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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914955/molecular-cloning-expression-and-functional-analysis-of-three-subunits-of-protein-phosphatase-2a-pp2a-from-black-tiger-shrimps-penaeus-monodon
#1
Chao Zhao, Yan Wang, Mingjun Fu, Lihua Qiu
Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a cellular serine-threonine (Ser/Thr) phosphatase that plays a crucial role in regulating most cellular functions. In the present study, the full-length cDNAs of three subunits of PmPP2A (PmPP2A-A, PP2A-B and PP2A-C) were cloned from Penaeus monodon, which are the first available for shrimps. Sequence analysis showed that PmPP2A-A, PmPP2A-B and PmPP2A-C encoded polypeptides of 591, 443, and 324 amino acids, respectively. The mRNAs of three subunits of PmPP2A were expressed constitutively in all tissues examined, and predominantly in the ovaries...
November 30, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913993/antifreeze-glycopeptides-from-structure-and-activity-studies-to-current-approaches-in-chemical-synthesis
#2
REVIEW
Małgorzata Urbańczyk, Jerzy Góra, Rafał Latajka, Norbert Sewald
Antifreeze glycopeptides (AFGPs) are a class of biological antifreeze agents found predominantly in Arctic and Antarctic species of fish. They possess the ability to regulate ice nucleation and ice crystal growth, thus creating viable life conditions at temperatures below the freezing point of body fluids. AFGPs usually consist of 4-55 repetitions of the tripeptide unit Ala-Ala-Thr that is O-glycosylated at the threonine side chains with β-D-galactosyl-(1 → 3)-α-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine. Due to their interesting properties and high antifreeze activity, they have many potential applications, e...
December 2, 2016: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913677/phlpping-through-history-a-decade-in-the-life-of-phlpp-phosphatases
#3
REVIEW
Agnieszka T Grzechnik, Alexandra C Newton
In the decade since their discovery, the PH domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatases (PHLPP) have emerged as critical regulators of cellular homeostasis, and their dysregulation is associated with various pathophysiologies, ranging from cancer to degenerative diseases, such as diabetes and heart disease. The two PHLPP isozymes, PHLPP1 and PHLPP2, were identified in a search for phosphatases that dephosphorylate Akt, and thus suppress growth factor signaling. However, given that there are over 200 000 phosphorylated residues in a single cell, and fewer than 50 Ser/Thr protein phosphatases, it is not surprising that PHLPP has many other cellular functions yet to be discovered, including a recently identified role in regulating the epigenome...
December 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909427/biocombinatorial-synthesis-of-novel-lipopeptides-by-com-domain-mediated-reprogramming-of-the-plipastatin-nrps-complex
#4
Hongxia Liu, Ling Gao, Jinzhi Han, Zhi Ma, Zhaoxin Lu, Chen Dai, Chong Zhang, Xiaomei Bie
Both donors and acceptors of communication-mediating (COM) domains are essential for coordinating intermolecular communication within nonribosomal peptides synthetases (NRPSs) complexes. Different sets of COM domains provide selectivity, allowing NRPSs to utilize different natural biosynthetic templates. In this study, novel lipopeptides were synthesized by reprogramming the plipastatin biosynthetic machinery. A Thr-to-Asp point mutation was sufficient to shift the selectivity of the donor COM domain of ppsB toward that of ppsD...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907132/a-simplified-and-efficient-process-for-insulin-production-in-pichia-pastoris
#5
Sulena Polez, Domenico Origi, Sotir Zahariev, Corrado Guarnaccia, Sergio G Tisminetzky, Nataša Skoko, Marco Baralle
A significant barrier to insulin is affordability. In this manuscript we describe improvements to key steps in the insulin production process in Pichia pastoris that reduce cost and time. The strategy for recovery and processing of human insulin precursor has been streamlined to two steps from bioreactor to the transpeptidation reaction. In the first step the insulin precursor secreted during the methanol induction phase is recovered directly from the culture broth using Tangential Flow Filtration with a Prostak™ module eliminating the laborious and time-consuming multi-step clarification, including centrifugation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905149/scope-limitations-of-fmoc-chemistry-spps-based-approaches-to-the-total-synthesis-of-insulin-lispro-via-ester-insulin
#6
Stephen Kent, Balamurugan Dhayalan, Kalyaneswar Mandal, Nischay Rege, Michael Weiss, Simon Eitel, Thomas Meier, Ralph Schoenleber
We have systematically explored three approaches based on Fmoc chemistry SPPS for the total chemical synthesis of the key depsipeptide intermediate for the efficient total chemical synthesis of insulin. The approaches used were: stepwise Fmoc chemistry SPPS; the 'hybrid method', in which maximally-protected peptide segments made by Fmoc chemistry SPPS are condensed in solution; and, native chemical ligation using peptide-thioester segments generated by Fmoc chemistry SPPS. A key building block in all three approaches was a Glu[Oβ(Thr)] ester-linked dipeptide equipped with a set of orthogonal protecting groups compatible with Fmoc chemistry SPPS...
