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Cranial nerve

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139157/seronegative-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-presenting-with-multiple-cranial-nerve-palsies
#1
Eunhye Lee, Jynkyun Park, Seung Hong Choi, Sung-Hye Park
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), previously known as Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), is a rare systemic disease characterized by necrotizing granulomas and vasculitis that usually presents in the respiratory tract and renal system. Here, we report a case of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-negative GPA with diagnostic difficulties. Neurologic involvement in GPA is not uncommon, with up to 50% of patients manifesting with neurologic defects; however, it is usually a late event. This patient was a 50-year-old man whose first manifestation was multiple neurologic defects without respiratory or renal symptoms...
November 14, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137049/garcin-syndrome-caused-by-parotid-gland-adenoid-cystic-carcinoma-a-case-report
#2
Nian-Ge Xia, Yan-Yan Chen, Xin-Shi Wang, Hui-Qin Xu, Rong-Yuan Zheng
RATIONALE: Garcin syndrome is characterized by the gradual involvement, and ultimately, unilateral paralysis of at least 7 and sometimes all cranial nerves, without intracranial hypertension or any long tract signs. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report the case of a 59-year-old woman who presented with Garcin syndrome, which gradually progressed over a period of 2 years. DIAGNOSIS: A left parotid gland biopsy revealed parotid gland adenoid cystic carcinoma (PGACC) with perineural invasion of a peripheral nerve bundle and lymph node metastasis...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135869/usefulness-of-high-resolution-3d-multi-sequences-for-peripheral-facial-palsy-differentiation-between-bell-s-palsy-and-ramsay-hunt-syndrome
#3
Junko Kuya, Keita Kuya, Yuki Shinohara, Yasuomi Kunimoto, Hiroaki Yazama, Toshihide Ogawa, Hiromi Takeuchi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including three-dimensional (3D) sequences in the differentiation between Bell's palsy (BP) and Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS). STUDY DESIGN: A prospective study. SETTING: Tertiary care center. PATIENTS: Twenty patients: 15 patients with BP and five patients with RHS. INTERVENTION: Diagnostic. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Clinical diagnosis (BP or RHS)...
December 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135814/neuro-ophthalmology-at-a-tertiary-eye-care-centre-in-india
#4
Rebika Dhiman, Digvijay Singh, Shiva P Gantayala, Vaitheeswaran L Ganesan, Pradeep Sharma, Rohit Saxena
BACKGROUND: Neuro-ophthalmology as a specialty is underdeveloped in India. The aim of our study was to determine the spectrum and profile of patients presenting to a tertiary eye care center with neuro-ophthalmic disorders. METHODS: A retrospective hospital-based study was conducted, and records of all patients seen at the neuro-ophthalmology clinic of Dr. Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, over a 1-year period were retrieved and evaluated...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135804/surgical-management-of-tumors-involving-meckel-s-cave-and-cavernous-sinus-role-of-an-extended-middle-fossa-and-lateral-sphenoidectomy-approach
#5
Daniel Q Sun, Arnold H Menezes, Matthew A Howard, Bruce J Gantz, David M Hasan, Marlan R Hansen
OBJECTIVE: To study the indications and outcomes of lateral sphenoidectomy as part of a combined skull base approach in the treatment of tumors involving Meckel's cave (MC) and cavernous sinus (CS). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective patient series. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Twenty-two consecutive patients (mean age: 45 yr, range: 16-76) who underwent transzygomatic, extended middle fossa approaches for tumors involving MC and CS...
November 13, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135313/third-cranial-nerve-palsy-after-a-chikungunya-virus-infection
#6
Ana Luiza Fontes de Azevedo Costa, Thiago Gonçalves Dos Santos Martins, Diogo Gonçalves Dos Santos Martins
Chikungunya fever is a disease caused by a virus from the same family as dengue and Zika. It is endemic in several parts of the world and has recently spread to Latin America. We report the case of a patient, aged 58 years, from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, who in 2013 developed an acute bilateral third cranial nerve palsy sparing the pupil. After extensive investigation, it was diagnosed as caused by chikungunya infection. The patient was treated with pulse therapy and after 5 months of the onset of the condition, the patient showed improvement...
November 14, 2017: Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129769/retrosigmoid-intradural-suprameatal-inframeatal-approach-for-complete-surgical-removal-of-a-giant-recurrent-vestibular-schwannoma-with-severe-petrous-bone-involvement-technical-case-report
#7
Yosuke Sato, Tohru Mizutani, Katsuyoshi Shimizu, Hans-Joachim Freund, Madjid Samii
BACKGROUND: Surgical removal of giant vestibular schwannomas with severe petrous bone involvement remains challenging due to the high risk of complications. The retrosigmoid intradural suprameatal-inframeatal approach (RISIA) allows for safe exposure extending from Meckel's cave to the petrous internal carotid artery (ICA). CLINICAL DESCRIPTION: A 27-year-old man presented with recurrence of a giant vestibular schwannoma (4.5 cm) invading Meckel's cave and the left petrous ICA...
