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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550203/socs1-is-a-key-molecule-that-prevents-regulatory-t-cell-plasticity-under-inflammatory-conditions
#1
Reiko Takahashi, Hiroko Nakatsukasa, Shunichi Shiozawa, Akihiko Yoshimura
We previously showed that regulatory T cells (Tregs) from T cell-specific Socs1-deficient mice (Socs1(fl/fl)Lck-Cre(+) mice) easily convert into Th1- or Th17-like cells (ex-Tregs), which lose Foxp3 expression and suppressive functions in vivo. Because Tregs in Socs1(fl/fl)Lck-Cre(+) mice are constantly exposed to a large amount of inflammatory cytokines produced by non-Tregs in vivo, in this study we analyzed Treg-specific Socs1-deficient mice (Socs1(fl/fl)Foxp3(YFP-Cre) mice). These mice developed dermatitis, splenomegaly, and lymphadenopathy that were much milder than those in Socs1(fl/fl)Lck-Cre(+) mice...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550198/host-derived-cd70-suppresses-murine-graft-versus-host-disease-by-limiting-donor-t-cell-expansion-and-effector-function
#2
Nicholas D Leigh, Rachel E O'Neill, Wei Du, Chuan Chen, Jingxin Qiu, Jonathan D Ashwell, Philip L McCarthy, George L Chen, Xuefang Cao
Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is a potentially curative treatment for hematologic and immunologic diseases. However, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) may develop when donor-derived T cells recognize and damage genetically distinct normal host tissues. In addition to TCR signaling, costimulatory pathways are involved in T cell activation. CD27 is a TNFR family member expressed on T cells, and its ligand, CD70, is expressed on APCs. The CD27/CD70 costimulatory pathway was shown to be critical for T cell function and survival in viral infection models...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550123/essential-role-for-histone-deacetylase-11-hdac11-in-neutrophil-biology
#3
Eva Sahakian, Jie Chen, John J Powers, Xianghong Chen, Kamira Maharaj, Susan L Deng, Maritza Lienlaf, Hong Wei Wang, Fengdong Cheng, Andressa L Sodré, Allison Distler, Limin Xing, Patricio Perez-Villarroel, Sheng Wei, Alejandro Villagra, Ed Seto, Eduardo M Sotomayor, Pedro Horna, Javier Pinilla-Ibarz
Epigenetic changes in chromatin structure have been recently associated with the deregulated expression of critical genes in normal and malignant processes. HDAC11, the newest member of the HDAC family of enzymes, functions as a negative regulator of IL-10 expression in APCs, as previously described by our lab. However, at the present time, its role in other hematopoietic cells, specifically in neutrophils, has not been fully explored. In this report, for the first time, we present a novel physiologic role for HDAC11 as a multifaceted regulator of neutrophils...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548306/zanthoxylum-avicennae-extract-enhances-gsk-3%C3%AE-to-attenuate-%C3%AE-catenin-via-phosphatase-2a-to-block-metastatic-effects-of-ha22t-cells-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma-xenografted-nude-mice
#4
Hsi-Chin Wu, Ing-Shiow Lay, Marthandam Asokan Shibu, Tsung-Jung Ho, Shiu-Min Cheng, Chih-Hao Lin, Tran Duc Dung, Long-Bin Jeng, Vijaya Padma Viswanadha, Chih-Yang Huang
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasis is often associated with the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Zanthoxylum avicennae (Ying Bu Bo, YBB), a traditional herb with hepatoprotective effect, has been proven to inhibit human HCC in in vivo models however, the in vitro and in vivo effect of YBB on tumor metastasis is not clear yet. To determine whether YBB could inhibit HA22T human HCC cell by acting on β-catenin metastatic signaling in vitro and in vivo, HA22T cells were treated with different concentrations of YBB extracts (YBBE) and analyzed by Immunofluorescence staining assay, western blot analysis, siRNA mediated gene knock-down assays and co-immunoprecipitation assay...