November 30, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903647/the-production-and-utilization-of-gdp-glucose-in-the-biosynthesis-of-trehalose-6-phosphate-by-streptomyces-venezuelae
#7
Matías D Asencion Diez, Farzana Miah, Clare E M Stevenson, David M Lawson, Alberto A Iglesias, Stephen Bornemann
Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase OtsA from streptomycetes is unusual in that it uses GDP-glucose as the donor substrate rather than the more commonly used UDP-glucose. We now confirm that OtsA from Streptomyces venezuelae has such a preference for GDP-glucose and can utilise ADP-glucose to some extent too. A crystal structure of the enzyme shows that it shares twin Rossmann-like domains with the UDP-glucose-specific OtsA from Escherichia coli However, it is structurally more similar to Streptomyces hygroscopicus VldE, a GDP-valienol-dependent pseudo-glycosyltransferase enzyme...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902328/hepatitis-c-virus-core-activates-proteasomal-activator-28-gamma-expression-via-upregulation-of-p53-levels-to-control-virus-propagation
#8
Juri Kwak, Indira Tiwari, Kyung Lib Jang
The proteasomal activator PA28γ, frequently overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), is believed to play several important roles in hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication and viral pathogenesis. However, the underlying mechanism for PA28γ overexpression in HCC and its role during HCV replication are still unclear. In the present study, we found that HCV Core derived from either ectopic expression or HCV infection upregulates PA28γ levels in p53-positive human hepatocytes. For this effect, HCV Core sequentially activated ataxia telangiectasia mutated and checkpoint kinase 2 via phosphorylation at Ser-1981 and Thr-68 residues, respectively, resulting in stabilization of p53 via phosphorylation at Ser-15 and Ser-20 residues and subsequent transcriptional activation of PA28γ expression...
November 11, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902317/psychromicrobium-silvestre-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-novel-actinobacterium-isolated-from-alpine-forest-soils
#9
Peter Schumann, De-Chao Zhang, Luís Franca, Luciana Albuquerque, Milton S da Costa, Rosa Margesin
Two Gram-stain-variable, non-motile, catalase-positive and cytochrome c oxidase-negative bacteria, designated AK20-18T and AM20-54, were isolated from forest soil samples collected in the Italian Alps. Growth occurred at a temperature range of 5-30 °C, at pH 6-9 and in the presence of 0-5 % (w/v) NaCl. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strains AK20-18T and AM20-54 was 100 %. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that AK20-18T had highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with the type strain of Arthrobacter psychrochitiniphilus (96...
November 21, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900306/a-new-anterolateral-surgical-approach-for-total-hip-replacement
#10
Giovanni F Grano, Maria Pavlidou, Alberto Todesco, Augusto Palermo, Luigi Molfetta
PURPOSE: the purpose of the present paper is to present the short-term results of a "detachment-free" (DF) anterolateral approach for primary total hip replacement (THR) performed in a large series of patients. METHODS: two hundred patients submitted to primary THR were retrospectively reviewed for the present study. In all cases, the surgery was performed using a minimally invasive DF anterolateral approach, which entails no disconnection of tendons and no muscle damage...
