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pain amygdala

Shehla Akbar, Fazal Subhan, Nasiara Karim, Muhammad Shahid, Nisar Ahmad, Gowhar Ali, Wajahat Mahmood, Khwaja Fawad
BACKGROUND: Diabetic neuropathy is the most prevalent, persistent and debilitating complication of diabetes mellitus often coupled with vulvodynia that may present as an isolated symptom or as a part of constellation of other neuropathic abnormalities. OBJECTIVE: Flavonoids have selective affinity for GABA receptors and 6-methoxyflavanone (6-MeOF) is a positive allosteric modulator of GABA responses at human recombinant GABAA receptors. GABAergic and opioidergic system inhibition have been shown to facilitate neuropathic pain...
October 17, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Tracie A Paine, Nathan Swedlow, Lucien Swetschinski
INTRODUCTION: Decreased sociability is a symptom of psychiatric conditions including autism-spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. Both of these conditions are associated with decreases in GABA function, particularly in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the basolateral amygdala (BLA); structures that are components of the social brain. Here, we determined if decreasing GABA transmission within either the PFC or the BLA decreases social behavior. METHODS: Rats were implanted with cannulae aimed at either the medial PFC or the BLA and then were tested on up to 4 behavioral tests following bilateral infusions of 0...
October 9, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Huizhen Huang, Marissa S Kuzirian, Xiaoyun Cai, Lindsey M Snyder, Jonathan Cohen, Daniel H Kaplan, Sarah E Ross
The Neurokinin 1 Receptor (NK1R), which binds Substance P, is expressed in discrete populations of neurons throughout the nervous system, where it has numerous roles including the modulation of pain and affective behaviors. Here, we report the generation of a NK1R-CreER knockin allele, in which CreER(T2) replaces the coding sequence of the TACR1 gene (encoding NK1R) in order to gain genetic access to these cells. We find that the NK1R-CreER allele mediates recombination in many regions of the nervous system that are important in pain and anxiety including the amygdala, hypothalamus, frontal cortex, raphe nucleus, and dorsal horn of the spinal cord...
October 6, 2016: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
Manon Wicking, Frauke Steiger, Frauke Nees, Slawomira J Diener, Oliver Grimm, Michaela Ruttorf, Lothar R Schad, Tobias Winkelmann, Gustav Wirtz, Herta Flor
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) might be maintained by deficient extinction memory. We used a cued fear conditioning design with extinction and a post-extinction phase to provoke the return of fear and examined the role of the interplay of amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal regions. METHODS: We compared 18 PTSD patients with two healthy control groups: 18 trauma-exposed subjects without PTSD (nonPTSD) and 18 healthy controls (HC) without trauma experience...
September 26, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Bing Cao, Jun Wang, Li Mu, David Chun-Hei Poon, Ying Li
Visceral hypersensitivity (VH) is a key factor of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Previous studies have identified an enhanced response of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to colorectal distension in VH rats, which can be observed up to 7weeks following colonic anaphylaxis, independent of colonic inflammation. The induction of VH produces a change in the ability to induce subsequent synaptic plasticity at the ACC circuitry. In clinical practice, a positive link between IBS and cognitive impairments has been noted for years, but no animal model has been reported...
September 21, 2016: Experimental Neurology
Bright N Okine, Manish K Madasu, Fiona McGowan, Charles Prendergast, Jessica C Gaspar, Brendan Harhen, Michelle Roche, David P Finn
The neural substrates and mechanisms mediating the antinociceptive effects of the endogenous bioactive lipid, N-palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), require further investigation. We investigated the effects of exogenous PEA administration into the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), an important brain region linked with cognitive and affective modulation of pain, on formalin-evoked nociceptive behaviour in rats. Potential involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor isoforms (PPAR) α and γ or endocannabinoid-mediated entourage effects at cannabinoid1 (CB1) receptors or transient receptor potential subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) in mediating the effects of PEA was also investigated...
