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Cranial nerve examination

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660852/etiology-and-functional-validation-of-gastrointestinal-motility-dysfunction-in-a-zebrafish-model-of-charge-syndrome
#1
Kellie Cloney, Shelby L Steele, Matthew R Stoyek, Roger P Croll, Frank M Smith, Sergey V Prykhozhij, Mary M Brown, Craig Midgen, Kim Blake, Jason N Berman
CHARGE syndrome is linked to autosomal dominant mutations in the CHD7 gene and results in a number of physiological and structural abnormalities, including heart defects, hearing and vision loss and gastrointestinal (GI) problems. Of these challenges, GI problems have a profound impact throughout an individual's life, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. A homologue of CHD7 has been identified in the zebrafish, the loss of which recapitulates many of the features of the human disease. Using a morpholino chd7 knockdown model complemented by a chd7 null mutant zebrafish line, we examined GI structure, innervation, and motility in larval zebrafish...
April 16, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659197/morphological-features-of-the-branching-pattern-of-the-hypoglossal-nerve
#2
Yujiro Sakamoto
The hypoglossal or twelfth cranial nerve is the motor nerve to the extrinsic and intrinsic muscles of the tongue, and the superior root of the ansa cervicalis and the thyrohyoid and geniohyoid branches are delivered through the nerve. This study investigated the muscular branches of the hypoglossal nerve to clarify their spatial relationships with the muscles of the tongue and the neighboring structures. The muscles and the nerve were gross anatomically examined in 42 cadavers. The superior root and the thyrohyoid branch left the nerve near the occipital and lingual arteries, respectively...
April 16, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595737/surgical-approach-to-injuries-of-the-cervical-plexus-and-its-peripheral-nerve-branches
#3
David L Brown, A Lee Dellon
BACKGROUND: Located in the neck beneath the sternocleidomastoid muscle, the cervical plexus comprises a coalition of nerves originating from C1 through C4, which provide input to four cutaneous, seven motor, and three cranial nerves and the sympathetic trunk. Sporadic instances of injury to these superficial nerves have been reported. Nevertheless, this specific anatomical cause of neurogenic pain remains incompletely described and underrecognized. METHODS: Twelve patients presented with pain and were diagnosed with various combinations of injury to the lesser occipital, great auricular, transverse cervical, and supraclavicular nerves...
April 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587795/clinical-outcome-after-particle-therapy-for-meningiomas-of-the-skull-base-toxicity-and-local-control-in-patients-treated-with-active-rasterscanning
#4
Rami A El Shafie, Maja Czech, Kerstin A Kessel, Daniel Habermehl, Dorothea Weber, Stefan Rieken, Nina Bougatf, Oliver Jäkel, Jürgen Debus, Stephanie E Combs
BACKGROUND: Meningiomas of the skull base account for 25-30% of all meningiomas. Due to the complex structure of the cranial base and its close proximity to critical structures, surgery is often associated with substantial morbidity. Treatment options include observation, aggressive surgical intervention, stereotactic or conventional radiotherapy. In this analysis we evaluate the outcome of 110 patients with meningiomas of the skull base treated with particle therapy. It was performed within the framework of the "clinical research group heavy ion therapy" and supported by the German Research Council (DFG, KFO 214)...
March 27, 2018: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571948/neurological-outcome-at-6-and-12-months-corrected-age-in-hospitalised-late-preterm-infants-a-prospective-study
#5
Ilias Chatziioannidis, Maria Kyriakidou, Sotiria Exadaktylou, Evangelia Antoniou, Dimitrios Zafeiriou, Nikolaos Nikolaidis
Late preterm infants (34-0/7 to 36-6/7 weeks" gestation) account for 10-20% of NICU admissions and are at increased risk for morbidity and mortality. Although they are prone to developmental delays, reports on neurological outcome during the first 2 years of life are scarce. The aim of the study was to assess neurological/neuromotor outcome in high risk late preterm infants at 6 and 12 months corrected age and the change in neurological scores over time, and to identify factors associated with the neurological outcome...
March 6, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570519/cystic-progression-of-a-cavernous-malformation-at-the-level-of-the-trigeminal-root-entry-zone-presenting-with-sudden-onset-of-trigeminal-neuralgia
#6
Carlo Giacobbo Scavo, Raffaelino Roperto, Guglielmo Cacciotti, Luciano Mastronardi
BACKGROUND: Cavernous malformations (CM) in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) are rare, and most of them are solid and extend from the internal auditory canal into the CPA. In contrast, cystic CM arising in the CPA and not involving the internal auditory canal and dura of the skull base are extremely rare. The authors present an uncommon large cystic progression of a cavernous malformation at the level of the trigeminal root entry zone evolving to severe trigeminal neuralgia and brainstem compression...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564634/-lumbar-ct-guided-radiofrequency-ablation-of-the-medial-branch-of-the-dorsal-ramus-of-the-spinal-nerve-anatomic-study-and-description-of-a-new-technique
#7
G C Feigl, C Mattersberger, W Rosmarin, R Likar, C Avila González
BACKGROUND: The success of radiofrequency ablation (RF) of the medial branch of the dorsal ramus in patients with facet joint pain depends on the effective coagulation distance. To date, computed tomography(CT)-guided techniques do not reach the nerve in parallel but rather than punctually. We report a new CT-guided technique to enhance parallelism and proximity of the RF needle to the nerve. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two examiners with different experience with CT-guided procedures in corpses performed all punctures at the lumbar spine on 10 corpses...
