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Binocular vision

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893095/functional-reading-independence-fri-index-a-new-patient-reported-outcome-measure-for-patients-with-geographic-atrophy
#1
Miriam Kimel, Nancy Kline Leidy, Elizabeth Tschosik, Chantal Dolan, Eric H Souied, Rohit Varma, Neil M Bressler
Purpose: To develop and validate the Functional Reading Independence (FRI) Index, a new patient-reported outcome measure assessing reading activities in individuals with geographic atrophy (GA) due to age-related macular degeneration. Methods: The Index was developed through expert consultation and qualitative patient interviews. Reliability, validity, and responsiveness were tested with data from the Mahalo study (NCT01229215) of lampalizumab in patients with GA...
November 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890189/diplopia-what-to-double-check-in-radiographic-imaging-of-double-vision
#2
REVIEW
Claudia F E Kirsch, Karen Black
When patients see double with both eyes open, known as "binocular diplopia," this may be a harbinger of underlying life-threatening causes. This article presents pertinent anatomy, critical abnormality, and radiographic features that should be double checked for in diplopia. Key areas requiring a double check using the acronym VISION include Vascular, Infectious and Inflammatory, the Scalp for giant cell arteritis, Sphenoid and Skull base in trauma, Increased intracranial pressure (pseudotumor cerebri), Onset of new headaches or psychosis, and Neoplasm...
January 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882486/vep-analysis-methods-in-children-with-optic-nerve-hypoplasia-relationship-to-visual-acuity-and-optic-disc-diameter
#3
John P Kelly, James O Phillips, Avery H Weiss
PURPOSE: Assessing vision in young children with optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) is challenging due to multi-directional infantile nystagmus, the range of optic nerve loss, and cognitive delay. This study examined visual evoked potential (VEP) responses and averaging techniques in children with ONH. The assumption is that EEG epochs with inconsistent temporal phase would be associated with nystagmus, signal reduction due to axon loss, and visual inattention. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed on 44 children (average age 2...
November 23, 2016: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873014/binocular-function-changes-produced-in-response-to-overnight-orthokeratology
#4
Gema Felipe-Marquez, María Nombela-Palomo, Catalina Palomo-Álvarez, Isabel Cacho, Amelia Nieto-Bona
PURPOSE: To analyze the binocular function changes produced on subjects undergoing overnight orthokeratology (OK) treatment over short-term (3 months) and long-term (3 years) wear. METHODS: A prospective, longitudinal study on young adult subjects with low to moderate myopia was carried out. Binocular function was assessed by the following sequence of tests: Distance and near horizontal phoria (Von Graefe technique), distance and near horizontal vergence ranges (Risley rotary prisms), accommodative convergence/accommodation (AC/A) ratio (gradient method) and the near point of convergence (standard push-up technique)...
November 21, 2016: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867729/binocular-summation-and-visual-function-with-induced-anisocoria-and-monovision
#5
José J Castro, Margarita Soler, Carolina Ortiz, José R Jiménez, Rosario G Anera
The advances in new techniques for correcting presbyopia, such as a small aperture combined with monovision, require an in-depth study of binocular aspects. In this work, we have studied binocular visual performance of 12 subjects after inducing different degrees of anisocoria combined with two different add powers in the non-dominant eye. We have analysed visual performance in terms of the visual-discrimination capacity (a function to evaluate the strength of bothersome halos) and the contrast-sensitivity...
October 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859646/prevalence-of-non-strabismic-anomalies-of-binocular-vision-in-tamil-nadu-report-2-of-band-study
#6
Jameel Rizwana Hussaindeen, Archayeeta Rakshit, Neeraj Kumar Singh, Ronnie George, Meenakshi Swaminathan, Suman Kapur, Mitchell Scheiman, Krishna Kumar Ramani
BACKGROUND: Population-based studies on the prevalence of non-strabismic anomalies of binocular vision in ethnic Indians are more than two decades old. Based on indigenous normative data, the BAND (Binocular Vision Anomalies and Normative Data) study aims to report the prevalence of non-strabismic anomalies of binocular vision among school children in rural and urban Tamil Nadu. METHODS: This population-based, cross-sectional study was designed to estimate the prevalence of non-strabismic anomalies of binocular vision in the rural and urban population of Tamil Nadu...
