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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786414/uncovering-the-design-principle-of-amino-acid-derived-photoluminescent-bio-dots-with-tailored-made-structure-properties-and-application-for-cellular-bioimaging
#1
Hesheng Victor Xu, Xinting Zheng, Yanli Zhao, Yen Nee Tan
Natural amino acids possess side chains with different functional groups (R groups), which make them excellent precursors for programmable synthesis of biomolecule-derived nanodots (bio-dots) with desired properties. Herein, we reported the first systematic study to uncover the material design rules of bio-dots synthesis from 20 natural α-amino acids via a green hydrothermal approach. The as-synthesized amino acids bio-dots (AA-dots) are comprehensively characterised to establish a structure-properties relationship between the amino acid precursors and the corresponding photoluminescent properties of AA-dots...
May 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784816/encephalitis-is-mediated-by-rop18-of-toxoplasma-gondii-a-severe-pathogen-in-aids-patients
#2
Ran An, Yuewen Tang, Lijian Chen, Haijian Cai, De-Hua Lai, Kang Liu, Lijuan Wan, Linli Gong, Li Yu, Qingli Luo, Jilong Shen, Zhao-Rong Lun, Francisco J Ayala, Jian Du
The neurotropic parasite Toxoplasma gondii is a globally distributed parasitic protozoan among mammalian hosts, including humans. During the course of infection, the CNS is the most commonly damaged organ among invaded tissues. The polymorphic rhoptry protein 18 (ROP18) is a key serine (Ser)/threonine (Thr) kinase that phosphorylates host proteins to modulate acute virulence. However, the basis of neurotropism and the specific substrates through which ROP18 exerts neuropathogenesis remain unknown. Using mass spectrometry, we performed proteomic analysis of proteins that selectively bind to active ROP18 and identified RTN1-C, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein that is preferentially expressed in the CNS...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784711/quantitative-proteome-and-phosphoproteome-analyses-of-streptomyces-coelicolor-reveal-proteins-and-phosphoproteins-modulating-differentiation-and-secondary-metabolism
#3
Beatriz Rioseras, Pavel V Sliaha, Vladimir Gorshkov, Paula Yagüe, Maria T López-García, Nathaly González-Quiñónez, Sergey Kovalchuk, Adelina Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Ole N Jensen, Angel Manteca
Streptomycetes are multicellular bacteria with complex developmental cycles. They are of biotechnological importance as they produce most bioactive compounds used in biomedicine, e.g. antibiotic, antitumoral and immunosupressor compounds. Streptomyces genomes encode a large number of Ser/Thr/Tyr kinases, making this genus an outstanding model for the study of bacterial protein phosphorylation events. We used mass spectrometry based quantitative proteomics and phosphoproteomics to characterize bacterial differentiation and activation of secondary metabolism of Streptomyces coelicolor...
May 21, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781585/group-i-paks-support-muscle-regeneration-and-counteract-cancer-associated-muscle-atrophy
#4
Andrea Cerquone Perpetuini, Andrea David Re Cecconi, Michela Chiappa, Giulia Benedetta Martinelli, Claudia Fuoco, Giovanni Desiderio, Luisa Castagnoli, Cesare Gargioli, Rosanna Piccirillo, Gianni Cesareni
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle is characterized by an efficient regeneration potential that is often impaired during myopathies. Understanding the molecular players involved in muscle homeostasis and regeneration could help to find new therapies against muscle degenerative disorders. Previous studies revealed that the Ser/Thr kinase p21 protein-activated kinase 1 (Pak1) was specifically down-regulated in the atrophying gastrocnemius of Yoshida hepatoma-bearing rats. In this study, we evaluated the role of group I Paks during cancer-related atrophy and muscle regeneration...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780826/silibinin-induced-human-glioblastoma-cell-apoptosis-concomitant-with-autophagy-through-simultaneous-inhibition-of-mtor-and-yap
#5
Zhuan-Li Bai, Vincent Tay, Shu-Zhong Guo, Juan Ren, Mao-Guo Shu
Silibinin, also known as silybin, is the major flavonolignan isolated from Silybum marianum . Although previous reports demonstrated that silibinin exhibits significant tumor suppressor activities in various cancers by promoting cell apoptosis, it was also shown to trigger autophagy to counteract apoptosis induced by exogenous stresses in several types of cells. However, there is no report to address the role of silibinin induced autophagy in human A172 and SR glioblastoma cells. Our study showed that silibinin treatment not only inhibited the metabolic activities of glioblastoma cells but also promoted their apoptosis through the regulation of caspase 3 and PARP-1 in concentration- and time-dependent manners...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773804/smooth-muscle-like-ca-2-regulation-of-actin-myosin-interaction-in-adult-jellyfish-striated-muscle
