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examination of cranial nerv

Max O Krucoff, Steven Cook, Owoicho Adogwa, Jessica Moreno, Siyun Yang, Jichun Xie, Alexander O Firempong, Nandan Lad, Carlos A Bagley
OBJECT: To examine the role of race, gender, and socioeconomics on presentations and outcomes of adult Chiari 1 malformations. METHODS: The charts of 638 adult patients with Chiari 1 malformations were reviewed, and 287 patients were included. Race, gender, insurance status, symptoms, depth of cerebellar tonsillar herniation, and presence of syringomyelia were examined as covariates in multivariate logistic regression models to identify independent predictors of presentation and outcome...
October 14, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Elizabeth Fairgray, Anna Miles
PURPOSE: Moebius Syndrome is a rare congenital neurological condition often characterized by multiple cranial nerve involvement. This case study presents an eight-year old girl with Moebius Syndrome (MC) who received 30 sessions of speech therapy. This occurred after presenting to clinic 11 months after left facial reanimation with gracilis thigh muscle transfer surgery. On examination, only flickers of left facial movement were observed. There was no movement on the right side of the face...
November 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Nerissa Naidoo, Lelika Lazarus, Nasirudeen O Ajayi, Kapil Sewsaran Satyapal
The carotid canal (CC) located in the petrous temporal bone transmits the internal carotid artery, internal carotid venous plexus and sympathetic nerve plexus from the neck into the cranial cavity. It is an accessible passage into the cranial cavity and is considered an important anatomical landmark for neurosurgeons. The aim of this study was to investigate the topographical, morphometric and morphological parameters of the CC. An examination of the CC and related adjacent structures in 81 dry skull specimens was performed...
October 7, 2016: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
Motomi Arai
This report concerns a case of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) with frequent treatment-dependent relapses. A 75-year-old male presented with a 2-month history of progressive weakness of the limbs with no sensory symptoms. Neurological examination revealed normal cranial nerves, MRC grade 4 power in the proximal and distal muscles of the limbs, and generalized areflexia. However, the sensory examination results, serum immunoelectrophoresis, anti-HIV antibody, and vitamins B1 and B12 levels were normal...
September 28, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Herta Flor, Dirk Rasche, Ariyan Pirayesh Islamian, Claudia Rolko, Pinar Yilmaz, Marc Ruppolt, H Holger Capelle, Volker Tronnier, Joachim K Krauss
BACKGROUND: Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is characterized by paroxysmal pain attacks affecting the somatosensory distributions of the trigeminal nerve. It is thought to be associated with a neurovascular conflict most frequently, but pathomechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In general, no sensory deficit is found in routine clinical examination. There is limited data available, however, showing subtle subclinical sensory deficits upon extensive testing. OBJECTIVE: We used quantitative sensory testing (QST) to detect abnormalities in sensory processing in patients with TN by comparing the affected and non-affected nerve branches with their contralateral counterparts and by comparing the results of the patients with those of controls...
September 2016: Pain Physician
Pasquale Pagliano, Tiziana Ascione, Maria Aurora Carleo, Giovanni Boccia, Francesco De Caro, Fabio Tortora
Incidence of brain infections in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive patients is reduced after the availability of current high active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 (HSV-2) is an infrequent cause of encephalitis in HIV patients despite it is frequently involved in sexual transmitted infections. Here, we report a case of HSV-2 encephalitis occurring in a patient without full suppression of HIV replication within the brain. A 38 year-old HIV infected man was admitted to our department because of recurrent generalized seizure and fever during the previous 24 hours...
September 1, 2016: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Samine Boloursaz, Sirous Nekooei, Farrokh Seilanian Toosi, Hossein Rezaei-Dalouei, Behrooz Davachi, Sahar Kazemi, Bita Abbasi
Objectives. The aim of this article is to represent the first reported case with cooccurrence of two rare alcohol related complications. Case Report. We report a 38-year-old man with chronic alcoholism who presented with both cranial and peripheral nerve palsy. On MRI examination characteristic findings of Marchiafava-Bignami disease were recognized. Discussion. Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD) is a rare complication of long-term, heavy alcohol abuse that has characteristic MRI findings. Acute alcohol related polyneuropathy (AARP) is another rare and not-well-understood complication of chronic alcohol abuse...
