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Cranial nerve examination

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452069/idiopathic-isolated-unilateral-hypoglossal-nerve-palsy-a-report-of-2-cases-and-review-of-the-literature
#1
Akio Shibata, Masashi Kimura, Kenichiro Ishiabashi, Masahiro Umemura
Hypoglossal nerve palsy (HNP) is a common finding in neurologic diseases when associated with other cranial nerve palsies or further pathology and exhibits characteristic clinical manifestations, including unilateral atrophy of the musculature of the tongue. It occasionally appears as the initial or solitary sign of an intracranial or extracranial space-occupying lesion, head or neck injury, or vascular abnormality of the internal carotid artery. There are few cases of idiopathic isolated unilateral HNP, which should be diagnosed through exclusion...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443722/characterizing-treatment-utilization-patterns-for-trigeminal-neuralgia-in-the-united-states
#2
Joanna M Zakrzewska, Ning Wu, John Y K Lee, Brian Werneburg, Deborah Hoffman, Ying Liu
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a rare orofacial disorder characterized by severe unilateral paroxysmal pain in the region of the fifth cranial nerve. Clinical guidelines recommend carbamazepine (only US Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for TN) and oxcarbazepine as first-line therapies. We utilized the US Truven Health MarketScan database to examine treatment patterns among patients with TN. METHODS: Included patients were aged ≥18 years, newly diagnosed with TN (≥2 TN diagnoses ≥14 days apart; no diagnosis in the prior year), continuously enrolled 1 year pre-index, with ≥3 years' follow-up post-index...
February 13, 2018: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436643/neuroprotective-effect-of-lurasidone-via-antagonist-activities-on-histamine-in-a-rat-model-of-cranial-nerve-involvement
#3
Baoming He, Liang Yu, Suping Li, Fei Xu, Lili Yang, Shuai Ma, Yi Guo
Cranial nerve involvement frequently involves neuron damage and often leads to psychiatric disorder caused by multiple inducements. Lurasidone is a novel antipsychotic agent approved for the treatment of cranial nerve involvement and a number of mental health conditions in several countries. In the present study, the neuroprotective effect of lurasidone by antagonist activities on histamine was investigated in a rat model of cranial nerve involvement. The antagonist activities of lurasidone on serotonin 5‑HT7, serotonin 5‑HT2A, serotonin 5‑HT1A and serotonin 5‑HT6 were analyzed, and the preclinical therapeutic effects of lurasidone were examined in a rat model of cranial nerve involvement...
February 13, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424937/pathogenesis-of-cranial-neuropathies-in-moebius-syndrome-electrodiagnostic-orofacial-studies
#4
Francis Renault, Roberto Flores-Guevara, Bernard Sergent, Jean Jacques Baudon, Jessie Aouizerate, Marie-Paule Vazquez, Cyril Gitiaux
INTRODUCTION: We designed a retrospective study of 59 patients with congenital sporadic non-progressive bilateral facial and abducens palsies. METHODS: Examinations included needle EMG of facial and oral muscles, facial nerve motor latency and conduction velocity (FNCV), and blink responses (BRs). RESULTS: Neurogenic EMG changes were found in one or more muscles in 55/59 patients, with no abnormal spontaneous activity. EMG changes were homogeneously neurogenic in 17 patients, homogeneously myopathic in one, and heterogeneous in 41/59 patients...
February 9, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404259/tuberculum-meningioma-orbitopterional-approach
#5
Alexander Yang, Mohammed Aref, A Samy Youssef
This is a case of an extensive tuberculum sella meningioma involving the circle of Willis down to the basilar artery that presented with bilateral visual loss worse on the right than left side. A one-piece right orbitopterional approach along the worse eye was used to gain access to the three cranial fossae. The orbitotomy facilitates access to the midline structures and contralateral base of the tumor with minimal brain retraction. Tumor resection is initiated by first identifying the tumor capsule, followed by piecemeal debulking via ultrasonic aspiration...
February 2018: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part B, Skull Base
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394920/occipital-lobe-infarction-a-rare-presentation-of-bilateral-giant-cavernous-carotid-aneurysms-a-case-report
#6
Kavin Vanikieti, Anuchit Poonyathalang, Panitha Jindahra, Piyaphon Cheecharoen, Wimonwan Chokthaweesak
BACKGROUND: Cavernous carotid aneurysm (CCA) represents 2-9% of all intracranial aneurysms and 15% of internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms; additionally, giant aneurysms are those aneurysms that are > 25 mm in size. Bilateral CCAs account for 11-29% of patients and are commonly associated with structural weaknesses in the ICA wall, secondary to systemic hypertension. CCAs are considered benign lesions, given the low risk for developing major neurologic morbidities (i.e., subarachnoid hemorrhage, cerebral infarction, or carotid cavernous fistula)...