May 26, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548127/mismatch-repair-deficiency-commonly-precedes-adenoma-formation-in-lynch-syndrome-associated-colorectal-tumorigenesis
#5
Shigeki Sekine, Taisuke Mori, Reiko Ogawa, Masahiro Tanaka, Hiroshi Yoshida, Hirokazu Taniguchi, Takeshi Nakajima, Kokichi Sugano, Teruhiko Yoshida, Mamoru Kato, Eisaku Furukawa, Atsushi Ochiai, Nobuyoshi Hiraoka
Lynch syndrome is a cancer predisposition syndrome caused by germline mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes. MMR deficiency is a ubiquitous feature of Lynch syndrome-associated colorectal adenocarcinomas; however, it remains unclear when the MMR-deficient phenotype is acquired during tumorigenesis. To probe this issue, the present study examined genetic alterations and MMR statuses in Lynch syndrome-associated colorectal adenomas and adenocarcinomas, in comparison with sporadic adenomas. Among the Lynch syndrome-associated colorectal tumors, 68 of 86 adenomas (79%) and all adenocarcinomas were MMR-deficient, whereas all the sporadic adenomas were MMR-proficient, as determined by microsatellite instability testing and immunohistochemistry for MMR proteins...
May 26, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548125/next-generation-sequencing-based-molecular-characterization-of-primary-urinary-bladder-adenocarcinoma
#6
Somak Roy, Dinesh Pradhan, Wayne L Ernst, Stephanie Mercurio, Yana Najjar, Rahul Parikh, Anil V Parwani, Reetesh K Pai, Rajiv Dhir, Marina N Nikiforova
Primary bladder adenocarcinoma is a rare and aggressive tumor with poor clinical outcomes and no standard of care therapy. Molecular biology of this tumor is unknown due to the lack of comprehensive molecular profiling studies. The study aimed to identify genomic alterations of clinical and therapeutic significance using next-generation sequencing and compare genomic profile of primary bladder adenocarcinoma with that of high-grade urothelial carcinoma and colorectal adenocarcinoma. A cohort of 15 well-characterized primary bladder adenocarcinoma was subjected to targeted next-generation sequencing for the identification of mutations and copy-number changes in 51 cancer-related genes...
May 26, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547938/joinpoint-analysis-trends-in-the-incidence-of-colorectal-cancer-in-khon-kaen-thailand-1989-%C3%A2-2012
#7
Pongdech Sarakarn, Krittika Suwanrungruang, Patravoot Vatanasapt, Surapon Wiangnon, Supannee Promthet, Kriangsak Jenwitheesuk, Supinda Koonmee, Nakhon Tipsunthonsak, Sam Li-Sheng Chen, Amy Ming Fang Yen, Tony Hsiu Hsi Chen
Objective: This study focused on recent changes in the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in Khon Kaen, Thailand. Methods: Data for CRC over the period 1989 to 2012 from the population-based cancer registry of Khon Kaen province were employed. Age-standardized incidence rates (ASR) were calculated and classified into 4 age-groups for comparison. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to detect changes in trends among each line segment and an overall line was generated, whether increasing or decreasing, with annual percent change (APC) and average annual percent change (AAPC)...
April 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547002/oncolytic-herpes-simplex-virus-inhibits-pediatric-brain-tumor-migration-and-invasion
#8
Julia V Cockle, Anke Brüning-Richardson, Karen J Scott, Jill Thompson, Timothy Kottke, Ewan Morrison, Azam Ismail, Angel M Carcaboso, Ailsa Rose, Peter Selby, Joe Conner, Susan Picton, Susan Short, Richard Vile, Alan Melcher, Elizabeth Ilett
Pediatric high-grade glioma (pHGG) and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) are invasive tumors with poor survival. Oncolytic virotherapy, initially devised as a direct cytotoxic treatment, is now also known to act via immune-mediated mechanisms. Here we investigate a previously unreported mechanism of action: the inhibition of migration and invasion in pediatric brain tumors. We evaluated the effect of oncolytic herpes simplex virus 1716 (HSV1716) on the migration and invasion of pHGG and DIPG both in vitro using 2D (scratch assay, live cell imaging) and 3D (spheroid invasion in collagen) assays and in vivo using an orthotopic xenograft model of DIPG invasion...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Therapy Oncolytics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546418/single-cell-dna-sequencing-reveals-a-late-dissemination-model-in-metastatic-colorectal-cancer
#9
Marco L Leung, Alexander Davis, Ruli Gao, Anna Casasent, Yong Wang, Emi Sei, Eduardo Sanchez, Dipen Maru, Scott Kopetz, Nicholas E Navin
Metastasis is a complex biological process that has been difficult to delineate in human colorectal (CRC) cancer patients. A major obstacle in understanding metastatic lineages is the extensive intratumor heterogeneity at the primary and metastatic tumor sites. To address this problem, we developed a highly-multiplexed single cell DNA sequencing approach to trace the metastatic lineages of two CRC patients with matched liver metastases. Single cell copy number or mutational profiling was performed, in addition to bulk exome and targeted deep-sequencing...