November 18, 2016: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856748/rapid-recovery-from-the-effects-of-early-monocular-deprivation-is-enabled-by-temporary-inactivation-of-the-retinas
#7
Ming-Fai Fong, Donald E Mitchell, Kevin R Duffy, Mark F Bear
A half-century of research on the consequences of monocular deprivation (MD) in animals has revealed a great deal about the pathophysiology of amblyopia. MD initiates synaptic changes in the visual cortex that reduce acuity and binocular vision by causing neurons to lose responsiveness to the deprived eye. However, much less is known about how deprivation-induced synaptic modifications can be reversed to restore normal visual function. One theoretically motivated hypothesis is that a period of inactivity can reduce the threshold for synaptic potentiation such that subsequent visual experience promotes synaptic strengthening and increased responsiveness in the visual cortex...
November 17, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852405/-the-evaluation-of-binocular-visual-field-and-clinical-application-of-glaucoma
#8
Y L Wu, H Zhong
Visual field is an important means of the assessment of visual function. In our daily life, the actual visual function is consist of both eyes. Therefore, the binocular visual field test is significant to understand the real visual function. Currently, the binocular vision assessment methods included Esterman visual test and Integrated visual fields. The IVF includes: binocular summation, best location, best eye and average eye. In this review, the significance of binocular visual field inspection, binocular visual field integration methods and its practical application in daily life and clinical glaucoma research work are summarized...
November 11, 2016: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846341/avoiding-monocular-artifacts-in-clinical-stereotests-presented-on-column-interleaved-digital-stereoscopic-displays
#9
Ignacio Serrano-Pedraza, Kathleen Vancleef, Jenny C A Read
New forms of stereoscopic 3-D technology offer vision scientists new opportunities for research, but also come with distinct problems. Here we consider autostereo displays where the two eyes' images are spatially interleaved in alternating columns of pixels and no glasses or special optics are required. Column-interleaved displays produce an excellent stereoscopic effect, but subtle changes in the angle of view can increase cross talk or even interchange the left and right eyes' images. This creates several challenges to the presentation of cyclopean stereograms (containing structure which is only detectable by binocular vision)...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832268/an-active-efficient-coding-model-of-optokinetic-nystagmus
#10
Chong Zhang, Jochen Triesch, Bertram E Shi
Optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) is an involuntary eye movement responsible for stabilizing retinal images in the presence of relative motion between an observer and the environment. Fully understanding the development of OKN requires a neurally plausible computational model that accounts for the neural development and the behavior. To date, work in this area has been limited. We propose a neurally plausible framework for the joint development of disparity and motion tuning in the visual cortex and of optokinetic and vergence eye-movement behavior...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832248/binocular-ipad-game-vs-patching-for-treatment-of-amblyopia-in-children-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#11
Krista R Kelly, Reed M Jost, Lori Dao, Cynthia L Beauchamp, Joel N Leffler, Eileen E Birch
Importance: Fellow eye patching has long been the standard treatment for amblyopia, but it does not always restore 20/20 vision or teach the eyes to work together. Amblyopia can be treated with binocular games that rebalance contrast between the eyes so that a child may overcome suppression. However, it is unclear whether binocular treatment is comparable to patching in treating amblyopia. Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of a binocular iPad (Apple Inc) adventure game as amblyopia treatment and compare this binocular treatment with patching, the current standard of care...
November 10, 2016: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826934/outcomes-of-adjustable-strabismus-surgery-in-an-irish-university-hospital
#12
Alex Ferdi, Rory Kelly, Pat Logan, Ian Dooley
PURPOSE: Strabismus surgery aims to improve binocular vision, reduce diplopia, and enhance cosmesis. Adjustable strabismus procedures have been developed as a means of tackling unpredictability in some post-operative results. The purpose of the study was to compare the effectiveness of adjustable and non-adjustable squint procedures in the treatment of strabismus. METHODS: We analyzed adjustable or non-adjustable squint surgery undergone in our Irish locality by retrospectively studying 27 consecutive patients at Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin...
November 8, 2016: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824376/changes-to-corneal-aberrations-and-vision-after-monovision-in-patients-with-hyperopia-after-using-a-customized-aspheric-ablation-profile-to-increase-corneal-asphericity-q-factor
#13
Romain Courtin, Alain Saad, Alice Grise-Dulac, Emmanuel Guilbert, Damien Gatinel
PURPOSE: To evaluate the visual outcomes and fourth-order Zernike spherical aberrations induced with a customized change in corneal asphericity (ΔQ) correction of presbyopia combined with monovision for hyperopic patients. METHODS: Consecutive hyperopic patients who underwent presbyopic LASIK between September 2013 and July 2014 were included. For the non-dominant eyes, the aspheric ablation profile associated with a myopic refraction was planned using the Custom-Q nomogram (Alcon Laboratories, Inc...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822354/the-whole-is-other-than-the-sum-perceived-contrast-summation-within-color-and-luminance-plaids
#14
Avital S Cherniawsky, Kathy T Mullen
The apparent contrast of a plaid is a reflection of the neural relationship between the responses to its two orthogonal component gratings. To investigate the perceived contrast summation of the responses to component gratings in plaids, we compared the apparent contrasts of monocular plaids to a component grating presented alone across chromaticity and spatial frequency. Observers performed a contrast-matching task for red-green color and luminance stimuli at low- and medium-spatial frequencies. Using the measured points of subjective equality between plaids and gratings, we evaluate perceived contrast summation across conditions, which may vary between 1 (no summation) and 2 (full summation)...