February 2, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386492/-a-case-of-neurolymphomatosis-that-was-diagnosed-by-acoustic-nerve-biopsy
#7
Asuka Asanome, Kohei Kano, Kae Takahashi, Tsukasa Saito, Jun Sawada, Takayuki Katayama
A 58-year-old female was admitted to our hospital because of recurrent multiple cranial neuropathy (right facial palsy followed by involvement of the left trigeminal, facial, acoustic, pharyngeal, and vagal nerves and the right abducens nerve). Brain MRI showed gadolinium enhancement of the right abducens, bilateral facial/acoustic, and left pharyngeal/vagal nerves, and 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography revealed abnormal FDG uptake in the right facial, acoustic, pharyngeal, and vagal nerves and the left cervical lymph nodes...
January 31, 2018: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381971/isolated-intracranial-rosai-dorfman-disease-mimicking-petroclival-meningioma-in-a-child-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#8
Xiang Yang, Jiagang Liu, Yanming Ren, Seidu A Richard, Yuekang Zhang
RATIONALE: Rosai -Dorfman disease (RDD) is a rare, idiopathic, and non-neoplastic histioproliferative disease with distinctive entity of unknown etiology. Central nervous system (CNS) RDD is uncommon, hence, isolated intracranial RDD is extremely rare. So far only 6 cases of CNS RDD with the lesions originating from petroclival region have been reported. We present a case of isolated intracranial RDD mimicking petroclival meningioma. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 14-year-old girl was admitted at our hospital with a 3-month history of dizziness, slowly progressing headache, and 2-month history of instability in walking...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372870/stereotactic-volume-modulated-arc-radiotherapy-in-canine-meningiomas-imaging-based-and-clinical-neurological-posttreatment-evaluation
#9
Mario Dolera, Luca Malfassi, Simone Pavesi, Silvia Marcarini, Massimo Sala, Giovanni Mazza, Nancy Carrara, Sara Finesso, Gaetano Urso
A prospective study to assess high-dose hypofractionated volume modulated arc radiotherapy feasibility and efficacy in canine meningiomas was conducted. Thirty-nine patients with encephalic and spinal meningiomas assumed from MRI findings were recruited and received high-dose hypofractionated volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy by a linear accelerator equipped with an external beam modulator micro-multileaf collimator and an XVI cone beam computed tomography system. The prescribed mean dose was 33 Gy in five fractions...
January 26, 2018: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354589/collet-sicard-syndrome-with-hypoglossal-nerve-schwannoma-a-case-report
#10
Seung Hun Lee, Eun Shin Lee, Chul Ho Yoon, Heesuk Shin, Chang Han Lee
Collet-Sicard syndrome is a rare syndrome that involves paralysis of 9th to 12th cranial nerves. We report an uncommon case of schwannoma of the hypoglossal nerve in a 39-year-old woman presented with slurred speech, hoarse voice, and swallowing difficulty. Physical examination revealed decreased gag reflex on the right side, decreased laryngeal elevation, tongue deviation to the right side, and weakness of right trapezius muscle. MRI revealed a mass lesion in the right parapharyngeal space below the jugular foramen...
December 2017: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353284/usefulness-of-totally-implantable-central-venous-access-devices-in-elderly-patients-a-retrospective-study
#11
Yuki Imaoka, Fumito Kuranishi, Yoshiteru Ogawa
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The need for totally implantable central venous access devices (TICVADs) has increased with increased opportunities in the use of chemotherapy and parenteral nutrition. This study aimed to determine the outcomes of TICVAD implantation and use in patients aged ≥85 years. METHODS: Between January 2010 and August 2016, 117 patients underwent TICVAD implantation and their records were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Participants were divided into 2 groups (plus-85 and sub-85 groups)...
January 19, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344456/early-clinical-exposure-as-a-learning-tool-to-teach-neuroanatomy-for-first-year-mbbs-students
#12
Maitreyee Kar, Chinmaya Kar, Hironmoy Roy, Parmod Goyal
Context: Early clinical exposure (ECE) is one of the important tools to teach basic science to the MBBS students. It is one form of vertical integration between basic science and clinical subjects. This study is an effort at exploring the use of ECE as a motivational tool toward better learning in neuroanatomy for first year MBBS students. Aim: This study aims to make the students interested and motivated to study neuroanatomy by using ECE as learning tool in neuroanatomy and to make the students enable to retain the knowledge of neuroanatomy more efficiently and correlate the knowledge of neuroanatomy with neuromedicine...
December 2017: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344066/diagnostic-challenge-sequential-unilateral-cranial-neuropathies-due-to-perineural-spread-of-carcinoma
#13
Heather E Moss, Peter W MacIntosh, Konstantin V Slavin, John M Collins
An 86-year old man developed sequential dysfunction of trigeminal (V1), facial, abducens, trigeminal (v2), oculomotor, and hypoglossal cranial nerves on the right over 20 months. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a lesion in the right cavernous sinus. Although there was clinical suspicion that this was related to perineural spread of an extracranial tumour, a primary lesion was not discovered. Stereotactic biopsies of the intracranial lesion were non-diagnostic, and the patient succumbed to his tumour following a period of rapid growth...