August 16, 2016: Pain
Kai-Wen Geng, Ting He, Rui-Rui Wang, Chun-Li Li, Wen-Jun Luo, Fang-Fang Wu, Yan Wang, Zhen Li, Yun-Fei Lu, Su-Min Guan, Jun Chen
Ethanol is widely known for its ability to cause dramatic changes in emotion, social cognition, and behavior following systemic administration in humans. Human neuroimaging studies suggest that alcohol dependence and chronic pain may share common mechanisms through amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) interactions. However, whether acute administration of ethanol in the mPFC can modulate pain perception is unknown. Here we showed that bilateral microinjections of ethanol into the prelimbic and infralimbic areas of the mPFC lowered the bilateral mechanical pain threshold for 48 h without influencing thermal pain sensitivity in adult rats...
October 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Ted B Usdin, Eugene L Dimitrov
Chronic pain is frequently associated with anxiety, depression, and cognitive dysfunction. This review discusses recent work in rodents that contributes to the understanding of their neurobiological links. Brain regions that contain circuits that mediate persistent changes in behavior that are caused by nerve injury or joint inflammation include the rostral anterior cingulate and other parts of the medial prefrontal cortex, the basolateral and central nucleus of the amygdala, and the nucleus accumbens. Functional changes, including increases in the activity within specific neuronal pathways and in the levels of specific synaptic components, that are associated with the behavior changes, or are in some cases necessary for them, have recently been identified...
October 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
Enrico Facco
Hypnosis is a physiological mind activity characterized by focused attention, absorption, dissociation and plastic imagination. In the early 19th century, several hundred surgical interventions were described with hypnosis as the sole anesthetic, in an epoch when no anesthetic drugs were available; then hypnosis was prejudicially abandoned and forgotten after their introduction. In the past two decades, an increasing number of studies on hypnosis has shown its capacity to modify the activity of the prefrontal cortex, default mode network and pain neuromatrix (including the anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, thalamus, insula and somatosensory cortex) and increase pain threshold up to the level of surgical anesthesia...
August 30, 2016: Minerva Anestesiologica
Anna M W Taylor, Sadaf Mehrabani, Steve Liu, Alison J Taylor, Catherine M Cahill
Microglial activation in the spinal cord plays a central role in the development and maintenance of chronic pain after a peripheral nerve injury (PNI). There has not yet been a thorough assessment of microglial activation in brain regions associated with pain and reward. To this end, this study uses a mouse model of neuropathic pain in which the left sciatic nerve of male C57Bl/6J mice is loosely constricted (chronic constriction injury) to assess microglial activation in several brain regions 2 weeks after injury, a time point at which pain hypersensitivity is well established...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Roger Negrete, María Salud García Gutiérrez, Jorge Manzanares, Rafael Maldonado
Joint pain is a major clinical problem mainly associated to osteoarthritis, and characterized by articular cartilage degradation resulting in a complex chronic pain state that includes nociceptive, emotional and cognitive manifestations. Memory impairment, depressive- and anxiety-like symptoms have been reported to be associated with chronic pain, leading to a decrease of life quality. In this study, we evaluated the involvement of the endogenous dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor (KOR) system on the nociceptive, emotional, cognitive, neurochemical and epigenetic manifestations of joint pain...
August 24, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Caela C Long, Katelyn E Sadler, Benedict J Kolber
The evolutionary advantages to the suppression of pain during a stressful event (stress-induced analgesia (SIA)) are obvious, yet the reasoning behind sex-differences in the expression of this pain reduction are not. The different ways in which males and females integrate physiological stress responses and descending pain inhibition are unclear. A potential supraspinal modulator of stress-induced analgesia is the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). This limbic brain region is involved in both the processing of stress and pain; the CeA is anatomically and molecularly linked to regions of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and descending pain network...