July 2016: Joints
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898965/performance-of-pigs-kept-under-different-sanitary-conditions-affected-by-protein-intake-and-amino-acid-supplementation
#11
Y van der Meer, A Lammers, A J M Jansman, M M J A Rijnen, W H Hendriks, W J J Gerrits
There is growing evidence that requirements for particular AA increase when pigs are kept under low sanitary conditions. The extent to which reduction in growth performance is related to these increased requirements is unclear. To evaluate this relationship, an experiment (2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement) was performed with 612 male pigs (9 per pen) kept under low sanitary conditions (LSC) or high sanitary conditions (HSC) and offered ad libitum access to either a normal CP concentration diet (NP; 17, 15, and 15% CP for the starter, grower, and finisher phase, respectively) or a low CP concentration diet (LP; 20% CP reduced relative to NP for each phase), each of which containing a basal AA profile (AA-B) or a supplemented AA profile (AA-S)...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898953/impact-of-improving-dietary-amino-acid-balance-for-lactating-sows-on-efficiency-of-dietary-amino-acid-utilization-and-transcript-abundance-of-genes-encoding-lysine-transporters-in-mammary-tissue
#12
L Huber, C F M de Lange, C W Ernst, U Krogh, N L Trottier
Lactating multiparous Yorkshire sows ( = 64) were used in 2 experiments to test the hypothesis that reducing dietary CP intake and improving AA balance through crystalline AA (CAA) supplementation improves apparent dietary AA utilization efficiency for milk production and increases transcript abundance of genes encoding Lys transporter proteins in mammary tissue. In Exp. 1, 40 sows were assigned to 1 of 4 diets: 1) high CP (HCP; 16.0% CP, as-fed basis; analyzed concentration), 2) medium-high CP (MHCP; 15.7% CP), 3) medium-low CP (MLCP; 14...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898917/chemical-composition-and-standardized-ileal-amino-acid-digestibility-of-eight-genotypes-of-rye-fed-to-growing-pigs
#13
E J P Strang, M Eklund, P Rosenfelder, N Sauer, J K Htoo, R Mosenthin
A study with growing pigs was conducted to determine the chemical composition, physical characteristics, and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA of 8 rye genotypes that have recently been added to the German Descriptive Variety List. Eight barrows with an initial BW of 24 ± 2 kg were fitted with T-cannulas at the distal ileum and allotted to an 8 × 8 Latin square design with 8 periods of 6 d each and 8 pigs receiving 8 different diets. The N-free method was used to determine the basal ileal endogenous CP and AA losses...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898878/effects-of-dietary-fiber-on-the-ideal-standardized-ileal-digestible-threonine-lysine-ratio-for-twenty-five-to-fifty-kilogram-growing-gilts
#14
J K Mathai, J K Htoo, J E Thomson, K J Touchette, H H Stein
Four experiments were conducted to determine effects of fiber on the ideal Thr:Lys ratio for 25- to 50-kg gilts. In Exp. 1, the objective was to determine the requirement for standardized ileal digestible Lys for gilts from 25 to 50 kg BW. Seventy gilts (24.54 ± 3.28 kg BW) were used in a growth assay with 2 pigs per pen, 5 diets, and 7 replicate pens per diet. The 5 diets were based on corn and soybean meal and contained between 0.80 and 1.32% SID Lys. Results indicated that 1.09% SID Lys was needed to optimize ADG and G:F...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896447/novel-extended-sequons-of-human-n-glycosylation-sites-improve-the-precision-of-qualitative-predictions-an-alignment-free-study-of-pattern-recognition-using-protdcal-protein-features
#15
Yasser B Ruiz-Blanco, Yovani Marrero-Ponce, Enrique García-Hernández, James Green
N-Glycosylation is a common post-translational modification that plays an important role in the proper folding and function of many proteins. This modification is largely dependent on the presence of a sequence motif called a "sequon" defined as Asn-Xxx-Ser/Thr. However, evidence has shown that the presence of such a "sequon" is insufficient to determine the occurrence of N-glycosylation with high precision. This study aims to elucidate patterns that can more accurately predict N-glycosylation sites in human proteins...