August 2017: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324584/maternal-serum-eye-drops-in-the-management-of-pediatric-persistent-corneal-epithelial-defects-a-case-series
#14
Ashton J Kalhorn, Kirstin L Tawse, Avni A Shah, Jennifer L Jung, Darren G Gregory, Emily A McCourt
PURPOSE: We report our experience with the use of maternally derived serum eye drops as adjunctive treatment in the management of pediatric persistent corneal epithelial defects. METHODS: Five eyes of 4 patients were identified in a retrospective review of pediatric patients with persistent corneal epithelial defects who received maternal serum drops. Diagnoses associated with the defects comprised pontine tegmental cap dysplasia with bilateral cranial nerve V1, V2, V3, and VII palsies; pontine tegmental cap dysplasia with left cranial nerve V1, VII, and VIII palsies; traumatic left cranial nerve II, V1, V2, and VI palsies due to a basilar skull fracture; and Stevens-Johnson syndrome with ocular involvement...
January 10, 2018: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308630/surgical-outcome-of-tuberculum-sellae-and-planum-sphenoidale-meningiomas-based-on-sekhar-mortazavi-tumor-classification
#15
Lorenzo Giammattei, Mahmoud Messerer, Amani Belouaer, Roy T Daniel
BACKGROUND: Results from surgical series of tuberculum and planum sphenoidale meningiomas tends to be heterogeneous. Sekhar-Mortazavi tumor classification system has been recently proposed in order to predict the surgical risk and outcome. METHOD: We retrospectively reviewed a consecutive series of tuberculum and planum sphenoidale meningioma operated at our institution between 2009 and 2016. Sekhar-Mortazavi tumor classification was applied to classify these tumors and evaluate the outcome...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305369/radius-maumenee-syndrome-a-rare-cause-of-glaucoma
#16
Sara Homem de Melo Marques, Cláudia Farinha, Amélia Martins, Pedro Faria
Case presentation of a 41-year-old woman with long-standing bilateral eye injection whose clinical findings included bilateral episcleral vessel engorgement and tortuosity, raised intraocular pressure with open iridocorneal angles and left optic disc cupping. All remaining objective examination was normal. She underwent cranial and orbits CT and CT-angiography scans which were unremarkable. Optical coherence tomography of the peripapillary nerve fibre layer and automated perimetry were compatible with advanced glaucomatous damage on the left eye...
January 5, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305127/7-0tesla-mri-tractography-in-patients-with-trigeminal-neuralgia
#17
Hyeong Cheol Moon, Soon-Tae You, Hyeon Man Baek, Young Jai Jeon, Chan-A Park, Jei Jun Cheong, Youn Joo Lee, Young Seok Park
7.0Tesla(T) high-resolution diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can supply information on changing microstructures in cranial nerves. We investigated DTI parameters and the feasibility of DTI criteria for diagnosing trigeminal neuralgia (TN). In this study, 14 patients (28 hemispheres) of mean age 49.0years (range, 31-64) with TN underwent DTI using 7.0TMRI. We compared fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD), mean diffusivity (MD), and radial diffusivity (RD) of affected-side and unaffected-side trigeminal nerves using DTI...
January 2, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298209/electrophysiology-of-cranial-nerve-testing-trigeminal-and-facial-nerves
#18
Iryna M Muzyka, Bachir Estephan
The clinical examination of the trigeminal and facial nerves provides significant diagnostic value, especially in the localization of lesions in disorders affecting the central and/or peripheral nervous system. The electrodiagnostic evaluation of these nerves and their pathways adds further accuracy and reliability to the diagnostic investigation and the localization process, especially when different testing methods are combined based on the clinical presentation and the electrophysiological findings. The diagnostic uniqueness of the trigeminal and facial nerves is their connectivity and their coparticipation in reflexes commonly used in clinical practice, namely the blink and corneal reflexes...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290461/oculomotor-palsy-in-diabetics
#19
H Lajmi, W Hmaied, W Ben Jalel, Z Chelly, A Ben Yakhlef, F Ben Zineb, L El Fekih
INTRODUCTION: Oculomotor palsy is one of the most frequent neuro-ophthalmologic complications of diabetic patients. It generates less interest in the literature than the other ocular manifestations. Our goal was to study the clinical, epidemiological, therapeutic and prognostic characteristics of oculomotor palsy in the diabetic. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 24 diabetic patients with oculomotor palsy. The ophthalmological examination emphasized ocular motility...
December 28, 2017: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285405/prepontine-arachnoid-cyst-presenting-with-headache-and-diplopia-a-case-report-study
#20
Omidvar Rezaee, Kaveh Ebrahimzadeh, Ehsan Nazari Maloumeh, Armin Jafari, Misagh Shafizad, Mohammad Hallajnejad
Background: Arachnoid cysts are found everywhere in cerebrospinal axis, most often in the middle cranial fossa. They are very rare in prepontine location. Case Description: In this study, we report a 26-year-old female presenting with a 3-month history of headache and diplopia. On physical examination, she had clinical manifestations of sixth cranial nerve palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a prepontine arachnoid cyst with extension into interpeduncular and suprasellar cisterns...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
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