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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812357/importance-of-terminal-amino-acid-residues-to-the-transport-of-oligopeptides-across-caco-2-cell-monolayer
#1
Long Ding, Liying Wang, Zhipeng Yu, Sitong Ma, Zhiyang Du, Ting Zhang, Jingbo Liu
The objective of this paper was to investigate the effects of terminal amino acids on the transport of oligopeptides across Caco-2 cell monolayer. Ala-based tetra- and penta-peptides were designed and the N-terminal or C-terminal amino acid residues were replaced by different amino acids. The results showed that the oligopeptides had a wide range of transport permeability across Caco-2 cell monolayer and could be divided into 4 categories: non/poor permeability, low permeability, intermediate permeability, and good permeability...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810254/insulin-influences-lps-induced-tnf-%C3%AE-and-il-6-release-through-distinct-pathways-in-mouse-macrophages-from-different-compartments
#2
Fernando H G Tessaro, Thais S Ayala, Eduardo L Nolasco, Leonardo M Bella, Joilson O Martins
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Diabetic subjects are more susceptible to infections, which is partially due to insulin deficiency and hyperglycemia. We hypothesized that insulin influences cytokine release by macrophages from diabetic C57BL/6 mice stimulated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS). METHODS: Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) and tissue-specific macrophages from diabetic (alloxan 60 mg/kg, i.v.) male C57BL/6 mice were stimulated by LPS (100 ng/mL) and/or treated by insulin (1 mU/mL)...
August 15, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808378/rutamarin-an-active-constituent-from-ruta-angustifolia-pers-induced-apoptotic-cell-death-in-the-ht29-colon-adenocarcinoma-cell-line
#3
Shafinah Ahmad Suhaimi, Sok Lai Hong, Sri Nurestri Abdul Malek
BACKGROUND: Ruta angustifolia Pers. is a perennial herb that is cultivated worldwide, including Southeast Asia, for the treatment of various diseases as traditional medicine. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to identify an active principle of R. angustifolia and to investigate its effect on the HT29 cell death. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The methanol and fractionated extracts (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and water) of R. angustifolia Pers...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808126/growth-and-stress-induced-pasta-kinase-phosphorylation-in-enterococcus-faecalis
#4
Benjamin D Labbe, Christopher J Kristich
Transmembrane Ser/Thr kinases containing extracellular PASTA domains are ubiquitous among Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. Such PASTA kinases regulate critical processes including antibiotic resistance, cell division, toxin production, virulence, and are essential for viability in certain organisms. Based on in vitro studies with purified extra- and intracellular fragments of PASTA kinases, a model for signaling has been proposed, in which the extracellular PASTA domains bind as-yet-undefined ligands - typically thought to be peptidoglycan, or fragments thereof - to drive kinase dimerization, which leads to enhanced kinase autophosphorylation and enhanced phosphorylation of substrates...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806945/tumor-microenvironment-conditions-alter-akt-and-na-h-exchanger-nhe1-expression-in-endothelial-cells-more-than-hypoxia-alone-implications-for-endothelial-cell-function-in-cancer
#5
A K Pedersen, J Mendes Lopes de Melo, N Mørup, K Tritsaris, S F Pedersen
BACKGROUND: Chronic angiogenesis is a hallmark of most tumors and takes place in a hostile tumor microenvironment (TME) characterized by hypoxia, low nutrient and glucose levels, elevated lactate and low pH. Despite this, most studies addressing angiogenic signaling use hypoxia as a proxy for tumor conditions. Here, we compared the effects of hypoxia and TME conditions on regulation of the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger NHE1, Ser/Thr kinases Akt1-3, and downstream effectors in endothelial cells...
August 14, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805905/standardized-ileal-digestible-amino-acids-and-digestible-energy-contents-in-high-protein-distiller-s-dried-grains-with-solubles-fed-to-growing-pigs
#6
Y Rho, C Zhu, E Kiarie, C F M de Lange
Chemical composition and, therefore, potential nutritive value of corn distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is constantly evolving as the ethanol industry innovates processing techniques. We determined standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA (Exp. 1) and DE (Exp. 2) contents in high-protein (HP; >40% on a DM basis) DDGS samples. Two HP DDGS (HP-A and HP-B) samples and 1 conventional DDGS (CON) sample were selected for this study. Three semipurified corn starch-based diets (minimum 18% CP, as-fed basis) were formulated with DDGS as the sole source of AA...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805296/basidiomycete-specific-pscamkl1-encoding-a-camk-like-protein-kinase-is-required-for-full-virulence-of-puccinia-striiformis-f-sp-tritici
#7
Min Jiao, Dan Yu, Chenglong Tan, Jia Guo, Dingyun Lan, Ershang Han, Tuo Qi, Ralf Thomas Voegele, Zhensheng Kang, Jun Guo
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinases (CaMKs) are Ser/Thr protein kinases (PKs) that respond to changes in cytosolic free Ca(2+) and play diverse roles in eukaryotes. In fungi, CAMKs are generally classified into four families CAMK1, CAMKL, RAD53, and CAMK-Unique. Among these, CAMKL constitutes the largest family. In some fungal plant pathogens members of the CaMKL family have been shown to be responsible for pathogenesis. However, little is known about their role(s) in rust fungi. In this study, we functionally characterized a novel PK gene, PsCaMKL1, from Puccinia striiformis f...