May 25, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546087/region-specific-oligodendrocyte-transcription-factor-expression-in-a-model-of-neonatal-hypoxic-injury
#10
Bethann M Affeldt, Andre Obenaus, Jonathan Chan, Andrea C Pardo
White matter injury (WMI) of prematurity is associated with a spectrum of neurological disorders ranging from mild cognitive and behavioral deficits to cerebral palsy. Translational studies have implicated impaired oligodendrocyte development after hypoxia as the primary cause of WMI, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The goal of this study was to identify alterations in the expression of oligodendrocyte precursor cell transcription factors in a mouse model of transient mild global hypoxia...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545689/time-trends-in-the-incidence-of-hysterectomy-corrected-overall-type-1-and-type-2-endometrial-cancer-in-denmark-1978-2014
#11
Mette Tuxen Faber, Kirsten Frederiksen, Allan Jensen, Peter Bo Aarslev, Susanne K Kjaer
OBJECTIVE: To investigate time trends in the incidence of overall, type 1 and type 2 endometrial cancer in Denmark 1978-2014, correcting for hysterectomy. METHODS: Based on the Danish Cancer Registry and the Danish National Patient Registry we calculated hysterectomy-corrected incidence rates of overall, type 1 and type 2 endometrial cancer. Separate analyses for women <55years (defined as pre- and perimenopausal age) and women aged ≥55years (defined as postmenopausal age) and analyses allowing for different time trends before and after the study period midyear 1996 were performed...
May 23, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545449/quantifying-the-global-contribution-of-alcohol-consumption-to-cardiomyopathy
#12
Jakob Manthey, Sameer Imtiaz, Maria Neufeld, Margaret Rylett, Jürgen Rehm
BACKGROUND: The global impact of alcohol consumption on deaths due to cardiomyopathy (CM) has not been quantified to date, even though CM contains a subcategory for alcoholic CM with an effect of heavy drinking over time as the postulated underlying causal mechanism. In this feasibility study, a model to estimate the alcohol-attributable fraction (AAF) of CM deaths based on alcohol exposure measures is proposed. METHODS: A two-step model was developed based on aggregate-level data from 95 countries, including the most populous (data from 2013 or last available year)...
May 25, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545200/descriptive-epidemiology-of-female-breast-cancer-in-delhi-india
#13
Nalliah Manoharan, Omana Nair, N K Shukla, Goura Kishor Rath
Background: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in females worldwide. The Population Based Cancer Registry data of Delhi were here used to describe the epidemiology and trends in breast cancer incidence in Delhi. Methods: Crude rate, age-standardized incidence rates (ASR) and age-specific incidence rates were calculated using the data collected by Delhi PBCR for the year 2012. The time trend of breast cancer incidence was evaluated by joinpoint regression using the PBCR data from 1988-2012...
April 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544703/high-ubiquitin-specific-protease-44-expression-induces-dna-aneuploidy-and-provides-independent-prognostic-information-in-gastric-cancer
#14
Sho Nishimura, Eiji Oki, Koji Ando, Makoto Iimori, Yu Nakaji, Yuichiro Nakashima, Hiroshi Saeki, Yoshinao Oda, Yoshihiko Maehara
Chromosomal instability (CIN), characterized by aneuploidy, is a major molecular subtype of gastric cancer. The deubiquitinase USP44 is an important regulator of APC activation in the spindle checkpoint and leads to proper chromosome separation to prevent aneuploidy. Aberrant expression of USP44 leads CIN in cells; however, the correlation between USP44 and DNA aneuploidy in gastric cancer is largely unknown. We analyzed USP44 expression in 207 patients with gastric cancer by immunohistochemistry and found that the proportion of USP44 expression was higher in gastric cancer tumors (mean, 39...
