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Cranial nerve examination

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915915/post-embolization-neurological-syndrome-after-embolization-for-intracranial-and-skull-base-tumors-transient-exacerbation-of-neurological-symptoms-with-inflammatory-responses
#1
Yujiro Tanaka, Takao Hashimoto, Daisuke Watanabe, Hirofumi Okada, Daichi Kato, Shigeru Aoyagi, Jiro Akimoto, Michihiro Kohno
PURPOSE: Pre-operative embolization is an effective treatment strategy for hypervascular intracranial and skull base tumors. However, neurological complications resulting from tumor swelling, cranial nerve ischemia, or hemorrhage can occur after embolization. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between neurological complications following pre-operative embolization and minor adverse events including fever, headache, or increasing inflammation, which are common after embolization for abdominal tumors (i...
June 18, 2018: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913626/vasoactive-intestinal-peptide-vip-and-pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-pacap-in-the-circulation-after-sumatriptan
#2
Jakob Møller Hansen, Jan Fahrenkrug, Jesper Petersen, Troels Wienecke, Karsten Skovgaard Olsen, Messoud Ashina
Background and purpose The origin of migraine pain is still elusive, but increasingly researchers focus on the neuropeptides in the perivascular space of cranial vessels as important mediators of nociceptive input during migraine attacks. The parasympathetic neurotransmitters, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide-38 (PACAP38) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) may be released from parasympathetic fibres and activate sensory nerve fibres during migraine attacks. Triptans are effective and well tolerated in acute migraine management but the exact mechanism of action is still debated...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912183/ocular-kinematics-measured-by-in-vitro-stimulation-of-the-cranial-nerves-in-the-turtle
#3
Maria Cano Garcia, Steven C Nesbit, Chi C Le, James R Dearworth
After animals are euthanized, their tissues begin to die. Turtles offer an advantage because of a longer survival time of their tissues, especially when compared to warm-blooded vertebrates. Because of this, in vitro experiments in turtles can be performed for extended periods of time to investigate the neural signals and control of their target actions. Using an isolated head preparation, we measured the kinematics of eye movements in turtles, and their modulation by electrical signals carried by cranial nerves...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911581/real-time-ultrasound-guided-infraorbital-nerve-block-to-treat-trigeminal-neuralgia-using-a-high-concentration-of-tetracaine-dissolved-in-bupivacaine
#4
Kenichi Takechi, Amane Konishi, Kotaro Kikuchi, Shiho Fujioka, Tomomi Fujii, Toshihiro Yorozuya, Koh Kuzume, Takumi Nagaro
Background Trigeminal neuralgia is a neuropathic disorder characterized by episodes of intense pain in the face. Drug therapy is the first choice of treatment. However, in cases where drug therapy are contraindicated due to side effects, patients can get pain relief from lengthy neurosurgical procedures. Alternatively, a peripheral trigeminal nerve block can be easily performed in an outpatient setting. Therefore it is a useful treatment option for the acute paroxysmal period of TN in patients who cannot use drug therapy...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911023/cavernous-sinus-syndrome-in-dogs-and-cats-case-series-2002-2015
#5
Aslynn M Jones, Ellison Bentley, Helena Rylander
The cavernous sinus (CS) is a paired venous sinus that runs along either side of the pituitary gland on the floor of the calvarium. Cavernous sinus syndrome (CSS) refers to deficits in more than one of the cranial nerves III, IV, V, and VI, as they are in close association in this region. The purpose of this study was to identify the presenting complaints, neurologic findings, diagnosis, and outcomes in dogs and cats with confirmed cavernous sinus syndrome (CSS). Medical records between 2002 and 2015 were reviewed...
2018: Open Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889081/hypoglossal-facial-nerve-side-to-side-neurorrhaphy-for-facial-paralysis-resulting-from-closed-temporal-bone-fractures
#6
Diya Su, Dezhi Li, Shiwei Wang, Hui Qiao, Ping Li, Binbin Wang, Hong Wan, Michael Schumacher, Song Liu
BACKGROUND: Closed temporal bone fractures due to cranial trauma often result in facial nerve injury, frequently inducing incomplete facial paralysis. Conventional hypoglossal-facial nerve end-to-end neurorrhaphy may not be suitable for these injuries because sacrifice of the lesioned facial nerve for neurorrhaphy destroys the remnant axons and/or potential spontaneous innervation. OBJECTIVE: we modified the classical method by hypoglossal-facial nerve "side"-to-side neurorrhaphy using an interpositional predegenerated nerve graft to treat these injuries...
June 6, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888727/the-value-of-bedside-ocular-ultrasound-assessment-of-optic-nerve-sheath-diameter-in-the-detection-of-increased-intracranial-pressure-in-patients-presenting-to-the-emergency-room-with-headache
#7
Y Canakci, O Koksal, V A Durak
Introduction: Headache is one of the most important complaints in emergency room (ER) admissions, and the rate of the increase in intracranial pressure in these cases should not be overlooked. This study was performed to investigate the value of the measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) by ocular ultrasound in ER patients with the complaint of headache and increase in intracranial pressure regarding this. Materials and Methods: : A total of 100 patients who applied to the ER with the complaint of headache were included in this prospective study...