October 15, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Michael L Meier, Philipp Stämpfli, Andrea Vrana, Barry K Humphreys, Erich Seifritz, Sabina Hotz-Boendermaker
Fear of movement (FOM) can be acquired by a direct aversive experience such as pain or by social learning through observation and instruction. Excessive FOM results in heightened disability and is an obstacle for recovery from acute, subacute, and chronic low back pain (cLBP). FOM has further been identified as a significant explanatory factor in the Fear Avoidance (FA) model of cLBP that describes how individuals experiencing acute back pain may become trapped into a vicious circle of chronic disability and suffering...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Sophie L Wilcox, Rosanna Veggeberg, Jordan Lemme, Duncan J Hodkinson, Steven Scrivani, Rami Burstein, Lino Becerra, David Borsook
Pain is both an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience. This is highly relevant in migraine where cortical hyperexcitability in response to sensory stimuli (including pain, light, and sound) has been extensively reported. However, migraine may feature a more general enhanced response to aversive stimuli rather than being sensory-specific. To this end we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess neural activation in migraineurs interictaly in response to emotional visual stimuli from the International Affective Picture System...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
William J Cottam, Laura Condon, Hamza Alshuft, Diane Reckziegel, Dorothee P Auer
Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies (fMRI) have transformed our understanding of central processing of evoked pain but the typically used block and event-related designs are not best suited to the study of ongoing pain. Here we used arterial spin labelling (ASL) for cerebral blood flow mapping to characterise the neural correlates of perceived intensity of osteoarthritis (OA) pain and its interrelation with negative affect. Twenty-six patients with painful knee OA and twenty-seven healthy controls underwent pain phenotyping and ASL MRI at 3T...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Andrew Chih Wei Huang, Hsiang-Chin Lu, Bai Chuang Shyu
Approximately 8% of stroke patients present symptoms of central post-stroke pain (CPSP). CPSP is associated with allodynia and hypersensitivity to nociceptive stimuli. Although some studies have shown that neuropathic pain may involve the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, rostral anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, periaqueductal gray, rostral ventromedial medulla, and medial thalamus, the neural substrates and their connections that mediate CPSP remain unclear. [(14)C]-Iodoantipyrine (IAP) uptake can be measured to evaluate spontaneously active pain...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Yukari Tanaka, Motoyori Kanazawa, Michiko Kano, Joe Morishita, Toyohiro Hamaguchi, Lukas Van Oudenhove, Huynh Giao Ly, Patrick Dupont, Jan Tack, Takuhiro Yamaguchi, Kazuhiko Yanai, Manabu Tashiro, Shin Fukudo
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) often comorbids mood and anxiety disorders. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a major mediator of the stress response in the brain-gut axis, but it is not clear how CRH agonists change human brain responses to interoceptive stimuli. We tested the hypothesis that brain activation in response to colorectal distention is enhanced after CRH injection in IBS patients compared to healthy controls. Brain H215O- positron emission tomography (PET) was performed in 16 male IBS patients and 16 age-matched male controls during baseline, no distention, mild and intense distention of the colorectum using barostat bag inflation...
2016: PloS One
Man-Li Hu, Zheng-Ying Qiu, Kuang Hu, Ming-Xing Ding
To investigate analgesic neural circuits activated by electroacupuncture (EA) at different sets of acupoints in the brain, goats were stimulated by EA at set of Baihui-Santai acupoints or set of Housanli acupoints for 30 min. The pain threshold was measured using the potassium iontophoresis method. The levels of c-Fos were determined with Streptavidin-Biotin Complex immunohistochemistry. The results showed pain threshold induced by EA at set of Baihui-Santai acupoints was 44.74% ± 4.56% higher than that by EA at set of Housanli acupoints (32...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Hélène Bastuji, Maud Frot, Caroline Perchet, Michel Magnin, Luis Garcia-Larrea
Conscious perception of painful stimuli needs the contribution of an extensive cortico-subcortical network, and is completed in less than one second. While initial activities in operculo-insular and mid-cingulate cortices have been extensively assessed, the activation timing of most areas supporting conscious pain has barely been studied. Here we used intracranial EEG to investigate the dynamics of 16 brain regions (insular, parietal, prefrontal, cingulate, hippocampal and limbic) during the first second following nociceptive-specific laser pulses...
July 8, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Ahmet Ulugol, Ruhan D Topuz, Ozgur Gunduz, Gulnur Kizilay, Hakan C Karadag
It has been indicated that acute and chronic morphine administrations enhance nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) levels in the brain, which might play role in the development of tolerance to the antinociceptive effect of morphine. Accordingly, N/OFQ receptor (NOP) antagonists have been shown to prevent the development of antinociceptive tolerance to morphine. Our aim is to observe whether cannabinoids, similarly to opioids, enhance N/OFQ levels in pain-related brain regions and whether antagonism of NOP receptors attenuates the development of tolerance to the antinociceptive effect of cannabinoids...
July 1, 2016: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
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