November 9, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128008/practical-tips-for-mr-imaging-of-perineural-tumor-spread
#8
REVIEW
Claudia F E Kirsch, Ilona M Schmalfuss
Perineural tumor spread (PNS) substantially alters a patient's prognosis and treatment plan. Therefore, it is critical that the radiologists are familiar with the course of cranial nerves commonly affected by PNS and the neuronal connections to appropriately map the extent of PNS. Limited involvement of a nerve by PNS might be resectable, whereas advanced PNS may require radiation therapy.
February 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127999/high-resolution-isotropic-three-dimensional-mr-imaging-of-the-extraforaminal-segments-of-the-cranial-nerves
#9
REVIEW
Jessica Wen, Naman S Desai, Dean Jeffery, Nafi Aygun, Ari Blitz
High-resolution isotropic 3-dimensional (D) MR imaging with and without contrast is now routinely used for imaging evaluation of cranial nerve anatomy and pathologic conditions. The anatomic details of the extraforaminal segments are well-visualized on these techniques. A wide range of pathologic entities may cause enhancement or displacement of the nerve, which is now visible to an extent not available on standard 2D imaging. This article highlights the anatomy of extraforaminal segments of the cranial nerves and uses select cases to illustrate the utility and power of these sequences, with a focus on constructive interference in steady-state...
February 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126985/spatiotemporal-expression-pattern-of-connexin-43-during-early-chick-embryogenesis
#10
Karyn Jourdeuil, Lisa A Taneyhill
During embryogenesis, a single cell develops into new tissues and organs that are made up of a number of different cell types. The assembly of the trigeminal ganglion (cranial nerve V), an important component of the peripheral nervous system, typifies this process. The trigeminal ganglia perform key sensory functions, including sensing pain and touch in the face, and arise from cells of two different progenitor populations, the neural crest and the cranial placodes. One question that remains poorly understood is how these two populations of cells interact with each other during development to form a functional ganglion...
November 7, 2017: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126165/foramen-magnum-dural-arteriovenous-fistulas-clinical-presentations-and-treatment-outcomes-a-case-series-of-12-patients
#11
Mogwale S Motebejane, In Sup Choi
BACKGROUND: Dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) are usually seen in relation to the venous sinuses, but in certain rare instances fistulas may not drain directly into the venous sinuses but rather drain into the cortical veins. This rare form of DAVF may present with either intracranial hemorrhage or myelopathy. The mode of clinical presentation is influenced by the venous outflow into either intracranial drainage or caudally intraspinal drainage. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical presentations, angioarchitectural characteristics, and treatment of 12 patients who presented with DAVF in the region of the foramen magnum...
November 8, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125412/stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-jugular-foramen-schwannomas-an-international-multicenter-study
#12
Hideyuki Kano, Antonio Meola, Huai-Che Yang, Wan-Yuo Guo, Roberto Martínez-Alvarez, Nuria Martínez-Moreno, Dusan Urgosik, Roman Liscak, Or Cohen-Inbar, Jason Sheehan, John Y K Lee, Mahmoud Abbassy, Gene H Barnett, David Mathieu, Douglas Kondziolka, L Dade Lunsford
OBJECTIVE For some jugular foramen schwannomas (JFSs), complete resection is possible but may be associated with significant morbidity. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a minimally invasive alternative or adjunct to microsurgery for JFSs. The authors reviewed clinical and imaging outcomes of SRS for patients with these tumors. METHODS Nine participating centers of the International Gamma Knife Research Foundation identified 92 patients who underwent SRS between 1990 and 2013. Forty-one patients had prior subtotal microsurgical resection...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122907/clival-metastasis-from-a-gastrointestinal-adenocarcinoma-causing-multiple-cranial-neuropathies
#13
Charlotte Lee, Jesse M Thon, Amar Dhand
A 78-year-old man with a history of benign prostatic hyperplasia presented with double vision, facial pain, altered taste and headache for 7 weeks. Neurological exam was notable for palsies of the right V, VI, VII and XII cranial nerves. An expansive clival mass and multiple lesions in the vertebra were found on MRI. Radionuclide studies showed extensive tumour burden in his liver and peritoneum. His serologies showed normal carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 levels and modestly elevated prostate-specific antigen, which was a red herring...
