-lesions
#10
Suzanne M Eken, Hong Jin, Ekaterina Chernogubova, Yuhuang Li, Nancy Simon, Changyan Sun, Greg Korzunowicz, Albert Busch, Alexandra Bäcklund, Cecilia Österholm, Anton Razuvaev, Thomas Renné, Hans-Henning Eckstein, Jaroslav Pelisek, Per Eriksson, Maria Gonzalez Diez, Ljubica P Matic Perisic, Isabel N Schellinger, Uwe Raaz, Nicholas J Leeper, Göran K Hansson, Gabrielle Paulsson-Berne, Ulf Hedin, Lars Maegdefessel
RATIONALE: In the search for markers and modulators of vascular disease, miRNAs have emerged as potent therapeutic targets. OBJECTIVE: To investigate miRNAs of clinical interest in patients with unstable carotid stenosis at risk of stroke. METHODS AND RESULTS: Utilizing patient material from the Biobank of Karolinska Endarterectomies (BiKE), we profiled miRNA expression in patients with stable vs unstable carotid plaque. A PCR-based miRNA array of plasma, sampled at the carotid lesion site, identified eight deregulated miRNAs (miR-15b, -29c, -30c/d, -150, -191, -210 and -500)...
November 28, 2016: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894752/trends-in-cervical-cancer-incidence-in-younger-us-women-from-2000-to-2013
#11
Daniel C Beachler, Joseph E Tota, Michelle I Silver, Aimée R Kreimer, Allan Hildesheim, Nicolas Wentzensen, Mark Schiffman, Meredith S Shiels
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the temporal trends in invasive cervical cancer (ICC) incidence rates among 21-25year-olds. US guidelines no longer recommend screening prior to age 21, and concerns have been raised that delayed screening initiation may increase ICC incidence among young women. METHODS: This study utilized ICC incidence data from 18 US population-based cancer registries in SEER from 2000 to 2013 and Pap test prevalence data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System from 1996 to 2012...
November 25, 2016: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894290/erratum-to-apc-selectively-mediates-response-to-chemotherapeutic-agents-in-breast-cancer
#12
Monica K VanKlompenberg, Claire O Bedalov, Katia Fernandez Soto, Jenifer R Prosperi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893743/trends-of-bacterial-keratitis-culture-isolates-in-jerusalem-a-13-years-analysis
#13
Michael Politis, Denise Wajnsztajn, Boris Rosin, Colin Block, Abraham Solomon
PURPOSE: To describe the trends in pathogens and antibacterial resistance of corneal culture isolates in infectious keratitis during a period of 13 years at Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center. METHODS: A Retrospective analysis of bacterial corneal isolates was performed during the months of January 2002 to December 2014 at Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center. Demographics, microbiological data and antibiotic resistance and sensitivity were collected...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891190/cell-free-dna-promoter-hypermethylation-in-plasma-as-a-diagnostic-marker-for-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma
#14
Stine Dam Henriksen, Poul Henning Madsen, Anders Christian Larsen, Martin Berg Johansen, Asbjørn Mohr Drewes, Inge Søkilde Pedersen, Henrik Krarup, Ole Thorlacius-Ussing
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer has a 5-year survival rate of only 5-7%. Difficulties in detecting pancreatic cancer at early stages results in the high mortality and substantiates the need for additional diagnostic tools. Surgery is the only curative treatment and unfortunately only possible in localized tumours. A diagnostic biomarker for pancreatic cancer will have a major impact on patient survival by facilitating early detection and the possibility for curative treatment. DNA promoter hypermethylation is a mechanism of early carcinogenesis, which can cause inactivation of tumour suppressor genes...
2016: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890644/epithelial-membrane-protein-2-and-%C3%AE-1-integrin-signaling-regulate-apc-mediated-processes
#15
Alyssa C Lesko, Jenifer R Prosperi
Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) plays a critical role in cell motility, maintenance of apical-basal polarity, and epithelial morphogenesis. We previously demonstrated that APC loss in Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells increases cyst size and inverts polarity independent of Wnt signaling, and upregulates the tetraspan protein, Epithelial Membrane Protein 2 (EMP2). Herein, we show that APC loss increases β1 integrin expression and migration of MDCK cells. Through 3D in vitro model systems and 2D migration analysis, we have depicted the molecular mechanism(s) by which APC influences polarity and cell motility...