#6
Hiroyuki Tanaka, Shiori Ishimaru, Yasuhiro Nagatsuka, Keisuke Ohashi
Cnidaria is an animal phylum, whose members probably have the most ancestral musculature. We prepared and characterized, for the first time to our knowledge, native actomyosin from the striated myoepithelium of the adult moon jelly Aurelia sp. The actomyosin contained myosin, paramyosin-like protein, Ser/Thr-kinase, actin, and two isoforms of tropomyosin, but not troponin, which is known to activate contraction dependent on intracellular Ca2+ signaling in almost all striated muscles of bilaterians. Notably, the myosin comprised striated muscle-type heavy chain and smooth muscle-type regulatory light chains...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773679/comparative-proteomic-analysis-reveals-the-regulatory-network-of-the-vea-gene-during-asexual-and-sexual-spore-development-of-aspergillus-cristatus
#7
Hui Liu, Shilei Sang, Hui Wang, Xiyi Ren, Yumei Tan, Wei Chen, Zuoyi Liu, Yongxiang Liu
Aspergillus cristatus belongs to the homothallic fungal group that undergoes a sexual stage without asexual conidiation under hypotonic conditions, while hypertonic medium induces initiation of the asexual stage and completely blocks sexual development. However, the veA deletion mutant only produces conidia in hypotonic medium after a 24 h culture, but both asexual and sexual spores are observed after 72 h. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of how VeA regulates asexual and sexual spore development in A. cristatus , two dimensional electrophoresis combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem time of flight mass spectrometry analysis were applied to identify 173 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) by comparing the agamotype (24 h) and teleomorph (72 h) with wild-type A...
May 17, 2018: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773649/ptap-motif-duplication-in-the-p6-gag-protein-confers-a-replication-advantage-on-hiv-1-subtype-c
#8
Shilpee Sharma, Prabhu S Arunachalam, Malini Menon, Viswanath Ragupathy, Ravi Vijaya Satya, Joshua Jebaraj, Shambhu Ganeshappa Aralaguppe, Chaitra Rao, Sreshtha Pal, Shanmugam Saravanan, Kailapuri G Murugavel, Pachamuthu Balakrishnan, Suniti Solomon, Indira Hewlett, Udaykumar Ranga
HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1C) may duplicate longer amino acid stretches in the p6 Gag protein, leading to the creation of an additional Pro-Thr/Ser-Ala-Pro (PTAP) motif necessary for viral packaging. However, the biological significance of a duplication of the PTAP motif for HIV-1 replication and pathogenesis has not been experimentally validated. In a longitudinal study of two different clinical cohorts of select HIV-1 seropositive, drug-naive individuals from India, we found that 8 of 50 of these individuals harbored a mixed infection of viral strains discordant for the PTAP duplication...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772751/what-we-do-not-know-about-fungal-cell-adhesion-molecules
#9
REVIEW
Peter N Lipke
There has been extensive research on structure and function of fungal cell adhesion molecules, but the most of the work has been about adhesins in Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These yeasts are members of a single ascomycete order, and adhesion molecules from the six other fungal phyla are only sparsely described in the literature. In these other phyla, most of the research is at the cellular level, rather than at the molecular level, so there has been little characterization of the adhesion molecules themselves...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770758/dietary-l-threonine-supplementation-attenuates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-inflammatory-responses-and-intestinal-barrier-damage-of-broiler-chickens-at-an-early-age
#10
Yueping Chen, Hao Zhang, Yefei Cheng, Yue Li, Chao Wen, Yanmin Zhou
This study was conducted to investigate the protective effects of l-threonine (l-Thr) supplementation on growth performance, inflammatory responses and intestinal barrier function of young broilers challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A total of 144 1-d-old male chicks were allocated to one of three treatments: non-challenged broilers fed a basal diet (control group), LPS-challenged broilers fed a basal diet without l-Thr supplementation and LPS-challenged broilers fed a basal diet supplemented with 3·0 g/kg l-Thr...