November 8, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122535/limited-output-transcranial-electrical-stimulation-lotes-2017-engineering-principles-regulatory-statutes-and-industry-standards-for-wellness-over-the-counter-or-prescription-devices-with-low-risk
#14
Marom Bikson, Bhaskar Paneri, Andoni Mourdoukoutas, Zeinab Esmaeilpour, Bashar W Badran, Robin Azzam, Devin Adair, Abhishek Datta, Xiao Hui Fang, Brett Wingeier, Daniel Chao, Miguel Alonso-Alonso, Kiwon Lee, Helena Knotkova, Adam J Woods, David Hagedorn, Doug Jeffery, James Giordano, William J Tyler
We present device standards for low-power non-invasive electrical brain stimulation devices classified as limited output transcranial electrical stimulation (tES). Emerging applications of limited output tES to modulate brain function span techniques to stimulate brain or nerve structures, including transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), and transcranial pulsed current stimulation (tPCS), have engendered discussion on how access to technology should be regulated...
October 17, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121382/guidelines-for-radiographic-imaging-of-cranial-neuropathies
#15
Aliasgher Khaku, Vijay Patel, Thomas Zacharia, David Goldenberg, Johnathan McGinn
Disruption of the complex pathways of the 12 cranial nerves can occur at any site along their course, and many, varied pathologic processes may initially manifest as dysfunction and neuropathy. Radiographic imaging (computed topography or magnetic resonance imaging) is frequently used to evaluate cranial neuropathies; however, indications for imaging and imaging method of choice vary considerably between the cranial nerves. The purpose of this review is to provide an analysis of the diagnostic yield and the most clinically appropriate means to evaluate cranial neuropathies using radiographic imaging...
October 2017: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116936/neurophysiological-aspects-of-the-trigeminal-sensory-system-an-update
#16
Frederic Van der Cruyssen, Constantinus Politis
The trigeminal system is one of the most complex cranial nerve systems of the human body. Research on it has vastly grown in recent years and concentrated more and more on molecular mechanisms and pathophysiology, but thorough reviews on this topic are lacking, certainly on the normal physiology of the trigeminal sensory system. Here we review the current literature on neurophysiology of the trigeminal nerve from peripheral receptors up to its central projections toward the somatosensory cortex. We focus on the most recent scientific discoveries and describe historical relevant research to substantiate further...
November 8, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114308/calvarial-orbital-metastasis-of-prostate-carcinoma-which-was-diagnosed-with-sixth-cranial-nerve-palsy
#17
Zühtü Özbek, Emre Özkara, Deniz Arik, Metin Atasoy Ant
Sixth nerve palsy is frequently due to infectious orbital lesions, trauma, elevated intracranial pressure, brainstem lesions, and vasculopathies. Here, we describe a rare cause of sixth cranial nerve (CN) palsy secondary to calvarial and orbital metastasis of prostate carcinoma. The diagnosis of the prostate carcinoma with sixth CN palsy is a very rare condition. A 66-year-old male patient presented with complaints of blurred vision, double vision, and inability to move outward in the right eye for 3 weeks...
October 2017: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107795/gustatory-lid-retraction-an-unusual-congenital-cranial-dysinnervation-disorder
#18
Arif O Khan, Zabila Khan
Congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders are developmental abnormalities of cranial nerves that often include abnormal synkinesis. Among the most common ophthalmic congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders are Duane retraction syndrome and the Marcus-Gunn jaw-winking phenomenon. This report documents gustatory lid retraction as an unusual congenital cranial dysinnervation.
October 28, 2017: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107724/prosthetic-replacement-of-the-ocular-surface-ecosystem-prose-treatment-of-ocular-surface-disease-following-skull-base-tumor-resection
#19
Carolyn E Kloek, Karen W Jeng-Miller, Deborah S Jacobs, Ian F Dunn
Prosthetic Replacement of the Ocular Surface Ecosystem (PROSE) treatment is an effective, non-surgical therapeutic option for patients with ocular surface disease related to cranial nerve deficits secondary to skull base tumor resection. This case series describes the impact of PROSE treatment in patients with symptomatic exposure keratopathy or neurotrophic keratitis after skull base tumor surgery. All patients improved symptomatically and functionally with PROSE treatment, and have had sustained improvement for as long as 3 years...
October 28, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102606/incidence-and-etiology-of-presumed-fourth-cranial-nerve-palsy-a-population-based-study
#20
Eniolami O Dosunmu, Sarah R Hatt, David A Leske, David O Hodge, Jonathan M Holmes
PURPOSE: To determine the incidence of isolated, presumed fourth nerve palsy in a defined population, and to report the frequency of each cause. DESIGN: Retrospective, population-based case-series. METHODS: A population-based database was used to identify all cases of isolated fourth nerve palsy in Olmsted County, MN, USA diagnosed over a 15-year period (January 1, 1978 to December 31, 1992). The most likely etiology was determined by review of the entire medical record by two ophthalmologists...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
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