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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774172/moebius-syndrome-with-hypoglossal-palsy-syndactyly-brachydactyly-and-anisometropic-amblyopia
#1
Muhammad Hassaan Ali, Samreen Jamal, Muhammad Ather Rashid, Usman Javaid, Nadeem Hafeez Butt
Moebius syndrome is a rare cause of congenital facial and abducens palsy.  It is sometimes associated with musculoskeletal abnormalities and other cranial nerve palsies. Genetics and ischemic insults to the fetus are considered to be the cause of this syndrome. We report here a 12-year-old female patient who was presented to us with poor cosmesis of her face, with associated decreased vision and lagophthalmos in her left eye. She didn't have any signs of exposure keratopathy in the affected eye. Her best-corrected vision was 20/20 and 20/60 in right and left eyes respectively...
March 16, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754211/awareness-of-dysgeusia-and-gustatory-tests-in-patients-undergoing-chemotherapy-for-breast-cancer
#2
Sayaka Kuba, Rie Fujiyama, Kosho Yamanouchi, Michi Morita, Chika Sakimura, Toshiko Hatachi, Megumi Matsumoto, Hiroshi Yano, Mitsuhisa Takatsuki, Naomi Hayashida, Takeshi Nagayasu, Susumu Eguchi
PURPOSE: We analyzed the prevalence of gustatory test abnormalities in breast cancer (BC) patients undergoing chemotherapy. METHODS: We enrolled 43 BC patients undergoing chemotherapy and 38 BC patients who had never undergone chemotherapy (control group). Two gustatory tests were conducted: an instillation method examining the threshold for four basic taste stimuli and an electrogustometry method measuring the threshold for perception with electric stimulation at the front two-thirds of the tongue (cranial nerve VII) and at the back third of the tongue (cranial nerve IX)...
May 12, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742889/intraoperative-neurophysiological-monitoring-a-review-of-techniques-used-for-brain-tumor-surgery-in-children
#3
REVIEW
Keewon Kim, Charles Cho, Moon-Suk Bang, Hyung-Ik Shin, Ji-Hoon Phi, Seung-Ki Kim
Intraoperative monitoring (IOM) utilizes electrophysiological techniques as a surrogate test and evaluation of nervous function while a patient is under general anesthesia. They are increasingly used for procedures, both surgical and endovascular, to avoid injury during an operation, examine neurological tissue to guide the surgery, or to test electrophysiological function to allow for more complete resection or corrections. The application of IOM during pediatric brain tumor resections encompasses a unique set of technical issues...
May 2018: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739345/atypical-central-retinal-artery-occlusion-as-the-first-presentation-of-poems-syndrome-a-case-report
#4
Panitha Jindahra, Charungthai Dejthevaporn, Pimjai Niparuck, Jariya Waisayarat, Piyaphon Cheecharoen, Thanatporn Threetong, Purit Petpiroon, Tharikarn Sujirakul, Anuchit Poonyathalang, Kavin Vanikieti
BACKGROUND: POEMS syndrome is a plasma cell disorder, which clinically manifests from paraneoplastic syndrome: polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal plasma cell disorder, and skin changes. The most common ocular manifestation is optic disc swelling, whereas other ocular manifestations; cystoid macular edema, serous macular detachment, venous sinus thrombosis, infiltrative orbitopathy, uveitis, neovascularization of the disc, peripapillary choroidal neovascularization and optic disc drusen, had also been reported...
May 8, 2018: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730064/risk-of-radiation-vasculopathy-and-stroke-in-pediatric-patients-treated-with-proton-therapy-for-brain-and-skull-base-tumors
#5
Matthew D Hall, Julie A Bradley, Ronny L Rotondo, Ricardo Hanel, Chetan Shah, Christopher G Morris, Philipp R Aldana, Daniel J Indelicato
PURPOSE: To estimate the rate of and identify risk factors for vasculopathy after proton therapy in pediatric patients with central nervous system and skull base tumors. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between 2006 and 2015, 644 pediatric patients with central nervous system and skull base tumors were treated with proton therapy at a single institution. The 3 most common histologies were craniopharyngioma (n = 135), ependymoma (n = 135), and low-grade glioma (n = 131)...