June 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769320/o-glcnac-transferase-missense-mutations-linked-to-x-linked-intellectual-disability-deregulate-genes-involved-in-cell-fate-determination-and-signaling
#11
Nithya Selvan, Stephan George, Fatema J Serajee, Marie Shaw, Lynne Hobson, Vera M Kalscheuer, Nripesh Prasad, Shawn E Levy, Juliet Taylor, Salim Afitmos, Charles E Schwartz, Ahm M Huq, Jozef Gecz, Lance Wells
It is estimated that ~1% of the world's population has intellectual disability, with males affected more often than females. OGT is an X-linked gene encoding for the enzyme O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), which carries out the reversible addition of N-Acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) to Ser/Thr residues of its intracellular substrates. Three missense mutations in the tetratricopeptide (TPR) repeats of OGT have recently been reported to cause X-linked Intellectual Disability (XLID). Here we report the discovery of two additional novel missense mutations (c...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764992/aurora-b-opposes-pp1-function-in-mitosis-by-phosphorylating-the-conserved-pp1-binding-rvxf-motif-in-pp1-regulatory-proteins
#12
Isha Nasa, Scott F Rusin, Arminja N Kettenbach, Greg B Moorhead
Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is a highly conserved protein phosphatase that performs most of the serine- and threonine-dephosphorylation reactions in eukaryotes and opposes the actions of a diverse set of serine and threonine (Ser-Thr) protein kinases. PP1 gains substrate specificity through binding to a large number (>200) of regulatory proteins that control PP1 localization, activity, and interactions with substrates. PP1 recognizes the well-characterized RVxF binding motif that is present in many of these regulatory proteins, thus generating a multitude of distinct PP1 holoenzymes...
May 15, 2018: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763603/pim1-catalyzed-cbx8-phosphorylation-promotes-the-oncogene-induced-senescence-of-human-diploid-fibroblast
#13
Xiangwen Zhan, Jianming Yang, Zebin Mao, Wenhua Yu
The proto-oncogene PIM1 encodes Ser/Thr kinase and regulates cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis. However, more and more studies including ours have found that PIM1 can induce senescence in normal human diploid fibroblasts and behave as a tumor suppressor. But the relevant molecular mechanism of this process is not yet clear. It has been reported that Chromobox homolog 8 (CBX8) binds directly to INK4A as a transcriptional repressor, thereby suppressing stress-induced senescence. Here we report that PIM1 can phosphorylate CBX8 to promote its degradation, thereby up-regulating p16, during PIM1-induced cell senescence...
May 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759183/evaluation-of-thrombin-inhibitory-activity-of-catechins-by-online-capillary-electrophoresis-based-immobilized-enzyme-microreactor-and-molecular-docking
#14
Qiao-Qiao Li, Feng-Qing Yang, Yin-Zhen Wang, Zhao-Yu Wu, Zhi-Ning Xia, Hua Chen
An online capillary electrophoresis (CE)-based thrombin (THR) immobilized enzyme microreactor (IMER) method was established to screen THR inhibitors in this study. S-2366 was used as chromogenic substrate for determination of THR activity and other kinetic constants. After continuously run for 50 times, the prepared IMER could still remain 89% of the initial immobilized enzyme activity. The Michaelis-Menten constant (Km ) of immobilized THR was measured as 0.514 mmol/L and the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) and inhibition constant (Ki ) of argatroban on THR were determined as 78...
August 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758352/prospective-associations-of-c-reactive-protein-crp-levels-and-crp-genetic-risk-scores-with-risk-of-total-knee-and-hip-replacement-for-osteoarthritis-in-a-diverse-cohort
#15
Aladdin H Shadyab, Robert Terkeltaub, Charles Kooperberg, Alexander Reiner, Charles B Eaton, Rebecca D Jackson, Jessica L Krok-Schoen, Rany M Salem, Andrea Z LaCroix
OBJECTIVE: To examine associations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and polygenic CRP genetic risk scores (GRS) with risk of end-stage hip or knee osteoarthritis (OA), defined as incident total hip (THR) or knee replacement (TKR) for OA. DESIGN: This study included a cohort of postmenopausal white, African American, and Hispanic women from the Women's Health Initiative. Women were followed from baseline to date of THR or TKR, death, or December 31, 2014...
