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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454467/microvascular-decompression-for-hemifacial-spasm-outcome-on-spasm-and-complications-a-review
#1
M Sindou, P Mercier
Over the last decades microvascular decompression (MVD) has been established as the curative treatment of the primary Hemifacial Spasm (HFS), proven to be linked in almost all cases to a neurovascular compression of the facial nerve. Because the disease is not life-threatening and MVD not totally innocuous, efficacy and safety have to be weighted before decision taken of indicating surgery. The authors have been charged by the French Speaking Society of Neurosurgery to conduct a detailed evaluation of the probability of relief of the spasm that MVD is able to obtain, together with its potential complications...
February 14, 2018: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452069/idiopathic-isolated-unilateral-hypoglossal-nerve-palsy-a-report-of-2-cases-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
Akio Shibata, Masashi Kimura, Kenichiro Ishiabashi, Masahiro Umemura
Hypoglossal nerve palsy (HNP) is a common finding in neurologic diseases when associated with other cranial nerve palsies or further pathology and exhibits characteristic clinical manifestations, including unilateral atrophy of the musculature of the tongue. It occasionally appears as the initial or solitary sign of an intracranial or extracranial space-occupying lesion, head or neck injury, or vascular abnormality of the internal carotid artery. There are few cases of idiopathic isolated unilateral HNP, which should be diagnosed through exclusion...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444796/biopsy-proven-multiple-sclerosis-in-an-adult-patient-with-atypical-craniometaphyseal-dysplasia
#3
Jacopo C DiFrancesco, Giuseppe Isimbaldi, Maria Francesca Bedeschi, Barbara Castellotti
Craniometaphyseal dysplasia (CMD) is a rare condition characterised by progressive, diffuse hyperostosis of cranial and long bones, with compression of cranial nerves, linked to mutations in ANKH or GJA1 genes. Here we describe an adult case with clinical features of CMD, who developed cerebral expansive lesion of undetermined nature. Brain biopsy revealed active demyelinating lesions, consistent with multiple sclerosis. The genetic screening of target genes for CMD ( ANKH and GJA1 ) resulted negative in this patient...
February 14, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444422/netrin-1-confines-rhombic-lip-derived-neurons-to-the-cns
#4
Andrea R Yung, Noah R Druckenbrod, Jean-François Cloutier, Zhuhao Wu, Marc Tessier-Lavigne, Lisa V Goodrich
During brainstem development, newborn neurons originating from the rhombic lip embark on exceptionally long migrations to generate nuclei important for audition, movement, and respiration. Along the way, this highly motile population passes several cranial nerves yet remains confined to the CNS. We found that Ntn1 accumulates beneath the pial surface separating the CNS from the PNS, with gaps at nerve entry sites. In mice null for Ntn1 or its receptor DCC, hindbrain neurons enter cranial nerves and migrate into the periphery...
February 13, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443722/characterizing-treatment-utilization-patterns-for-trigeminal-neuralgia-in-the-united-states
#5
Joanna M Zakrzewska, Ning Wu, John Y K Lee, Brian Werneburg, Deborah Hoffman, Ying Liu
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a rare orofacial disorder characterized by severe unilateral paroxysmal pain in the region of the fifth cranial nerve. Clinical guidelines recommend carbamazepine (only US Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for TN) and oxcarbazepine as first-line therapies. We utilized the US Truven Health MarketScan database to examine treatment patterns among patients with TN. METHODS: Included patients were aged ≥18 years, newly diagnosed with TN (≥2 TN diagnoses ≥14 days apart; no diagnosis in the prior year), continuously enrolled 1 year pre-index, with ≥3 years' follow-up post-index...