March 29, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725074/understanding-the-relationship-between-the-neurologic-pupil-index-and-constriction-velocity-values
#6
Ifeoluwa Shoyombo, Venkatesh Aiyagari, Sonja E Stutzman, Folefac Atem, Michelle Hill, Stephen A Figueroa, Chad Miller, Amber Howard, DaiWai M Olson
The pupillary light reflex (PLR) describes the response when light hits the retina and sends a signal (cranial nerve II) to the Edinger-Westphal Nucleus which via cranial nerve III results in pupillary constriction. The Neurological Pupil indexTM (NPi) and pupil constriction velocity (CV) are two distinct variables that can be observed and measured using a pupillometer. We examine NPi and CV in 27,462 pupil readings (1,617 subjects). NPi values <3.0 and a CV < 0.8 mm/sec were considered abnormal...
May 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701558/syringobulbia-in-pediatric-patients-with-chiari-malformation-type-i
#7
Arnold H Menezes, Jeremy D W Greenlee, Brian J Dlouhy
OBJECTIVE Syringobulbia (SB) is a rare entity, with few cases associated with Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) in the pediatric population. The authors reviewed all pediatric cases of CM-I-associated SB managed at their institution in order to better understand the presentation, treatment, and surgical outcomes of this condition. METHODS A prospectively maintained institutional database of craniovertebral junction abnormalities was analyzed to identify all cases of CM-I and SB from the MRI era (i.e., after 1984)...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699980/neuro-ophthalmological-manifestations-of-beh%C3%A3-et-s-disease
#8
Ammr Alghamdi, Bahram Bodaghi, Chloé Comarmond, Anne Claire Desbois, Fanny Domont, Bertrand Wechsler, Raphael Depaz, Phuc Le Hoang, Patrice Cacoub, Valérie Touitou, David Saadoun
BACKGROUND: The neuro-ophthalmological manifestations of Behcet's disease (BD) are rare, and data regarding their characteristics and outcome are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To report prevalence, main characteristics and outcome of neuro-ophthalmological manifestations in BD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective monocentric study of 217 patients diagnosed with neuro-Behçet's disease (NBD), of whom 29 (13.3%) patients presented with neuro-ophthalmological manifestations (55% of men and mean±SD age of 26±8 years)...
April 26, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698789/impact-of-preoperative-transarterial-embolization-of-carotid-body-tumor-a-single-center-retrospective-cohort-experience
#9
Jianbin Zhang, Xueqiang Fan, Yanan Zhen, Jie Chen, Xia Zheng, Bo Ma, Rongwei Xu, Jie Kong, Zhidong Ye, Peng Liu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of preoperative hyperselective transarterial embolization in carotid body tumor resection. METHODS: Retrospectively analyze the clinical feature, imaging examination, treatment strategy and prognosis of 29 carotid body tumor patients from January 2006 to January 2016. According to whether to carry out the pre-operative transarterial embolization, the patients were classified into embolization group and non-embolization group...
April 23, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689030/checkpoint-inhibitor-immune-therapy-systemic-indications-and-ophthalmic-side-effects
#10
Lauren A Dalvin, Carol L Shields, Marlana Orloff, Takami Sato, Jerry A Shields
PURPOSE: To review immune checkpoint inhibitor indications and ophthalmic side effects. METHODS: A literature review was performed using a PubMed search for publications between 1990 and 2017. RESULTS: Immune checkpoint inhibitors are designed to treat system malignancies by targeting one of three ligands, leading to T-cell activation for attack against malignant cells. These ligands (and targeted drug) include cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4, ipilimumab), programmed death protein 1 (PD-1, pembrolizumab, nivolumab), and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1, atezolizumab, avelumab, durvalumab)...
