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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684944/comparing-categorical-and-probabilistic-fingerprint-evidence
#1
Brandon Garrett, Gregory Mitchell, Nicholas Scurich
Fingerprint examiners traditionally express conclusions in categorical terms, opining that impressions do or do not originate from the same source. Recently, probabilistic conclusions have been proposed, with examiners estimating the probability of a match between recovered and known prints. This study presented a nationally representative sample of jury-eligible adults with a hypothetical robbery case in which an examiner opined on the likelihood that a defendant's fingerprints matched latent fingerprints in categorical or probabilistic terms...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684943/the-diagnostic-implications-of-two-cases-of-known-rheumatoid-arthritis-from-the-cal-milano-cemetery-skeletal-collection
#2
Lucie Biehler-Gomez, Cristina Cattaneo
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common erosive arthropathy and is of particular interest to forensic sciences. However, its diagnosis on bones remains challenging. We examined two skeletons from the CAL Milano Cemetery Skeletal Collection diagnosed with the pathology during life, to test the validity of the diagnostic criteria on bones. The first showed typical lesions of RA described in the literature. The second exhibited secondary osteoarthrosis, suggesting long-standing RA. A differential diagnosis including all four seronegative spondyloarthropathies, erosive osteoarthritis, gout and neuropathic arthropathy was also considered...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684938/female-sexual-homicide-offenders-a-descriptive-and-comparative-study
#3
Sara Skott, Eric Beauregard, Rajan Darjee
Research on female sexual homicide has been very scarce. In Europe, it has rarely been examined, and in Scotland, it has never previously been studied. This exploratory study aims to examine the characteristics of sexual homicides involving female offenders between 1990 and 2015 in Scotland. Using data from the Scottish Homicide Database between 1990 and 2015, female sexual homicides (n = 7) were compared to nonsexual homicides committed by females (n = 106) and to sexual homicides committed by men (n = 89) using Fisher's exact tests...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684918/correction-examining-the-construct-and-known-group-validity-of-a-composite-endpoint-for-the-older-persons-and-informal-caregivers-survey-minimum-data-set-topics-mds-a-large-scale-data-sharing-initiative
#4
Cynthia S Hofman, Jennifer E Lutomski, Han Boter, Bianca M Buurman, Anton J M de Craen, Rogier Donders, Marcel G M Olde Rikkert, Peter Makai, René J F Melis
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0173081.].
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684916/predictors-of-rapid-cognitive-decline-in-patients-with-mild-to-moderate-alzheimer-disease-a-prospective-cohort-study-with-12-month-follow-up-performed-in-memory-clinics
#5
Achille E Tchalla, Jean-Pierre Clément, Isabelle Saulnier, Betty Beaumatin, Florent Lachal, Caroline Gayot, Anaïs Bosetti, Iléana Desormais, Anaïck Perrochon, Pierre-Marie Preux, Philippe Couratier, Thierry Dantoine
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Alzheimer disease (AD) is particularly devastating, with no cure, no means of prevention, and no proven way to slow progression. AD is associated with the worsening of cognitive function attributable to a variety of factors of which little is known. Our main objective was to determine factors associated with rapid cognitive decline (RCD) in older AD patients. METHODS: We conducted a 12-month, prospective, multi-centre cohort study. Community-living individuals aged ≥65 years with mild-to-moderate AD were included...
April 23, 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684915/histological-analysis-of-term-placentas-from-hyperimmune-globulin-treated-and-untreated-mothers-with-primary-cytomegalovirus-infection
#6
Liliana Gabrielli, Maria Paola Bonasoni, Maria Pia Foschini, Enrico Maria Silini, Arsenio Spinillo, Maria Grazia Revello, Angela Chiereghin, Giulia Piccirilli, Evangelia Petrisli, Gabriele Turello, Giuliana Simonazzi, Dino Gibertoni, Tiziana Lazzarotto
BACKGROUND: The Congenital Human Cytomegalovirus Infection Prevention (CHIP) study, a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled trial, demonstrated that the efficacy of hyperimmune globulin (HIG) was not different from that of placebo regarding transmission of cytomegalovirus (CMV) from mothers to newborns. Our aim was to analyze histologically HIG effects on placentas collected for the CHIP study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Virological and histological analyses were performed on 40 placentas from transmitter and nontransmitter HIG-treated and untreated mothers by assessing the number of CMV-positive cells, tissue viral load, tissue damage, and compensatory mechanisms...
April 23, 2018: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684913/does-trade-liberalization-reduce-child-mortality-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-synthetic-control-analysis-of-36-policy-experiments-1963-2005
#7
Pepita Barlow
Scholars have long argued that trade liberalization leads to lower rates of child mortality in developing countries. Yet current scholarship precludes definitive conclusions about the magnitude and direction of this relationship. Here I analyze the impact of trade liberalization on child mortality in 36 low- and middle-income countries, 1963-2005, using the synthetic control method. I test the hypothesis that trade liberalization leads to lower rates of child mortality, examine whether this association varies between countries and over time, and explore the potentially modifying role of democratic politics, historical context, and geographic location on the magnitude and direction of this relationship...