February 13, 2018: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436643/neuroprotective-effect-of-lurasidone-via-antagonist-activities-on-histamine-in-a-rat-model-of-cranial-nerve-involvement
#6
Baoming He, Liang Yu, Suping Li, Fei Xu, Lili Yang, Shuai Ma, Yi Guo
Cranial nerve involvement frequently involves neuron damage and often leads to psychiatric disorder caused by multiple inducements. Lurasidone is a novel antipsychotic agent approved for the treatment of cranial nerve involvement and a number of mental health conditions in several countries. In the present study, the neuroprotective effect of lurasidone by antagonist activities on histamine was investigated in a rat model of cranial nerve involvement. The antagonist activities of lurasidone on serotonin 5‑HT7, serotonin 5‑HT2A, serotonin 5‑HT1A and serotonin 5‑HT6 were analyzed, and the preclinical therapeutic effects of lurasidone were examined in a rat model of cranial nerve involvement...
February 13, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434454/sequential-spinal-and-intracranial-dural-metastases-in-gastric-adenocarcinoma-a-case-report
#7
Hongsik Kim, Kyung Sik Yi, Won-Dong Kim, Seung-Myoung Son, Yaewon Yang, Jihyun Kwon, Hye Sook Han
Dural metastasis from primary gastric adenocarcinoma has been rarely reported, and its prognosis is very poor because it frequently leads to acute subdural hematoma. Here, we describe a case with sequential spinal and cranial dural metastases from gastric adenocarcinoma without subdural hematoma. A 43-year-old woman with gastric adenocarcinoma and well-controlled peritoneal carcinomatosis presented with back pain, right radiating leg pain, left facial palsy, and hearing loss. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine and brain revealed dural masses at the lumbosacral junction with invasion to the L5 and S1 nerve roots and at the skull base with invasion to the internal auditory canal...
February 7, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433183/quality-of-life-after-craniovertebral-junction-meningioma-resection-shaping-the-real-neurologic-and-functional-expectancies-about-these-surgeries-in-a-contemporary-large-multicenter-experience
#8
Antonino Raco, Alessandro Pesce, Giada Toccaceli, Alessandro Frati, Demo Eugenio Dugoni, Roberto Delfini
OBJECTIVE: Craniovertebral junction (CVJ) meningiomas are one of the most surgically complex conditions in neuro-oncologic surgery. The aim of this work is to correlate our data with clinical outcome to outline factors leading to a worse functional prognosis. METHODS: We analyzed sex, age, clinical presentation, topography, surgical approach, Simpson grade resection, postoperative lower cranial nerve deficits, consistency, histology, site of origin, presence of a capsule, and radiologic and clinical follow-up at 1, 6, and 12 months of 61 patients affected by CVJ meningiomas, operated on in our institution from 1992 to 2014...
February 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433111/-acute-flaccid-myelitis
#9
Ryutaro Kira
Acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) is a newly defined, rare, but clinically distinct syndrome of acute flaccid paralysis with spinal motor neuron involvement of unknown etiology. Clusters of AFM coincided with a nationwide outbreak of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) in the United States during autumn to winter of 2014 and in Japan during the autumn of 2015. Although EV-D68 was detected in only 20% of the AFM patients, mainly from respiratory specimens without apparent viral detection from blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples, strong temporal associations were noted...
February 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429522/neurochemical-characteristics-of-calbindin-like-immunoreactive-coeliac-cranial-mesenteric-ganglion-complex-ccmg-neurons-supplying-the-pre-pyloric-region-of-the-porcine-stomach
#10
Katarzyna Palus, Michał Bulc, Marta Czajkowska, Bartosz Miciński, Jarosław Całka
The present study was designed to determine the distribution, morphology and co-localization of calbindin-D28k (CB) with other neuroactive substances in the coeliac-cranial mesenteric ganglion complex (CCMG) neurons supplying the prepyloric region of the porcine stomach. In all animals, a median laparotomy was performed and the fluorescent retrograde neuronal tracer Fast Blue was injected into the wall of the stomach prepyloric area. On the 28th day, all animals were euthanized and the CCMG complexes were then collected and processed for double-labelling immunofluorescence for CB and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), galanin (GAL), somatostatin (SOM), leu 5-enkephalin (LENK), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), substance P (SP) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART), Immunohistochemistry revealed that 8...