May 11, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757193/eya3-promotes-breast-tumor-associated-immune-suppression-via-threonine-phosphatase-mediated-pd-l1-upregulation
#16
Rebecca L Vartuli, Hengbo Zhou, Lingdi Zhang, Rani K Powers, Jared Klarquist, Pratyaydipta Rudra, Melanie Y Vincent, Debashis Ghosh, James C Costello, Ross M Kedl, Jill E Slansky, Rui Zhao, Heide L Ford
Eya proteins are critical developmental regulators that are highly expressed in embryogenesis but downregulated after development. Amplification and/or re-expression of Eyas occurs in many tumor types. In breast cancer, Eyas regulate tumor progression by acting as transcriptional cofactors and tyrosine phosphatases. Intriguingly, Eyas harbor a separate threonine (Thr) phosphatase activity, which was previously implicated in innate immunity. Here we describe what we believe to be a novel role for Eya3 in mediating triple-negative breast cancer-associated immune suppression...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757058/outcomes-following-hip-and-knee-replacement-in-diabetic-versus-nondiabetic-patients-and-well-versus-poorly-controlled-diabetic-patients-a-prospective-cohort-study
#17
Erik Lenguerrand, Andrew D Beswick, Michael R Whitehouse, Vikki Wylde, Ashley W Blom
Background and purpose - The impact of diabetes and glycemic control before joint replacement on clinical and patient-reported outcomes is unclear. We compared pain, function, complications, and length of hospital stay in diabetic and nondiabetic patients receiving primary total hip (THR) or knee replacement (TKR) and compared these outcomes in patients with poorly controlled versus well-controlled diabetes. Patients and methods - We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients undergoing primary THR (n = 300) or TKR (n = 287) for osteoarthritis...
May 14, 2018: Acta Orthopaedica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755474/exercise-increases-insulin-sensitivity-and-skeletal-muscle-ampk-expression-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Fabiana B Benatti, Cíntia N H Miyake, Wagner S Dantas, Vanessa O Zambelli, Samuel K Shinjo, Rosa M R Pereira, Maria Elizabeth R Silva, Ana Lúcia Sá-Pinto, Eduardo Borba, Eloisa Bonfá, Bruno Gualano
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients may show increased insulin resistance (IR) when compared with their healthy peers. Exercise training has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity in other insulin-resistant populations, but it has never been tested in SLE. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy of a moderate-intensity exercise training program on insulin sensitivity and potential underlying mechanisms in SLE patients with mild/inactive disease. A 12-week, randomized controlled trial was conducted...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754955/structural-insights-into-subunits-assembly-and-the-oxyester-splicing-mechanism-of-neq-pol-split-intein
#19
Verónica Gordo, David Aparicio, Rosa Pérez-Luque, Antoni Benito, Maria Vilanova, Isabel Usón, Ignacio Fita, Marc Ribó
Split inteins are expressed as two separated subunits (N-intein and C-intein) fused to the corresponding exteins. The specific association of both intein subunits precedes protein splicing, which results in excision of the intein subunits and in ligation, by a peptide bond, of the concomitant exteins. Catalytically active intein precursors are typically too reactive for crystallization or even isolation. Neq pol is the trans-intein of the B-type DNA polymerase I split gene from hyperthermophile Nanoarchaeum equitans...
April 25, 2018: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753845/gestational-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-exposure-causes-fetal-intrauterine-growth-restriction-through-disturbing-placental-thyroid-hormone-receptor-signaling
#20
Zhen Yu, Yan Han, Ru Shen, Kun Huang, Yuan-Yuan Xu, Qu-Nan Wang, Shan-Shan Zhou, De-Xiang Xu, Fang-Biao Tao
Previous study reported that gestational Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) exposure caused fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We aimed to investigate the role of placental thyroid hormone receptor (THR) signaling in DEHP-induced IUGR. Dams were treated with DEHP (50 or 200 mg/kg) by gavage daily throughout pregnancy. As expected, gestational DEHP exposure dose-dependently caused fetal IUGR. The mRNA levels of placental Thrα1 and Thrβ1 were reduced and nuclear translocation of placental THRα1 and THRβ1 were suppressed in DEHP-exposed mice even though thyroid hormones in maternal and fetal sera were unaffected...
May 10, 2018: Toxicology Letters
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