April 23, 2018: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688214/-extracranial-aneurysms-of-carotid-arteries-in-the-practice-of-a-vascular-surgeon
#11
R N Lar'kov, S S Zagarov, M V Vishniakova, R V Shilov
The present study was aimed at retrospectively analysing the results of examination and open surgical treatment of patients diagnosed with extracranial aneurysms of carotid arteries. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analysed the results of examination and outcomes of surgical treatment in a total of 11 patients (6 men and 5 women) presenting with an aneurysm of the extracranial portion of the carotid artery and undergoing treatment at the Department of Vascular and CAD Surgery of the Moscow Regional Research Clinical Institute from 2005 to 2016...
2018: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687086/vertical-diplopia-and-oscillopsia-due-to-midbrain-keyhole-aqueduct-syndrome-associated-with-severe-cough
#12
Angela Jinsook Oh, Bryan Alexander Lanzman, Yaping Joyce Liao
Purpose: Midline structural defects in the neural axis can give rise to neuro-ophthalmic symptoms. We report a rare case of keyhole aqueduct syndrome presenting after two years of severe cough due to gastroesophageal reflux disease. Observations: A 58-year-old woman with a 2-year history of daily, severe cough presented to the neuro-ophthalmology clinic with progressive diplopia and oscillopsia. Examination revealed a 1-2 Hz down-beating nystagmus in primary gaze that worsened with left, right, and down gazes...
June 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672768/microsurgical-resection-of-a-meningioma-at-the-entrance-of-dorello-s-canal-causing-vi-cranial-nerve-compression-2-dimensional-operative-video
#13
Abdulrahman Alturki, Alejandro Enriquez-Marulanda, Raghav Gupta, Ajith J Thomas, Christopher S Ogilvy
We describe the case of a 73-yr-old female patient with a 2-yr history of diplopia that has progressively become worse. Physical examination revealed a right VI cranial nerve (CN) palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging and angiography showed a dolichoectatic basilar artery near the VI CN. A suboccipital craniectomy was performed, initially with the intention to perform a microvascular decompression; however, a red mass was encountered at the entrance of the right Dorello's canal that was compressing the VI CN. Complete resection of the lesion was done and decompression of the nerve was accomplished...
April 17, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670827/vasculitis-and-neurobrucellosis-evaluation-of-nine-cases-using-radiologic-findings
#14
Sule Aydin Turkoglu, Siddika Halicioglu, Fatma Sirmatel, Murside Yildiz, Nebil Yildiz, Serpil Yildiz
Background: Brucellosis is an important multisystemic disease with many different clinical symptoms, and its early diagnosis and treatment are possible. Neurobrucellosis (NB) is a rare but serious finding of brucellosis. Brucella can be seen as meningitis and encephalopathy, and it can cause cranial nerve pathologies, vascular syndromes, myopathy, spinal diseases, and psychiatric disorders. In NB, vascular syndromes secondary to inflammation are rarely seen. Here, we present nine young patients with vascular and nonspecific neuropsychiatric findings who had NB as the etiology of stroke...
April 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669602/cerebral-vasculitis-and-lateral-rectus-palsy-two-rare-central-nervous-system-complications-of-dengue-fever-two-case-reports-and-review-of-the-literature
#15
H M M Herath, J S Hewavithana, C M De Silva, O A R Kularathna, N P Weerasinghe
BACKGROUND: Dengue fever is a common mosquito-borne viral illness with a clinical spectrum ranging from a simple febrile illness to potentially life-threatening complications such as dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. Dengue infection can affect many organs, including the central nervous system. The neurological manifestations reported in dengue infections are meningitis, encephalitis, stroke, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the cases of two interesting patients with confirmed dengue infection who presented with complications of possible central nervous system vasculitis and cranial nerve palsy...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660852/etiology-and-functional-validation-of-gastrointestinal-motility-dysfunction-in-a-zebrafish-model-of-charge-syndrome
#16
Kellie Cloney, Shelby L Steele, Matthew R Stoyek, Roger P Croll, Frank M Smith, Sergey V Prykhozhij, Mary M Brown, Craig Midgen, Kim Blake, Jason N Berman
CHARGE syndrome is linked to autosomal dominant mutations in the CHD7 gene and results in a number of physiological and structural abnormalities, including heart defects, hearing and vision loss and gastrointestinal (GI) problems. Of these challenges, GI problems have a profound impact throughout an individual's life, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. A homologue of CHD7 has been identified in the zebrafish, the loss of which recapitulates many of the features of the human disease. Using a morpholino chd7 knockdown model complemented by a chd7 null mutant zebrafish line, we examined GI structure, innervation, and motility in larval zebrafish...