August 14, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802743/tungsten-accumulation-by-highly-tolerant-marine-hydrothermal-sulfitobacter-dubius-strains-carrying-a-tupbca-cluster
#8
Carina Coimbra, Pedro Farias, Rita Branco, Paula V Morais
Tungsten (W) has industrial and economic importance, and is in the European Union list of metals with a high supply risk. It is used by living organisms, which transport it into the cell, in the form of tungstate ion (WO4(2-)), using three different ABC-type transporters from the specific W-uptake system coded by tupABC gene cluster. In this study, strains from a collection recovered from deep-sea hydrothermal sediments were selected according to their ability to tolerate metals and to possess the tup genetic determinants...
July 19, 2017: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799334/the-impact-of-commonly-used-alkylating-agents-on-artefactual-peptide-modification
#9
Peter G Hains, Phillip J Robinson
Iodoacetamide is by far the most commonly used agent for alkylation of cysteine during sample preparation for proteomics. An alternative, 2-chloroacetamide, has been recently suggested to reduce the alkylation of residues other than cysteine, such as the N-terminus, Asp, Glu, Lys, Ser, Thr and Tyr. Here, we show that although 2-chloroacetamide reduces the level of off-target alkylation, it exhibits a range of adverse effects. The most significant of these was methionine oxidation, which increases to a maximum of 40% of all Met containing peptides compared to 2-5% with iodoacetamide...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798365/mass-secondary-structure-propensity-of-amino-acids-explain-their-mutability-and-evolutionary-replacements
#10
Hugo J Bohórquez, Carlos F Suárez, Manuel E Patarroyo
Why is an amino acid replacement in a protein accepted during evolution? The answer given by bioinformatics relies on the frequency of change of each amino acid by another one and the propensity of each to remain unchanged. We propose that these replacement rules are recoverable from the secondary structural trends of amino acids. A distance measure between high-resolution Ramachandran distributions reveals that structurally similar residues coincide with those found in substitution matrices such as BLOSUM: Asn ↔ Asp, P™he ↔ Tyr, Lys ↔ Arg, Gln ↔ Glu, Ile ↔ Val, Met → Leu; with Ala, Cys, His, Gly, Ser, Pro, and Thr, as structurally idiosyncratic residues...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796482/a-sensitive-robust-and-cost-effective-approach-for-tyrosine-phosphoproteome-analysis
#11
Mingming Dong, Yangyang Bian, Yan Wang, Jing Dong, Yating Yao, Zhenzhen Deng, Hongqiang Qin, Hanfa Zou, Mingliang Ye
Albeit much less abundant than Ser/Thr phosphorylation (pSer/pThr), Tyr phosphorylation (pTyr) is considered as a hallmark in cellular signal transduction. However, its analysis at the proteome level remains challenging. The conventional immunopurification (IP) approach using antibodies specific to pTyr sites is known to have low sensitivity, poor reproducibility and high cost. Our recent study indicated that SH2 domain-derived pTyr-superbinder is a good replacement of pTyr antibody for the specific enrichment of pTyr peptides for phosphoproteomics analysis...
August 10, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796159/is-preoperative-patient-reported-health-status-associated-with-mortality-after-total-hip-replacement
#12
Peter Cnudde, Szilard Nemes, Maziar Mohaddes, John Timperley, Göran Garellick, Kristina Burström, Ola Rolfson
The influence of comorbidities and worse physical status on mortality following total hip replacement (THR) leads to the idea that patient-reported health status may also be a predictor of mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between patient-reported health status before THR and the risk of dying up to 5 years post-operatively. For these analyses, we used register data on 42,862 THR patients with primary hip osteoarthritis operated between 2008 and 2012. The relative survival ratio was calculated by dividing the observed survival in the patient group by age- and sex-adjusted expected survival of the general population...