May 23, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543390/the-effect-of-ebv-on-wif1-nlk-and-apc-gene-methylation-and-expression-in-gastric-carcinoma-and-nasopharyngeal-cancer
#15
Zhenzhen Zhao, Wen Liu, Jincheng Liu, Jiayi Wang, Bing Luo
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an important DNA tumor virus that is associated with approximately 10% of gastric carcinomas and 99% of nasopharyngeal cancers. DNA methylation and microRNAs (miRNAs) are the most studied epigenetic mechanisms that can prompt disease susceptibility. This study aimed to detect the effect of EBV on Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (WIF1), Nemo-like kinase (NLK), and adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene methylation and expression in gastric carcinoma and nasopharyngeal cancer. METHODS: The WIF1, NLK, and APC gene mRNA expression levels were measured by real-time quantitative RT-PCR in four EBV-positive cell lines and four EBV-negative cell lines...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543047/less-overdiagnosis-of-kidney-cancer-an-age-period-cohort-analysis-of-incidence-trends-in-16-populations-worldwide
#16
Ariana Znaor, Mathieu Laversanne, Freddie Bray
The increasing rates of kidney cancer incidence, reported in many populations globally, have been attributed both to increasing exposures to environmental risk factors, as well as increasing levels of incidental diagnosis due to widespread use of imaging. To better understand these trends, we examine long-term cancer registry data worldwide, focusing on the roles of birth cohort and calendar period, proxies for changes in risk factor prevalence and detection practice respectively. We used an augmented version of the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents series to analyse kidney cancer incidence rates 1978-2007 in 16 geographically representative populations worldwide by sex for ages 30-74, using age-period-cohort (APC) analysis...
May 23, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542288/structural-models-of-the-different-trimers-present-in-the-core-of-phycobilisomes-from-gracilaria-chilensis-based-on-crystal-structures-and-sequences
#17
Jorge Dagnino-Leone, Maximiliano Figueroa, Claudia Mella, María Alejandra Vorphal, Frédéric Kerff, Aleikar José Vásquez, Marta Bunster, José Martínez-Oyanedel
Phycobilisomes (PBS) are accessory light harvesting protein complexes that directionally transfer energy towards photosystems. Phycobilisomes are organized in a central core and rods radiating from it. Components of phycobilisomes in Gracilaria chilensis (Gch) are Phycobiliproteins (PBPs), Phycoerythrin (PE), and Phycocyanin (PC) in the rods, while Allophycocyanin (APC) is found in the core, and linker proteins (L). The function of such complexes depends on the structure of each component and their interaction...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541089/decreased-frequency-of-peripheral-blood-cd8-cd25-foxp3-regulatory-t-cells-correlates-with-il-33-levels-in-pre-eclampsia
#18
Jianxiu Yu, Lei Qian, Fenghui Wu, Ming Li, Wei Chen, Hongyou Wang
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the role of CD8(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+)regulatory T (Treg) cells in pre-eclampsia (PE). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 46 patients with PE and 24 normotensive women within the third trimester of gestation. We analyzed the percentages of CD8(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+)Treg cells in peripheral blood using flow cytometry and the serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-17A, IL-10, TGF-β1, IL-1β, and IL-33 by Luminex 200. RESULTS: We found that patients with PE had lower percentages of CD8(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+)Treg cells than normotensive pregnant women...
May 25, 2017: Hypertension in Pregnancy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540936/antigen-presenting-cell-targeted-lentiviral-vectors-do-not-support-the-development-of-productive-t-cell-effector-responses-implications-for-in-vivo-targeted-vaccine-delivery
#19
C Goyvaerts, Y De Vlaeminck, D Escors, S Lienenklaus, M Keyaerts, G Raes, K Breckpot
Targeting transgene expression specifically to antigen-presenting cells (APCs) has been put forward as a promising strategy to direct the immune system towards immunity. We developed the nanobody-display technology to restrict the tropism of lentiviral vectors (LVs) to APCs. However, we observed that immunization with APC-targeted LVs (DC2.1-LVs) did not evoke strong antigen-specific T-cell immunity when compared to immunization with broad tropism LVs (VSV.G-LVs). In this study, we report that VSV.G-LVs are more immunogenic than DC2...
May 25, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540748/expression-of-the-il-6-receptor-alpha-chain-cd126-in-normal-and-abnormal-plasma-cells-in-monoclonal-gammopathy-of-undetermined-significance-and-smoldering-myeloma
#20
Dalia Abdel-Raouf Salem, Neha Korde, David J Venzon, David J Liewehr, Irina Maric, Katherine R Calvo, Raul Braylan, Prashant R Tembhare, Constance M Yuan, Carl Ola Landgren, Maryalice Stetler-Stevenson
IL-6 activity in normal plasma cells (nPCs) and abnormal plasma cells (aPCs) is CD126 (subunit of IL-6 receptor) dependent. We quantified CD126 expression on nPCs and aPCs in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), smoldering myeloma (SMM), and multiple myeloma (MM). CD126 was detected on all nPCs and aPCs indicating that CD126 does not have diagnostic utility. CD126 expression was higher in aPCs than in nPCs in 85% SMM but only 41% MGUS and there was evidence that CD126 was higher in aPCs than nPCs in the SMM (p = ...
May 25, 2017: Leukemia & Lymphoma
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