September 2016: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821110/ocular-findings-in-patients-with-spastic-type-cerebral-palsy
#15
Myung Jin Park, Yung Ju Yoo, Chin Youb Chung, Jeong-Min Hwang
BACKGROUND: Refractive errors, strabismus, nystagmus, amblyopia, and cortical visual impairment are observed in 50 to 90 % of patients with cerebral palsy. Ocular abnormalities are known to differ according to cerebral palsy type, and spastic type has been reported to be more likely to be associated with ocular defects than the athetoid and ataxic types. METHODS: A retrospective review of medical records was performed on 105 consecutive children with spastic type of cerebral palsy who underwent ophthalmologic examination between July 2003 and March 2006...
November 8, 2016: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811576/vision-related-quality-of-life-in-korean-glaucoma-patients
#16
Kyung Rim Sung, Yeoun Sook Chun, Chan Kee Park, Hwang Ki Kim, Chungkwon Yoo, Yong Yeon Kim, Ki Ho Park, Chan Yun Kim, Kyu-Ryong Choi, Kyoo Won Lee, Seungbong Han, Chang-Sik Kim
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: The purpose of the study was to evaluate vision-related quality of life in Korean glaucoma patients and to explore the associated factors. METHODS: A total of 907 glaucoma patients were recruited from the prospectively designed LIGHT (Life quality of the glaucoma patient who underwent treatment) study organized by the Korean Glaucoma Society. Basic questionnaire that included items related to socioeconomic status, comorbidity, and lifestyle, and the validated Korean version of the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) were collected...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811525/fixation-stability-and-viewing-distance-in-patients-with-amd
#17
Luminita Tarita-Nistor, Esther G González, Taylor Brin, Mark S Mandelcorn, Anne-Catherine Scherlen, Efrem D Mandelcorn, Martin J Steinbach
PURPOSE: People with normal vision perform activities of daily living binocularly, while changing viewing distance frequently and effortlessly. Typically, in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), fixation stability is recorded with monocular instruments at a fixed viewing distance (i.e. optical infinity) to determine the location and precision of the preferred retinal loci (PRLs)-the part of the functional retina that fulfills the role of a pseudo-fovea. Fixation stability recorded with these instruments has been related to performance on visual tasks at shorter viewing distances, although it is not known how viewing distance affects the precision of ocular motor control in these patients...
November 1, 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802486/the-relationship-between-fusion-suppression-and-diplopia-in-normal-and-amblyopic-vision
#18
Daniel P Spiegel, Alex S Baldwin, Robert F Hess
Purpose: Single vision occurs through a combination of fusion and suppression. When neither mechanism takes place, we experience diplopia. Under normal viewing conditions, the perceptual state depends on the spatial scale and interocular disparity. The purpose of this study was to examine the three perceptual states in human participants with normal and amblyopic vision. Methods: Participants viewed two dichoptically separated horizontal blurred edges with an opposite tilt (2...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799582/binocular-vision-in-chronic-fatigue-syndrome
#19
Daisy Godts, Greta Moorkens, Danny G P Mathysen
INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE: To compare binocular vision measurements between Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) patients and healthy controls. METHODS: Forty-one CFS patients referred by the Reference Centre for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome of the Antwerp University Hospital and forty-one healthy volunteers, matched for age and gender, underwent a complete orthoptic examination. Data of visual acuity, eye position, fusion amplitude, stereopsis, ocular motility, convergence, and accommodation were compared between both groups...
January 2016: American Orthoptic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799577/high-ac-a-ratio-esotropia-do-we-really-need-to-be-using-bifocals
#20
Scott E Olitsky
INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE: Most strabismus specialists use bifocals for patients with convergence excess esotropia whose distance deviation is small. While this is a popular treatment modality, there is actually no good data to indicate that this should be considered a standard of care. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In patients for whom the distance deviation is small enough to allow for the development of binocular vision, my preference is to simply observe these patients...
January 2016: American Orthoptic Journal
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