August 10, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792526/cryptosporidium-parvum-vaccine-candidates-are-incompletely-modified-with-o-linked-n-acetylgalactosamine-or-contain-n-terminal-n-myristate-and-s-palmitate
#13
John R Haserick, Joshua A Klein, Catherine E Costello, John Samuelson
Cryptosporidium parvum (studied here) and Cryptosporidium hominis are important causes of diarrhea in infants and immunosuppressed persons. C. parvum vaccine candidates, which are on the surface of sporozoites, include glycoproteins with Ser- and Thr-rich domains (Gp15, Gp40, and Gp900) and a low complexity, acidic protein (Cp23). Here we used mass spectrometry to determine that O-linked GalNAc is present in dense arrays on a glycopeptide with consecutive Ser derived from Gp40 and on glycopeptides with consecutive Thr derived from Gp20, a novel C...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780303/computational-analysis-of-asp519-and-glu665-mutations-of-coagulation-factor-fviiia-implications-for-enhanced-binding-affinity-of-a2-domain
#14
Shenna Shearin, Divi Venkateswarlu
The A2-domain of blood coagulation factor VIIIa is non-covalently bound to the A1 and A3 domains via weak intermolecular interactions. Functional instability due to rapid dissociation of A2-domain from the active FVIII in blood presents a major hurdle for the therapeutic applications of FVIIIa to treat Hemophilia-A. To identify the ideal hot-spot residues at the interface of A2 and A1/A3 domains that could enhance the structural stability of FVIIIa, we performed a comprehensive computational mutagenesis study of two A2-domain residues, Asp519 and Glu665, that interface the A1 and A3-domains...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777093/expression-and-crystallographic-studies-of-the-d1d2-domains-of-c4-4a-a-homologous-protein-to-the-urokinase-receptor
#15
Shanli Chen, Lin Lin, Cai Yuan, Henrik Gårdsvoll, Mette C Kriegbaum, Michael Ploug, Mingdong Huang
C4.4A is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane protein comprised of two LU domains (Ly6/uPAR-like domains) and an extensively O-glycosylated C-terminal Ser/Thr/Pro-rich region. C4.4A is a novel biomarker for squamous epithelial differentiation. Its expression is dysregulated under various pathological conditions and it is a robust biomarker for poor prognosis in various malignant conditions such as pulmonary adenocarcinoma. To facilitate crystallization, the two LU domains were excised from intact C4...
August 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777016/threonine-supplementation-reduces-dietary-protein-and-improves-lipid-metabolism-in-pekin-ducks
#16
Y Jiang, J Tang, M Xie, Z G Wen, S Y Qiao, S-S Hou
1. This study was conducted to investigate the efficiency of threonine (Thr) supplementation on reducing dietary crude protein (CP) content and the effects of Thr on lipid metabolism in Pekin ducks. The effects of dietary CP concentration (160, 190, and 220 g/kg) and Thr supplemental concentration (0, 0.7, 1.4, 2.1, and 2.8 g/kg) on growth performance, carcass, liver lipid, and plasma profiles was determined in Pekin ducks from 1-21 d of age. 2. A total of 720 day-old male Pekin ducks were randomly allotted to 1 of 15 dietary treatments with 6 replicate cages of 8 birds per cage for each treatment according to average body weight...
August 4, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774660/the-distribution-and-mechanism-of-iodotyrosine-deiodinase-defied-expectations
#17
REVIEW
Zuodong Sun, Qi Su, Steven E Rokita
Iodotyrosine deiodinase (IYD) is unusual for its reliance on flavin and ability to promote reductive dehalogenation under aerobic conditions. As implied by the name, this enzyme was first discovered to catalyze iodide elimination from iodotyrosine for recycling iodide during synthesis of tetra- and triiodothyronine collectively known as thyroid hormone. However, IYD likely supports many more functions and has been shown to debrominate and dechlorinate bromo- and chlorotyrosines. A specificity for halotyrosines versus halophenols is well preserved from humans to bacteria...
July 31, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772805/linear-graphene-nanocomposite-synthesis-and-an-analytical-application-for-the-amino-acid-detection-of-camellia-nitidissima-chi-seeds
#18
Jinsheng Cheng, Ruimin Zhong, Jiajian Lin, Jianhua Zhu, Weihong Wan, Xinyan Chen
Husk derived amino modified linear graphene nanocomposites (aLGN) with a diameter range of 80-300 nm and a length range of 100-300 μm were prepared by a modified Hummers method, ammonia treatment, NaBH₄ reduction and phenylalanine induced assembly processes, etc. The resulting composites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), biological microscope (BM), and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), etc. Investigations found that the aLGN can serve as the novel coating of stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) technology...
April 24, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771917/5b9-a-monoclonal-anti-platelet-factor-4-heparin-igg-with-a-human-fc-fragment-that-mimics-heparin-induced-thrombocytopenia-antibodies
#19
C Kizlik-Masson, C Vayne, S E McKenzie, A Poupon, Y Zhou, G Champier, Pouplard C, Y Gruel, J Rollin
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is based on clinical and biological criteria, but a standard is lacking for laboratory assays. Moreover, no humanized HIT antibody is available for pathophysiological studies. OBJECTIVE: To characterise 5B9, a chimeric monoclonal antibody, which fully mimics the effects of human HIT antibodies. METHODS/RESULTS: 5B9, a chimeric anti-PF4/H IgG1 antibody was obtained after immunizing specific transgenic mice...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771902/detection-of-correlated-protein-backbone-and-side-chain-angle-fluctuations
#20
Robert Bryn Fenwick, Beat Rolf Vögeli
NMR methods for the characterization of local protein motions have attained a high level of sophistication. Measurement of the synchronization between those motions, however, poses a serious challenge. Such correlated motions are one of the underlying mechanisms for the propagation of local changes to remote sites and as such for information transfer. Here, we demonstrate the experimental detection of the synchronization of motion over an intermediate range. To that purpose, we designed pulse sequences for the measurement of cross-correlated relaxation between the backbone HN-N and side-chain Hβ-Cβ dipoles in Ile, Thr and Val in the protein GB3...
August 3, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
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