March 21, 2018: Der Schmerz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563957/multicentric-glioblastoma-multiforme-mimicking-optic-neuritis
#8
Francesco Pellegrini, Andrew G Lee, Cristina Cercato
A 49-year-old previously healthy woman presented with acute painless visual loss in the right eye, a right relative afferent pupillary defect, and a normal fundus examination. She was diagnosed with retrobulbar "optic neuritis" and given a course of intravenous steroids. Despite treatment, however, she continued to lose vision and serial visual field testing confirmed a junctional scotoma in the fellow eye. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a mass at the junction between the right optic nerve and the anterior aspect of the chiasm and a right frontal lesion that proved to be multicentric glioblastoma multiforme...
April 2018: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559356/alpha-lipoic-acid-intoxicat%C3%A4-on-an-adult-case-report-and-l%C3%A4-terature-rev%C3%A4-ew
#9
Duygu Ferek Emir, Ibrahim Ulas Ozturan, Serkan Yilmaz
INTRODUCTION: Alpha lipoic acid (ALA) is a potent antioxidant used to treat a variety of disorders. Although ALA is considered a very safe supplement and intoxication is very rare, acute high-dose ingestions can cause mortality. In this report, we discuss a very rare case of ALA intoxication to increase awareness of this issue. CASE REPORT: A 22-year-old female was referred to our emergency department with ALA intoxication after ingesting a total of 18g of ALA with a suicidal intention...
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553505/in-vivo-morphometric-analysis-of-human-cranial-nerves-using-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-meni%C3%A3-re-s-disease-ears-and-normal-hearing-ears
#10
Wilhelm H Flatz, Annika Henneberger, Maximilian F Reiser, Robert Gürkov, Birgit Ertl-Wagner
Analysis of neural structures in Menière's Disease (MD) is of importance, since a loss of such structures has previously been proposed for this patient group but has yet to be confirmed. This protocol describes a method of in vivo evaluation of neural changes especially well suitable for cranial nerve analysis using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MD-patients and normal hearing persons were examined in a 3-T MR-scanner using a scan protocol including strongly T2-weighted 3D gradient-echo-sequence (3D-CISS)...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552263/rathke-s-cleft-cyst-associated-with-pituitary-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-an-unusual-combination-of-hypothalamus-pituitary-region-pathologies
#11
Riccardo Draghi, Giovanna Mantovani, Letterio Runza, Giorgio Carrabba, Nicola Fusco, Paolo Rampini, Antonella Costa, Marco Locatelli
The authors present an unusual case of a patient suffering from visual deficit due to pituitary granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) associated with Rathke's cleft cyst (RCC). The patient was referred to our Neurosurgery Department presenting right eye amaurosis, third cranial nerve palsy, and left temporal hemianopsia. Magnetic resonance imaging documented a sellar or suprasellar lesion with solid and cystic components. The dura mater of the skull base was also strongly enhanced. The patient underwent surgery...
February 2018: Radiology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537615/bilateral-taste-disorders-in-patients-with-ramsay-hunt-syndrome-and-bell-s-palsy
#12
Pavlos Pavlidis, Rafael J A Cámara, Georgios Kekes, Haralampos Gouveris
OBJECTIVE: Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS) and Bell's palsy (BP) are typically known as facial nerve motor syndromes and are primarily unilateral. The aim of this study was to challenge this assertion because both conditions are also known to be associated with viruses that typically affect several nerves. METHODS: Ten participants with RHS, 12 with BP, all clinically unilateral, and 12 healthy controls were prospectively enrolled. Electrogustometric thresholds were measured bilaterally in the areas of the chorda tympani, the glossopharyngeal, and the major petrosal nerve...