April 6, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684892/effects-of-anxiety-and-mood-disorders-on-craving-and-substance-use-among-patients-with-substance-use-disorder-an-ecological-momentary-assessment-study
#8
Melina Fatseas, Fuschia Serre, Joel Swendsen, Marc Auriacombe
BACKGROUND: Despite recognition of the negative impact of psychiatric comorbidity on addictive disorders, the mechanisms underlying this association remain poorly understood. The present investigation applied mobile technologies to examine the effect of comorbid mood or anxiety disorders on craving intensity and substance use within the natural conditions of daily life. METHODS: A total of 159 participants were recruited from a French outpatient addiction clinic and completed two weeks of computerized ambulatory monitoring of daily life experiences using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA)...
April 12, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684891/considering-high-alcohol-and-violence-neighborhood-context-using-daily-diaries-and-gps-a-pilot-study-among-people-living-with-hiv
#9
Katherine P Theall, Erica Felker-Kantor, Maeve Wallace, Xiao Zhang, Christopher N Morrison, Douglas J Wiebe
Our understanding of how community-level context impacts care of persons living with HIV (PLWH), including antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and retention in care, is limited. The objective of this study was to characterize the activity spaces of PLWH from an urban area in Southeastern U.S., where the epidemic is among the nation's highest, and to examine how such activity spaces are associated with daily mood and health behaviors. In this small, pilot study, 11 participants were tracked with a global positioning system (GPS)-enabled application on their smartphones for 2 weeks...
April 10, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684872/developmental-toxicity-of-dibutyl-phthalate-and-citrate-ester-plasticizers-in-xenopus-laevis-embryos
#10
Yang Xu, Myung Chan Gye
Citrate esters have been considered as alternatives to phthalate plasticizers. Being considered to have low toxicity in mammals, their toxicological information for aquatic animals remains poorly understood. We examined the developmental toxicity of citrate esters including tributyl O-acetylcitrate (ATBC), triethyl 2-acetylcitrate (ATEC), and trihexyl O-acetylcitrate (ATHC) together with dibutyl phthalate (DBP) based on the frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus (FETAX). ATBC has the lowest 96 h LC50 and 96 h EC50 values...
April 15, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684866/the-mediation-roles-of-discrepancy-stress-and-self-esteem-between-masculine-role-discrepancy-and-mental-health-problems
#11
Xue Yang, Joseph T F Lau, Zixin Wang, Yee-Ling Ma, Mason C M Lau
INTRODUCTION: Masculine role discrepancy and discrepancy stress occur when men perceive that they fail to live up to the ideal manhood derived from societal prescriptions. The present study examined the associations between masculine role discrepancy and two emotional and mental health problems (social anxiety and depressive symptoms), and potential mediation effects through discrepancy stress and self-esteem in a male general population. METHODS: Based on random population-based sampling, 2000 male residents in Hong Kong were interviewed...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684854/the-role-of-her2-nrf2-axis-in-induction-of-oxaliplatin-resistance-in-colon-cancer-cells
#12
Abbas Pirpour Tazehkand, Maryam Akbarzadeh, Kobra Velaie, Mohammad Reza Sadeghi, Nasser Samadi
Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays a pivotal role in promoting chemoresistance by regulation of antioxidants and detoxification enzymes. Her2 is a member of tyrosine kinase receptor family with a key function in resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapeutics. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible cross talk between Nrf2 and Her2 mediated signaling pathways in development of oxaliplatin resistance in colon cancer cells. We first generated oxaliplatin-resistant LS174T and SW480 colon cancer cells with different Her2 expression levels by employing IC50 concentrations followed by a resting period...
April 20, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684853/naringenin-improve-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-induced-insulin-resistance-by-increase-pten-expression-via-p53-dependent-manner
#13
Benli Jia, Dongsheng Yu, Gang Yu, Yunsheng Cheng, Yang Wang, Xiaoqiang Yi, Xiaoping Li, Yong Wang
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection may finally lead to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and also associated with insulin resistance (IR). Naringenin (NGEN), a flavonoid found in grapefruit, has anti-virus, anti-inflammation and insulin sensitization effects. In the present study we examined the effects of NGEN on HCV core protein (HCVCP) infection induced IR and investigated the mechanism involved. We found that NGEN ameliorated IR and glucose tolerance in HCVCP infected mice by increase the phosphorylation of Akt at both Ser473 and Thr308 site, and also inhibited the inflammation cytokine production and T-cell immune response...