November 28, 2016: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895315/identification-of-aberrantly-expressed-glycans-in-gastric-cancer-by-integrated-lectin-microarray-and-mass-spectrometric-analyses
#16
Xiang Li, Feng Guan, Dongliang Li, Zengqi Tan, Ganglong Yang, Yanli Wu, Zhaohui Huang
Cancer progression is usually associated with alterations of glycan expression patterns. Little is known regarding global glycomics in gastric cancer, the most common type of epithelial cancer. We integrated lectin microarray and mass spectrometry (MS) methods to profile glycan expression in three gastric cancer cell lines (SGC-7901, HGC-27, and MGC-803) and one normal gastric epithelial cell line (GES-1). Significantly altered glycans were confirmed by lectin staining and MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. The three cancer cell lines showed increased levels of core-fucosylated N-glycans, GalNAcα-Ser/Thr (Tn antigen), and Sia2-6Galβ1-4GlcNAc N-glycans, but reduced levels of biantennary N-glycans, Galβ1-3GalNAcα-Ser/Thr (T antigen), and (GlcNAc)n N-glycans...
November 24, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890891/mid-term-clinical-results-of-versys-hip-system-zimmer-uncemented-total-hip-replacement-arthroplasty
#17
Hidemi Kawaji, Takuya Uematsu, Naoya Hoshikawa, Hiroshi Watanabe, Shinro Takai
: Recent reports suggest that uncemented total hip replacement arthroplasty (THR) results in favorable short- to mid-term clinical results. In the present study, we assessed the mid-term clinical results of VerSys Hip System uncemented THR at our hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied patients who received THR using VerSys Hip System and who could be followed-up more than 3 years. Clinical records were used to retrospectively identify patient characteristics, which included age, gender, disease requiring THR, preoperative and postoperative pain score of the Japan Orthopaedic Association scoring system, range of motion in flexion and abduction, operating time, intraoperative complication, and additional operation or revision surgery...
2016: Journal of Nippon Medical School, Nippon Ika Daigaku Zasshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889995/the-roles-of-the-unique-prolyl-isomerase-pin1-in-cancer-related-viral-and-bacterial-infections
#18
J Wang, X-H Liao, M Zheng, D Yang, X Z Zhou, H Liu, K P Lu
Infection is the process of pathogen invasion, as well as the host reaction to the foreign agents. Proline-directed phosphorylation is a major regulatory mechanism that regulates the function of fundamental proteins involved in infection and infection-induced cancer. Recently, the identification of the phosphorylation-dependent prolyl isomerase Pin1 has uncovered a unique regulatory signaling mechanism controlling protein conformation and function after phosphorylation. Pin1 is the only proline isomerase that specifically recognizes certain Pro-directed Ser/Thr phosphorylation motifs...
November 23, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889449/phosphorylated-ctip-functions-as-a-co-factor-of-the-mre11-rad50-nbs1-endonuclease-in-dna-end-resection
#19
Roopesh Anand, Lepakshi Ranjha, Elda Cannavo, Petr Cejka
To repair a DNA double-strand break (DSB) by homologous recombination (HR), the 5'-terminated strand of the DSB must be resected. The human MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) and CtIP proteins were implicated in the initiation of DNA end resection, but the underlying mechanism remained undefined. Here, we show that CtIP is a co-factor of the MRE11 endonuclease activity within the MRN complex. This function is absolutely dependent on CtIP phosphorylation that includes the key cyclin-dependent kinase target motif at Thr-847...
December 1, 2016: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887844/anthraquinones-from-morinda-longissima-and-their-insulin-mimetic-activities-via-amp-activated-protein-kinase-ampk-activation
#20
Phi-Hung Nguyen, Hong Seok Choi, Thi Kim Quy Ha, Ji Yeon Seo, Jun-Li Yang, Da-Woon Jung, Darren R Williams, Won-Keun Oh
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activators are known to increase energy metabolism and to reduce body weight, as well as to improve glucose uptake. During for searching AMPK activators, a new anthraquinone, modasima A (10), along with eighteen known analogues (1-9 and 11-19) were isolated from an ethanol extract of the roots of Morinda longissima Y. Z. Ruan (Rubiaceae). Using the fluorescent tagged glucose analogues, 2-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-NBDG), insulin mimetics were screened with compounds 1-19 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes...
November 15, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
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