February 2018: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428994/occipitalis-muscle-using-for-repetitive-facial-nerve-stimulation-in-myasthenia-gravis
#11
Ahmet Yildirim, Turgut Adatepe, Aysegul Gunduz, Orhan Yagiz, Nurten Uzun
Repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS) is a highly sensitive electrophysiological test used for diagnosing myasthenia gravis (MG). Here, we evaluated electrodiagnostic value of RNS using facial nerve and occipitalis muscle. Patients with generalized MG were included. Clinical findings were assessed. RNS test was performed on occipitalis, nasalis, trapezius, abductor policis brevis (APB) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles. Twenty-five (78%) patients had relevant decrement during RNS test of at least one muscle...
February 10, 2018: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428981/factors-associated-with-clinical-and-radiological-status-on-admission-in-patients-with-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#12
Daniel W Zumofen, Michel Roethlisberger, Rita Achermann, Schatlo Bawarjan, Martin N Stienen, Christian Fung, Donato D'Alonzo, Nicolai Maldaner, Andrea Ferrari, Marco V Corniola, Daniel Schoeni, Johannes Goldberg, Daniele Valsecchi, Thomas Robert, Rodolfo Maduri, Martin Seule, Jan-Karl Burkhardt, Serge Marbacher, Philippe Bijlenga, Kristine A Blackham, Heiner C Bucher, Luigi Mariani, Raphael Guzman
Grading scales yield objective measure of the severity of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and serve as to guide treatment decisions and for prognostication. The purpose of this cohort study was to determine what factors govern a patient's disease-specific admission scores in a representative Central European cohort. The Swiss Study of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage includes anonymized data from all tertiary referral centers serving subarachnoid hemorrhage patients in Switzerland. The 2009-2014 dataset was used to evaluate the impact of patient and aneurysm characteristics on the patients' status at admission using descriptive and multivariate regression analysis...
February 10, 2018: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424937/pathogenesis-of-cranial-neuropathies-in-moebius-syndrome-electrodiagnostic-orofacial-studies
#13
Francis Renault, Roberto Flores-Guevara, Bernard Sergent, Jean Jacques Baudon, Jessie Aouizerate, Marie-Paule Vazquez, Cyril Gitiaux
INTRODUCTION: We designed a retrospective study of 59 patients with congenital sporadic non-progressive bilateral facial and abducens palsies. METHODS: Examinations included needle EMG of facial and oral muscles, facial nerve motor latency and conduction velocity (FNCV), and blink responses (BRs). RESULTS: Neurogenic EMG changes were found in one or more muscles in 55/59 patients, with no abnormal spontaneous activity. EMG changes were homogeneously neurogenic in 17 patients, homogeneously myopathic in one, and heterogeneous in 41/59 patients...
February 9, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422362/multiple-cranial-neuropathies-as-a-presentation-of-spontaneous-internal-carotid-artery-dissection-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#14
Stephen W English, Theodore J Passe, E Paul Lindell, James P Klaas
Cervical artery dissection is an underrecognized cause of lower cranial neuropathies and diagnosis can remain elusive if not properly investigated. We present a case of an internal carotid artery dissection that was initially missed in a 48-year-old man who presented with subacute-onset of dysarthria, dysphagia, and unilateral tongue weakness. Knowledge of the most common presenting symptoms, relevant neuroanatomy, and neuroimaging techniques is essential to avoid misdiagnosis. Pseudoaneurysm formation from subadventitial carotid artery dissection may result in compressive neuropathies of cranial nerves IX, X, XI, and XII without associated cerebral ischemia...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422277/revascularization-of-radiation-induced-carotid-artery-stenosis-with-carotid-endarterectomy-vs-carotid-artery-stenting-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Stefanos Giannopoulos, Pavlos Texakalidis, Anil Kumar Jonnalagadda, Theofilos Karasavvidis, Spyridon Giannopoulos, Damianos G Kokkinidis
OBJECTIVE: The incidence of carotid artery stenosis after head and neck radiation is anticipated to rise due to the increasing survival of patients with head and neck malignancies. It remains unclear whether carotid artery stenting (CAS) or endarterectomy (CEA) is the best treatment strategy for radiation-induced carotid artery stenosis. MATERIALS & METHODS: This study was performed according to the PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines. Eligible studies were identified through a comprehensive search of PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane Central until July 20, 2017...