April 20, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684845/medico-legal-aspects-of-disabilities-due-to-orthopedic-injuries-and-compensations-in-egypt
#14
Sherien Salah Ghaleb, Dalia Abd Elwahab Hassan, Alla Mohamed Shehab, Soad Abd El-Ghafar Mohamed Hassan
Disability is a complex problem that results in detrimental effects on the victim. The number of disabled has increased considerably. The development constitutes a good reason for paying more specific attention to society's growing number of disabled. The physician's duties are not only to describe the anatomic and physiological defects present in the injured individual, but also to answer questions regarding the patient ability to perform specific economic or social function. This study aimed to clear up some of the problems or difficulties that may face the medico-legal physician or any personal that may be concerned with the process of evaluation...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684837/patient-safety-content-and-delivery-in-pre-registration-nursing-curricula-a-national-cross-sectional-survey-study
#15
Kim Usher, Cindy Woods, Jane Conway, Jackie Lea, Vicki Parker, Fiona Barrett, Eilish O'Shea, Debra Jackson
BACKGROUND: Patient safety is a core principle of health professional practice and as such requires significant attention within undergraduate curricula. However, patient safety practice is complex requiring a broad range of skills and behaviours including the application of sound clinical knowledge within a range of health care contexts and cultures. There is very little research that explores how this is taught within Australian nursing curricula. OBJECTIVES: To examine how Australian nursing curricula address patient safety; identify where and how patient safety learning occurs; and describe who is responsible for facilitating this learning...
April 17, 2018: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684833/antecedents-mediators-and-outcomes-of-authentic-leadership-in-healthcare-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Bayan Alilyyani, Carol A Wong, Greta Cummings
BACKGROUND: Leaders are essential in every organization to achieve patient safety and healthy work environments. Authentic leadership is a relational leadership style purported to promote healthy work environments that influence staff performance and organizational outcomes. Given recent growth in authentic leadership research in healthcare and the importance of new knowledge to inform leadership development, there is an obligation to determine what is known about the antecedents and outcomes of authentic leadership in healthcare settings and clarify mechanisms by which authentic leadership affects healthcare staff and patient outcomes...
April 7, 2018: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684831/dis-integrating-cultural-difference-in-practice-and-communication-a-qualitative-study-of-host-and-migrant-registered-nurse-perspectives-from-new-zealand
#17
Margaret Brunton, Catherine Cook
BACKGROUND: Several earlier studies have provided evidence of the difficulties nurses have had adapting to foreign workplaces, however few have considered wider perspectives of the workplace communication environment. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the viewpoints and experience of both New Zealand qualified nurses and internationally qualified nurses in managing communication within teams and the clinical practice context in an increasingly diverse healthcare workplace in New Zealand...
April 6, 2018: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684811/behavioral-semiochemical-and-androgen-responses-by-male-giant-pandas-to-the-olfactory-sexual-receptivity-cues-of-females
#18
Abbey E Wilson, Darrell L Sparks, Katrina K Knott, Andrew J Kouba, Scott Willard, Ashli Brown
Male giant pandas identify female sexual receptivity through the detection of olfactory cues in estrous urine. However, it is yet unknown which specific days of the female estrous cycle may provoke male sexual-social responses and a physiological readiness to mate. We hypothesized that female urine from specific days of the estrous cycle will be positively associated with specific changes in male behaviors, urinary semiochemical production, and steroidogenic activity. Experimental simultaneous choice trials were conducted in captivity with four male giant pandas during the spring breeding season and during fall...
April 11, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684805/detecting-a-rare-composite-small-bowel-lymphoma-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging-coincidentally-a-case-report-with-radiological-surgical-and-histopathological-features
#19
M Pezzella, B Brogna, A Romano, F Torelli, G Esposito, M Petrillo, F M Romano, N Di Martino, A Reginelli, R Grassi
INTRODUCTION: Diagnosing lymphoma continues to prove challenging in the clinical practice. Composite lymphoma (CL) is defined by the coexistence of different lymphoma subtypes in the same anatomical location. This condition has seldom been witnessed in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. We weren't able to find previous cases in the literature about small bowel CL with follicular lymphoma (FL) and classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL). Surgery is the treatment of choice to obtain accurate histology, to manage and prevent acute complications...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684794/changes-in-maternal-self-efficacy-postnatal-depression-symptoms-and-social-support-among-chinese-primiparous-women-during-the-initial-postpartum-period-a-longitudinal-study
#20
Xujuan Zheng, Jane Morrell, Kim Watts
BACKGROUND: There are many parenting problems during infancy for Chinese primiparous women. As an important determinant of good parenting, maternal self-efficacy (MSE) should be paid more attention by researchers. At present, the limitations of previous research examining MSE during infancy are that most studies were conducted with a homogeneous sample and there were few studies with Chinese women. Secondly, the trajectory of change in MSE, postnatal depression symptoms and social support for Chinese primiparous women was not clear during the initial postpartum period in earlier studies...
April 11, 2018: Midwifery
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