April 16, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659197/morphological-features-of-the-branching-pattern-of-the-hypoglossal-nerve
#17
Yujiro Sakamoto
The hypoglossal or twelfth cranial nerve is the motor nerve to the extrinsic and intrinsic muscles of the tongue, and the superior root of the ansa cervicalis and the thyrohyoid and geniohyoid branches are delivered through the nerve. This study investigated the muscular branches of the hypoglossal nerve to clarify their spatial relationships with the muscles of the tongue and the neighboring structures. The muscles and the nerve were gross anatomically examined in 42 cadavers. The superior root and the thyrohyoid branch left the nerve near the occipital and lingual arteries, respectively...
April 16, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595737/surgical-approach-to-injuries-of-the-cervical-plexus-and-its-peripheral-nerve-branches
#18
David L Brown, A Lee Dellon
BACKGROUND: Located in the neck beneath the sternocleidomastoid muscle, the cervical plexus comprises a coalition of nerves originating from C1 through C4, which provide input to four cutaneous, seven motor, and three cranial nerves and the sympathetic trunk. Sporadic instances of injury to these superficial nerves have been reported. Nevertheless, this specific anatomical cause of neurogenic pain remains incompletely described and underrecognized. METHODS: Twelve patients presented with pain and were diagnosed with various combinations of injury to the lesser occipital, great auricular, transverse cervical, and supraclavicular nerves...
April 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587795/clinical-outcome-after-particle-therapy-for-meningiomas-of-the-skull-base-toxicity-and-local-control-in-patients-treated-with-active-rasterscanning
#19
Rami A El Shafie, Maja Czech, Kerstin A Kessel, Daniel Habermehl, Dorothea Weber, Stefan Rieken, Nina Bougatf, Oliver Jäkel, Jürgen Debus, Stephanie E Combs
BACKGROUND: Meningiomas of the skull base account for 25-30% of all meningiomas. Due to the complex structure of the cranial base and its close proximity to critical structures, surgery is often associated with substantial morbidity. Treatment options include observation, aggressive surgical intervention, stereotactic or conventional radiotherapy. In this analysis we evaluate the outcome of 110 patients with meningiomas of the skull base treated with particle therapy. It was performed within the framework of the "clinical research group heavy ion therapy" and supported by the German Research Council (DFG, KFO 214)...
March 27, 2018: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571948/neurological-outcome-at-6-and-12-months-corrected-age-in-hospitalised-late-preterm-infants-a-prospective-study
#20
Ilias Chatziioannidis, Maria Kyriakidou, Sotiria Exadaktylou, Evangelia Antoniou, Dimitrios Zafeiriou, Nikolaos Nikolaidis
Late preterm infants (34-0/7 to 36-6/7 weeks" gestation) account for 10-20% of NICU admissions and are at increased risk for morbidity and mortality. Although they are prone to developmental delays, reports on neurological outcome during the first 2 years of life are scarce. The aim of the study was to assess neurological/neuromotor outcome in high risk late preterm infants at 6 and 12 months corrected age and the change in neurological scores over time, and to identify factors associated with the neurological outcome...
March 6, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
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