January 31, 2018: Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine: Including Molecular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420383/primitive-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-pterygopalatine-fossa
#16
Olivier Mauvais, Cécile Badet, Laetitia Lestrade, Laurent Tavernier
Primitive tumors of pterygopalatine fossa (PPF) are often benign tumors or extension of a malignant sinonasal tract. Primitive tumors may rarely occur in PPF.The authors present a 71-year-old woman with a 6-month history of left cranial nerve palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography-computed tomography showed an enhancing isolated lesion at the PPF. A transmaxillary biopsy was performed, leading to diagnosis of primitive squamous cell carcinoma. The patient underwent radiotherapy treatment...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417279/tumors-of-the-parapharyngeal-space-the-vu-university-medical-center-experience-over-a-20-year-period
#17
Thijs van Hees, Stijn van Weert, Birgit Witte, C René Leemans
BACKGROUND: Tumors of the parapharyngeal space (PPS) are rare, accounting for 0.5-1.5% of all head and neck tumors. The anatomy of the PPS is responsible for a wide variety of tumors arising from the PPS. This series of 99 PPS tumors provides an overview of the clinical course and management of PPS tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included clinical data from patients treated for PPS tumors from 1991 to 2012 (warranting at least a 4-year follow-up) at the VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands...
February 7, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416907/aneurysm-trapping-by-both-direct-and-endovascular-surgery-for-vertebral-artery-dissection-a-case-report
#18
Makoto Katsuno, Akira Matsuno
Background: Although vertebral artery (VA) dissecting aneurysms are treated by direct or endovascular surgery, some disadvantages are associated with each surgery. Therefore, the type of surgery should be selected based on the condition of the aneurysm. We performed aneurysm trapping by endovascular surgery via the contralateral VA after proximal direct ligation with bypass to prevent complications as well as achieve complete treatment. Case Description: We attempted to insert a distal clip to achieve complete trapping of the ruptured VA dissecting aneurysm after proximal ligation with occipital artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) anastomosis; however, the operative field was limited by the existence of lower cranial nerves, brain swelling, and tortuosity of VA...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416903/giant-vertebral-aneurysm-a-case-report-detailing-successful-treatment-with-combined-stenting-and-surgery
#19
Gabriele Capo, Maria C Vescovi, Giovanni Toniato, Benedetto Petralia, Vladimir Gavrilovic, Miran Skrap
Background: Giant aneurysms (>25 mm) arising from the vertebral artery (VA) often present with slow progression of symptoms and signs because of gradual brainstem and cranial nerve compression. The underlying pathophysiology is not well understood, and treatment, wherever possible, is tailored to each singular case. Endovascular management does not usually solve the problem of mass compression, whereas surgical treatment involves several complications. Case Description: A 58-year-old woman presented with a continuously growing giant right VA aneurysm, partially thrombosed, even after endovascular treatment (placement of two diversion flow stents)...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414420/expression-of-the-transcription-factor-foxp2-in-brainstem-respiratory-circuits-of-adult-rat-is-restricted-to-upper-airway-pre-motor-areas
#20
Davor Stanić, Rishi R Dhingra, Mathias Dutschmann
Expression of the transcription factor FOXP2 is linked to brain circuits that control motor function and speech. Investigation of FOXP2 protein expression in respiratory areas of the ponto-medullary brainstem of adult rat revealed distinct rostro-caudal expression gradients. A high density of FOXP2 immunoreactive nuclei was observed within the rostral pontine Kölliker-Fuse nucleus, compared to low densities in caudal pontine and rostral medullary respiratory nuclei, including the: (i) noradrenergic A5 and parafacial respiratory groups; (ii) Bötzinger and pre-Bötzinger complex and; (iii) rostral ventral respiratory group...
January 31, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
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