June 2018: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29797996/-clinical-study-of-chondrosarcoma-in-the-jugular-foramen
#8
F T Li, C F Dai
Objective: To explore the diagnosis and surgical treatment of chondrosarcoma in the jugular foramen (JF). Method: This study lies on the retrospective analysis about 72 patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism who had parathyroid gland resection in our hospital from 2010 to 2017. All of 72 cases are examined by color doppler ultrasound,99mTC-MIBI nuclide imaging and magnetic resonance imaging. According to the gold standard pathological diagnosis after surgery, we compute the sensitivity and the specificity of various imaging examination and analyse these statistics by rate card square test with SPSS 19...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29796048/the-role-of-botulinum-toxin-in-the-management-of-ophthalmoplegia-secondary-to-miller-fisher-syndrome
#9
Siegfried K Wagner, Nabil Uddin, Saurabh Jain
Miller Fisher syndrome is an acute demyelinating polyneuropathy classically presenting with ataxia, areflexia, and ophthalmoplegia. The authors report the case of a 27-year-old female, who presented with limb weakness and double vision following a prodromal pharyngitis. Ophthalmic examination revealed fluctuant ophthalmoplegia eventually consistent with bilateral sixth cranial nerve palsies, prompting investigation for anti-ganglioside antibodies, which returned positive. Due to disabling diplopia, the patient was treated with botulinum toxin, with a resulting favourable reduction in the size of strabismus...
June 2018: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780939/sixth-cranial-nerve-palsy-and-ipsilateral-trigeminal-neuralgia-caused-by-vertebrobasilar-dolichoectasia
#10
Thong Pham, Jeffrey Wesolowski, Jonathan D Trobe
Purpose: To report an unusual case of vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia causing both trigeminal neuralgia and ipsilateral sixth cranial nerve palsy. Observations: A patient had undergone surgical decompression of trigeminal neuralgia caused by dolichoectatic vertebral and basilar arteries years before presenting with ipsilateral sixth nerve palsy. Brain MRI showed deviant vertebrobasilar arteries that presumably now compressed the sixth cranial nerve. The unaffected left sixth cranial nerve was visible on MRI, but the affected right sixth cranial nerve was not...
June 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774172/moebius-syndrome-with-hypoglossal-palsy-syndactyly-brachydactyly-and-anisometropic-amblyopia
#11
Muhammad Hassaan Ali, Samreen Jamal, Muhammad Ather Rashid, Usman Javaid, Nadeem Hafeez Butt
Moebius syndrome is a rare cause of congenital facial and abducens palsy.  It is sometimes associated with musculoskeletal abnormalities and other cranial nerve palsies. Genetics and ischemic insults to the fetus are considered to be the cause of this syndrome. We report here a 12-year-old female patient who was presented to us with poor cosmesis of her face, with associated decreased vision and lagophthalmos in her left eye. She didn't have any signs of exposure keratopathy in the affected eye. Her best-corrected vision was 20/20 and 20/60 in right and left eyes respectively...
March 16, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754211/awareness-of-dysgeusia-and-gustatory-tests-in-patients-undergoing-chemotherapy-for-breast-cancer
#12
Sayaka Kuba, Rie Fujiyama, Kosho Yamanouchi, Michi Morita, Chika Sakimura, Toshiko Hatachi, Megumi Matsumoto, Hiroshi Yano, Mitsuhisa Takatsuki, Naomi Hayashida, Takeshi Nagayasu, Susumu Eguchi
PURPOSE: We analyzed the prevalence of gustatory test abnormalities in breast cancer (BC) patients undergoing chemotherapy. METHODS: We enrolled 43 BC patients undergoing chemotherapy and 38 BC patients who had never undergone chemotherapy (control group). Two gustatory tests were conducted: an instillation method examining the threshold for four basic taste stimuli and an electrogustometry method measuring the threshold for perception with electric stimulation at the front two-thirds of the tongue (cranial nerve VII) and at the back third of the tongue (cranial nerve IX)...
May 12, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742889/intraoperative-neurophysiological-monitoring-a-review-of-techniques-used-for-brain-tumor-surgery-in-children
#13
REVIEW
Keewon Kim, Charles Cho, Moon-Suk Bang, Hyung-Ik Shin, Ji-Hoon Phi, Seung-Ki Kim
Intraoperative monitoring (IOM) utilizes electrophysiological techniques as a surrogate test and evaluation of nervous function while a patient is under general anesthesia. They are increasingly used for procedures, both surgical and endovascular, to avoid injury during an operation, examine neurological tissue to guide the surgery, or to test electrophysiological function to allow for more complete resection or corrections. The application of IOM during pediatric brain tumor resections encompasses a unique set of technical issues...