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
Takafumi Hosokawa, Hideto Nakajima, Akihiro Tsukahara, Kiich Unoda, Shimon Ishida, Fumiharu Kimura
A 64-year-old woman developed acute paralysis of glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory, and hypoglossal nerves on the left side after pain in the head and the left ear and throat. Cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed lymphocytic pleocytosis and elevated protein concentration. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV)-DNA was detected by PCR from cerebrospinal fluid. The diagnosis of lower cranial polyneuropathy due to VZV reactivation was made. After oral administration of an anti-viral agent and steroid, all symptoms and signs dramatically improved...
September 16, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Mathew B Vansant, Melda Kunduk, Andrew J McWhorter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews current literature regarding postsurgical dysphagia in nonmalignant disease examining the current recommendations, risk factors, and potential implications. RECENT FINDINGS: Surgical interventions including anterior cervical spine surgery, thyroidectomy, laryngeal and pulmonary, cardiac, esophageal and fundoplication, gastric and bariatric, and posterior fossa surgeries are known to result in swallowing dysfunction. Postsurgical dysphagia may increase the length of hospitalization, overall cost, risk of pneumonia, and time to oral intake...
September 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
Jeffrey P Guenette, Sree Harsha Tirumani, Abhishek R Keraliya, Atul B Shinagare, Nikhil H Ramaiya, Jyothi P Jagannathan
OBJECTIVE: The purposes of this study were to describe the spectrum of MRI findings and determine the prognostic role of MRI in adults with acute leukemia with positive CSF cytology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study of 34 patients (19 women, 15 men; mean age, 51 years; range, 18-72 years) treated for CNS leukemia between 2006 and 2011, 31 (91%) contrast-enhanced brain and 14 (41%) spine MRI studies were reviewed by two radiologists to note patterns of enhancement...
September 9, 2016: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Elizabeth Harrison, Matthew Cronin
BACKGROUND: Otalgia is frequently seen in general practice. It can be broadly divided into primary otalgia, which includes the diseases occurring largely within the ear, or secondary otalgia, which is pain referred to the ear by travelling along cranial nerves that supply both the ear and referred region. The causes of secondary otalgia may require more extensive examination and investigation to define the aetiology. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this article are to outline the most common causes of otalgia seen in general practice, and provide a pragmatic approach to initial assessment and deciding when to refer for specialist review...
July 2016: Australian Family Physician
Yuta Murakami, Taku Sato, Shinya Jinguji, Yugo Kishida, Tadashi Watanabe, Osamu Suzuki, Kazuhiko Ikeda, Miyuki Homma, Sanae Midorikawa, Kiyoshi Saito
We report a rare case of primary pituitary lymphoma in a 75-year-old immunocompetent woman. The patient was blind in the right eye and presented with visual disturbance in the left eye that started 2 months previously. She also exhibited right third and fifth cranial nerve palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)revealed an intrasellar mass lesion with right cavernous sinus invasion and suprasellar extension with compression of the optic chiasm. The mass lesion was isointense on both T1WI and T2WI, and showed less enhancement than a normal pituitary gland on gadolinium-enhanced T1WI...
September 2016: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
Daniel San-Juan, Manuel Escanio Cortés, Martha Tena-Suck, Adolfo Josué Orozco Garduño, Jesús Alejandro López Pizano, Jonathan Villanueva Domínguez, Maricarmen Fernández Gónzalez-Aragón, Juan Luis Gómez-Amador
This paper reports the case of a patient with optic nerve schwannoma and the first use of neurophysiological intraoperative monitoring of visual evoked potentials during the removal of such tumor with no postoperative visual damage. Schwannomas are benign neoplasms of the peripheral nervous system arising from the neural crest-derived Schwann cells, these tumors are rarely located in the optic nerve and the treatment consists on surgical removal leading to high risk of damage to the visual pathway. Case report of a thirty-year-old woman with an optic nerve schwannoma...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
T Tajima, T Wada, A Yoshizawa, T Masuda, T Okafuji, T Nakayama, K Hasuo
AIM: To examine the prevalence and detailed radiological findings of internal anomalies in thalidomide embryopathy (TE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Whole-body image screening for internal anomalies using unenhanced whole-body computed tomography (CT) and head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in 22 patients (13 women and nine men; mean age, 49 years; range, 47-51 years) with TE. RESULTS: Among the 22 patients with TE, internal anomalies were detected in 19 (86...