November 24, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889750/metformin-protects-neurons-against-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-reoxygenation-induced-injury-by-down-regulating-mad2b
#16
Xianfang Meng, Guangpin Chu, Zhihua Yang, Ping Qiu, Yue Hu, Xiaohe Chen, Wenpeng Peng, Chen Ye, Fang-Fang He, Chun Zhang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Metformin, the common medication for type II diabetes, has protective effects on cerebral ischemia. However, the molecular mechanisms are far from clear. Mitotic arrest deficient 2-like protein 2 (MAD2B), an inhibitor of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), is widely expressed in hippocampal and cortical neurons and plays an important role in mediating high glucose-induced neurotoxicity. The present study investigated whether metformin modifies the expression of MAD2B and to exert its neuroprotective effects in primary cultured cortical neurons during oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R), a widely used in vitro model of ischemia/reperfusion...
November 11, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887696/reprint-of-neurocysticercosis-related-mortality-in-brazil-2000-2011-epidemiology-of-a-neglected-neurologic-cause-of-death
#17
Francisco Rogerlândio Martins-Melo, Alberto Novaes Ramos, Marta Guimarães Cavalcanti, Carlos Henrique Alencar, Jorg Heukelbach
Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an important cause of severe neurological disease mainly in low- and middle-income countries, but data on NCC mortality from endemic areas are scarce. Here we analysed the epidemiological patterns of NCC-related mortality in Brazil. We included all deaths recorded in Brazil between 2000 and 2011, in which NCC was mentioned on death certificates, either as underlying or as associated cause of death. NCC was identified in 1829/12,491,280 deaths (0.015%), 1130 (61.8%) as underlying cause, and 699 (38...
November 22, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884112/erratum-to-genetic-analysis-of-intestinal-polyp-development-in-collaborative-cross-mice-carrying-the-apc-min-mutation
#18
Alexandra Dorman, Daria Baer, Ian Tomlinson, Richard Mott, Fuad A Iraqi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 24, 2016: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882859/suicide-and-self-inflicted-injury-hospitalizations-in-canada-1979-to-2014-15
#19
R Skinner, S McFaull, J Draca, M Frechette, J Kaur, C Pearson, W Thompson
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this paper is to describe the trends and patterns of self-inflicted injuries, available from Canadian administrative data between 1979 and 2014/15, in order to inform and improve suicide prevention efforts. METHODS: Suicide mortality and hospital separation data were retrieved from the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) holdings of Statistics Canada's Canadian Vital Statistics: Death Database (CVS:D) (1979 to 2012); Canadian Socio-Economic Information Management System (CANSIM 2011, 2012); the Hospital Morbidity Database (HMDB) (1994/95 to 2010/11); and the Discharge Abstract Database (2011/12 to 2014/15)...
November 2016: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881707/a-cd80-biased-ctla4-ig-fusion-protein-with-superior-in-vivo-efficacy-by-simultaneous-engineering-of-affinity-selectivity-stability-and-fcrn-binding
#20
Julie Douthwaite, Jacques Moisan, Cyril Privezentzev, Blagoje Soskic, Shereen Sabbah, Suzanne Cohen, Andie Collinson, Elizabeth England, Catherine Huntington, Ben Kemp, Li Zhuang, Suzanne Hudak, D Gareth Rees, Debbie Goldberg, Chris Barton, Linda Chang, Inna Vainshtein, Meina Liang, Laurie Iciek, Philip Ambery, Mark Peakman, Tristan J Vaughan, Tim I M Tree, David M Sansom, Michael A Bowen, Ralph R Minter, Lutz Jermutus
Affinity- and stability-engineered variants of CTLA4-Ig fusion molecules with enhanced pharmacokinetic profiles could yield improved therapies with the potential of higher efficacy and greater convenience to patients. In this study, to our knowledge, we have, for the first time, used in vitro evolution to simultaneously optimize CTLA4 affinity and stability. We selected for improved binding to both ligands, CD80 and CD86, and screened as dimeric Fc fusions directly in functional assays to identify variants with stronger suppression of in vitro T cell activation...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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