May 2018: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739345/atypical-central-retinal-artery-occlusion-as-the-first-presentation-of-poems-syndrome-a-case-report
#14
Panitha Jindahra, Charungthai Dejthevaporn, Pimjai Niparuck, Jariya Waisayarat, Piyaphon Cheecharoen, Thanatporn Threetong, Purit Petpiroon, Tharikarn Sujirakul, Anuchit Poonyathalang, Kavin Vanikieti
BACKGROUND: POEMS syndrome is a plasma cell disorder, which clinically manifests from paraneoplastic syndrome: polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal plasma cell disorder, and skin changes. The most common ocular manifestation is optic disc swelling, whereas other ocular manifestations; cystoid macular edema, serous macular detachment, venous sinus thrombosis, infiltrative orbitopathy, uveitis, neovascularization of the disc, peripapillary choroidal neovascularization and optic disc drusen, had also been reported...
May 8, 2018: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730064/risk-of-radiation-vasculopathy-and-stroke-in-pediatric-patients-treated-with-proton-therapy-for-brain-and-skull-base-tumors
#15
Matthew D Hall, Julie A Bradley, Ronny L Rotondo, Ricardo Hanel, Chetan Shah, Christopher G Morris, Philipp R Aldana, Daniel J Indelicato
PURPOSE: To estimate the rate of and identify risk factors for vasculopathy after proton therapy in pediatric patients with central nervous system and skull base tumors. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between 2006 and 2015, 644 pediatric patients with central nervous system and skull base tumors were treated with proton therapy at a single institution. The 3 most common histologies were craniopharyngioma (n = 135), ependymoma (n = 135), and low-grade glioma (n = 131)...
March 29, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725074/understanding-the-relationship-between-the-neurologic-pupil-index-and-constriction-velocity-values
#16
Ifeoluwa Shoyombo, Venkatesh Aiyagari, Sonja E Stutzman, Folefac Atem, Michelle Hill, Stephen A Figueroa, Chad Miller, Amber Howard, DaiWai M Olson
The pupillary light reflex (PLR) describes the response when light hits the retina and sends a signal (cranial nerve II) to the Edinger-Westphal Nucleus which via cranial nerve III results in pupillary constriction. The Neurological Pupil indexTM (NPi) and pupil constriction velocity (CV) are two distinct variables that can be observed and measured using a pupillometer. We examine NPi and CV in 27,462 pupil readings (1,617 subjects). NPi values <3.0 and a CV < 0.8 mm/sec were considered abnormal...
May 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701558/syringobulbia-in-pediatric-patients-with-chiari-malformation-type-i
#17
Arnold H Menezes, Jeremy D W Greenlee, Brian J Dlouhy
OBJECTIVE Syringobulbia (SB) is a rare entity, with few cases associated with Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) in the pediatric population. The authors reviewed all pediatric cases of CM-I-associated SB managed at their institution in order to better understand the presentation, treatment, and surgical outcomes of this condition. METHODS A prospectively maintained institutional database of craniovertebral junction abnormalities was analyzed to identify all cases of CM-I and SB from the MRI era (i.e., after 1984)...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699980/neuro-ophthalmological-manifestations-of-beh%C3%A3-et-s-disease
#18
Ammr Alghamdi, Bahram Bodaghi, Chloé Comarmond, Anne Claire Desbois, Fanny Domont, Bertrand Wechsler, Raphael Depaz, Phuc Le Hoang, Patrice Cacoub, Valérie Touitou, David Saadoun
BACKGROUND: The neuro-ophthalmological manifestations of Behcet's disease (BD) are rare, and data regarding their characteristics and outcome are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To report prevalence, main characteristics and outcome of neuro-ophthalmological manifestations in BD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective monocentric study of 217 patients diagnosed with neuro-Behçet's disease (NBD), of whom 29 (13.3%) patients presented with neuro-ophthalmological manifestations (55% of men and mean±SD age of 26±8 years)...
April 26, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698789/impact-of-preoperative-transarterial-embolization-of-carotid-body-tumor-a-single-center-retrospective-cohort-experience
#19
Jianbin Zhang, Xueqiang Fan, Yanan Zhen, Jie Chen, Xia Zheng, Bo Ma, Rongwei Xu, Jie Kong, Zhidong Ye, Peng Liu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of preoperative hyperselective transarterial embolization in carotid body tumor resection. METHODS: Retrospectively analyze the clinical feature, imaging examination, treatment strategy and prognosis of 29 carotid body tumor patients from January 2006 to January 2016. According to whether to carry out the pre-operative transarterial embolization, the patients were classified into embolization group and non-embolization group...
June 2018: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689030/checkpoint-inhibitor-immune-therapy-systemic-indications-and-ophthalmic-side-effects
#20
Lauren A Dalvin, Carol L Shields, Marlana Orloff, Takami Sato, Jerry A Shields
PURPOSE: To review immune checkpoint inhibitor indications and ophthalmic side effects. METHODS: A literature review was performed using a PubMed search for publications between 1990 and 2017. RESULTS: Immune checkpoint inhibitors are designed to treat system malignancies by targeting one of three ligands, leading to T-cell activation for attack against malignant cells. These ligands (and targeted drug) include cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4, ipilimumab), programmed death protein 1 (PD-1, pembrolizumab, nivolumab), and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1, atezolizumab, avelumab, durvalumab)...
June 2018: Retina
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