March 14, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532442/vernet-syndrome-resulting-from-varicella-zoster-virus-infection-a-very-rare-clinical-presentation-of-a-common-viral-infection
#13
João Ferreira, Ana Franco, Tiago Teodoro, Miguel Coelho, Luísa Albuquerque
Vernet syndrome is a unilateral palsy of glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection has rarely been described as a possible cause. A 76-year-old man presented with 1-week-long symptoms of dysphonia, dysphagia, and weakness of the right shoulder elevation, accompanied by a mild right temporal parietal headache with radiation to the ipsilateral ear. Physical examination showed signs compatible with a right XI, X, and XI cranial nerves involvement and also several vesicular lesions in the right ear's concha...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516006/myositis-ganglioneuritis-and-myocarditis-with-distinct-perifascicular-muscle-atrophy-in-a-2-year-old-male-boxer
#14
Paul M Rossman, Stephanie A Thomovsky, Ryan M Schafbuch, Ling T Guo, G D Shelton
A 2-year-old male, intact Boxer was referred for chronic diarrhea, hyporexia, labored breathing, weakness and elevated creatine kinase, and alanine aminotransferase activities. Initial examination and diagnostics revealed a peripheral nervous system neurolocalization, atrial premature complexes, and generalized megaesophagus. Progressive worsening of the dog's condition was noted after 36 h; the dog developed aspiration pneumonia, was febrile and oxygen dependent. The owners elected humane euthanasia. Immediately postmortem biopsies of the left cranial tibial and triceps muscles and the left peroneal nerve were obtained...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510758/garcin-syndrome-caused-by-sphenoid-bone-metastasis-of-lung-cancer-a-case-study
#15
Satoshi Fukai, Naoyuki Okabe, Hayato Mine, Hironori Takagi, Hiroyuki Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Garcin syndrome, which consists of unilateral palsies of almost all cranial nerves without either sensory or motor long-tract disturbances or intracranial hypertension, can be caused by malignant tumors at the skull base. The case of a patient with lung cancer that metastasized to the sphenoid bone and resulted in Garcin syndrome is presented. CASE PRESENTATION: A 76-year-old woman was diagnosed as having non-small cell lung cancer with pericardial and diaphragmatic infiltration, cT4N1M0, stage 3A...
March 6, 2018: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501408/fazio-londe-syndrome-in-siblings-from-india-with-different-phenotypes
#16
Vykuntaraju K Gowda, Tamilarasan Udhayabanu, Perumal Varalakshmi, Varunvenkat M Srinivasan, Balasubramaniem Ashokkumar
BACKGROUND: Fazio-Londe syndrome also called progressive bulbar palsy of childhood is a very rare motor neuron disease of pediatric age group characterized by progressive paralysis of lower cranial nerves. OBJECTIVE: To describe Fazio-Londe syndrome in sibling with different phenotype. METHODS: A 6 years old female child presented with inability to close eyes, difficulty in swallowing, respiratory muscle weakness and voice change since 5 yr of age...
February 28, 2018: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501083/the-clinical-features-of-combined-central-and-peripheral-demyelination-in-chinese-patients
#17
Yan-Qin Wang, Han Chen, Wu-Ping Zhuang, Hong-Lei Li
BACKGROUND: Combined central and peripheral demyelination (CCPD) is rare and has never been reported as a spectrum disease in Han Chinese population. OBJECTIVES: To study the clinical features of CCPD in Han Chinese patients. METHODS: Twenty-two CCPD patients were selected from 788 demyelination cases. We reviewed and compared the clinical manifestation, laboratory data, electrophysiological examination, MRI and the prognosis. RESULTS: CCPD patients presented with sensory disturbance (86...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468621/fusarium-brain-abscess-in-a-patient-with-diabetes-mellitus-and-liver-cirrhosis
#18
Yu-Ju Chen, Chao-Liang Chou, Kuan-Ju Lai, Ya-Ju Lin Lin
PURPOSE: Invasive mycosis caused by the Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Mucor can be fetal, especially in the immunocompromised patients with central nervous system (CNS) involvement. Here we present a case of CNS Fusarium infection, and this is the first reported case of Fusarium brain abscess in Taiwan. CASE REPORT: A 65-year-old woman presented with fever and conscious disturbance for 3 days. Neurological examination showed stupor consciousness, neck stiffness, multiple cranial nerves palsy, and bilateral Babinski signs...
September 15, 2017: Acta Neurologica Taiwanica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452069/idiopathic-isolated-unilateral-hypoglossal-nerve-palsy-a-report-of-2-cases-and-review-of-the-literature
#19
Akio Shibata, Masashi Kimura, Kenichiro Ishiabashi, Masahiro Umemura
Hypoglossal nerve palsy (HNP) is a common finding in neurologic diseases when associated with other cranial nerve palsies or further pathology and exhibits characteristic clinical manifestations, including unilateral atrophy of the musculature of the tongue. It occasionally appears as the initial or solitary sign of an intracranial or extracranial space-occupying lesion, head or neck injury, or vascular abnormality of the internal carotid artery. There are few cases of idiopathic isolated unilateral HNP, which should be diagnosed through exclusion...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443722/characterizing-treatment-utilization-patterns-for-trigeminal-neuralgia-in-the-united-states
#20
Joanna M Zakrzewska, Ning Wu, John Y K Lee, Brian Werneburg, Deborah Hoffman, Ying Liu
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a rare orofacial disorder characterized by severe unilateral paroxysmal pain in the region of the fifth cranial nerve. Clinical guidelines recommend carbamazepine (only US Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for TN) and oxcarbazepine as first-line therapies. We utilized the US Truven Health MarketScan database to examine treatment patterns among patients with TN. METHODS: Included patients were aged ≥18 years, newly diagnosed with TN (≥2 TN diagnoses ≥14 days apart; no diagnosis in the prior year), continuously enrolled 1 year pre-index, with ≥3 years' follow-up post-index...
February 19, 2018: Clinical Journal of Pain
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