November 2016: Clinical Radiology
Theresia Monica Rahardjo, Tinni Trihartini Maskoen, Ike Sri Redjeki
BACKGROUND: Recovery from cytomegalovirus meningoencephalitis with brain stem death in an immunocompetent patient is almost impossible. We present a remarkable recovery from a possible cytomegalovirus infection in an immunocompetent man who had severe neurological syndromes, suggesting brain stem death complicated by pneumonia and pleural effusion. CASE PRESENTATION: A 19-year-old Asian man presented at our hospital's emergency department with reduced consciousness and seizures following high fever, headache, confusion, and vomitus within a week before arrival...
2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Kate E Hughes, Colin Seguin, Brent Felton, Mary J Hughes, David Castle
BACKGROUND: First described by Morgagni in 1761, aortic dissection (AD) is an acute life-threatening and time-sensitive disease process with an increasing mortality approaching 1% for every 1-hour delay in diagnosis within the first 48 hours. Despite continued surgical advancement, overall in-hospital mortality remains significant (27.4%). CASE REPORT: A 56-year-old woman presented to an outlying emergency department with a complaint of isolated lumbar pain associated with right lower extremity paresthesia and paralysis that progressed to the left...
October 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Joo Lian Julian Ong, Salmah Jalaludin
The purpose is to describe a case of traumatic right extracranial internal carotid artery (EICA) pseudoaneurysm, which is a rare entity and the evolution of treatment from surgery to minimally invasive intervention by endovascular stenting and coiling. We reported a case of traumatic right EICA pseudoaneurysm who presented with multiple cranial nerve palsies. Multiple radiological examinations [including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with angiogram, computed tomography angiogram (CTA), and digital subtraction angiogram (DSA)] demonstrated right EICA pseudoaneurysm...
March 2016: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
L H Chen, Y Yang, Q Wei, Y J Li, W D Li, J B Gao, B Yu, H Zhao, R X Xu
OBJECTIVE: With the development of modern skull base minimally invasive technology mature and neural radio surgery techniques, it is necessary to re-examine the therapeutic strategy for the treatment of petroclival meningiomas. To sum up the operative experience and methods in microsurgical resection of petroclival meningiomas by the combining trans-subtemporal and suboccipital retrosigmoid keyhole approach. To explore the minimally invasive operation approach of petroclival meningiomas, to raise the removal degree and to improve the postoperative result using this approach...
February 18, 2016: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Serap Ural, Behiye Özer, Fazıl Gelal, Derya Dirim Erdoğan, Nurbanu Sezak, Recep Balık, Tuna Demirdal, Metin Korkmaz
Toxocariasis caused by Toxocara canis or less frequently by T.catis is a common parasitic infection worldwide. Clinical spectrum in humans can vary from asymptomatic infection to serious organ disfunction depending on the load of parasite, migration target of the larva and the inflammatory response of the host. Transverse myelitis (TM) due to toxocariasis is an uncommon illness identified mainly as case reports in literature. In this report, a case of TM who was diagnosed as neurotoxocariasis by serological findings has been presented...
July 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Francesco Paparo, Mauro Massarelli, Riccardo Cordeschi, Vito Sciannameo, Fabrizio Spallaccia
The authors present a rare patient of right synovial chondromatosis (SC) of the temporomandibular joint in which diagnosis was late and delay led to SC extension to the cranial base. Synovial chondromatosis is a rare benign disorder characterized by multiple cartilaginous free-floating nodules originated from the synovial membrane of large articular joints of the body. Differential diagnosis is with neoplasm and radical surgical removal is essential. The patient came to the authors' observation complaining about long-lasting temporomandibular joint dysfunction...
October 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
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