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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920651/use-of-direct-acting-antivirals-for-the-treatment-of-hepatitis-c-virus-associated-oral-lichen-planus-a-case-report
#1
Kenji Misaka, Takashi Kishimoto, Yuji Kawahigashi, Michio Sata, Yumiko Nagao
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is frequently associated with various extrahepatic manifestations such as autoimmune features and immune complex deposit diseases. Oral lichen planus (OLP) is one of the representative extrahepatic manifestations of HCV infection. Direct-acting antivirals (DAA) are highly effective and safe for the eradication of HCV. However, there is a lack of information regarding the association between HCV-associated OLP and interferon (IFN)-free DAA therapy. Herein, we present the case of a 60-year-old female who was diagnosed with OLP during routine periodontal treatment by a dentist...
September 2016: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917262/toll-like-receptors-in-pathophysiology-of-liver-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Safak Kiziltas
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors that participate in host defense by recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns alongside inflammatory processes by recognizing damage associated molecular patterns. Given constant exposure to pathogens from gut, strict control of TLR-associated signaling pathways is essential in the liver, which otherwise may lead to inappropriate production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and interferons and may generate a predisposition to several autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases...
November 18, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916939/immunopathogenic-mechanisms-of-autoimmune-hepatitis-how-much-do-we-know-from-animal-models
#3
REVIEW
Urs Christen, Edith Hintermann
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is characterized by a progressive destruction of the liver parenchyma and a chronic fibrosis. The current treatment of autoimmune hepatitis is still largely dependent on the administration of corticosteroids and cytostatic drugs. For a long time the development of novel therapeutic strategies has been hampered by a lack of understanding the basic immunopathogenic mechanisms of AIH and the absence of valid animal models. However, in the past decade, knowledge from clinical observations in AIH patients and the development of innovative animal models have led to a situation where critical factors driving the disease have been identified and alternative treatments are being evaluated...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914924/the-management-of-childhood-liver-diseases-in-adulthood
#4
REVIEW
D Joshi, N Gupta, M Samyn, M Deheragoda, F Dobbels, M A Heneghan
An increasing number of patients with childhood liver disease survive into adulthood. These young adults are now entering adult services and require ongoing management. Aetiologies can be divided into liver diseases that develop in young adults which present to adult hepatologists i.e. biliary atresia and Alagille syndrome or liver diseases that occur in children/adolescents and adults i.e. autoimmune hepatitis or Wilson's disease .To successfully manage these young adults, a dynamic and responsive transition service is essential...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913752/expression-and-bioactivity-of-human-alpha-fetoprotein-in-a-bac-to-bac-system
#5
Bo Lin, Kun Liu, Wenting Wang, Wei Li, Xu Dong, Yi Chen, Yan Lu, Junli Guo, Mingyue Zhu, Mengsen Li
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is an early serum growth factor in fetal embryonic development and hepatic oncogenesis. A growing number of investigations of AFP as a tumor-specific biomarker have concluded that AFP is an important target for cancer treatment. AFP also plays an immunomodulatory role in the treatment of several autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, and thyroiditis. In an effort to support biochemical screening and drug design and discovery, we attempted to express and purify human AFP in a Bac-to-Bac system...
December 2, 2016: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895415/factoring-the-intestinal-microbiome-into-the-pathogenesis-of-autoimmune-hepatitis
#6
EDITORIAL
Albert J Czaja
The intestinal microbiome is a reservoir of microbial antigens and activated immune cells. The aims of this review were to describe the role of the intestinal microbiome in generating innate and adaptive immune responses, indicate how these responses contribute to the development of systemic immune-mediated diseases, and encourage investigations that improve the understanding and management of autoimmune hepatitis. Alterations in the composition of the intestinal microflora (dysbiosis) can disrupt intestinal and systemic immune tolerances for commensal bacteria...
November 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893674/relapsing-remitting-lesions-in-a-woman-with-progressive-hemifacial-atrophy-and-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-a-case-report
#7
Ying Zhang, Mingqin Zhu, Xiaozhen Li, Jing Miao, Chenchen Duan, Li Cui, Xuefan Yu
INTRODUCTION: Progressive hemifacial atrophy (PHA) is a rare disorder characterized by unilateral facial atrophy affecting the skin, subcutaneous tissue, and fat, muscle, and osteocartilagenous structures creating a sunken hemiface appearance.Etiopathogenesis of PHA is poorly understood; no definitive treatment is currently available. CLINICAL FINDINGS: We report a 41-year-old woman with PHA who showed an uncharacteristic "relapsing-remitting" evolution of brain lesions and was seropositive for hepatitis B virus (HBV)...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891589/critical-roles-of-conventional-dendritic-cells-in-promoting-t-cell-dependent-hepatitis-through-regulating-nkt-cells
#8
Jingya Wang, Xueting Cao, Jiliang Zhao, Huiyuan Zhao, Jun Wei, Qiuying Li, Xiaofei Qi, Zishan Yang, Li Wang, Hongru Zhang, Li Bai, Zhenzhou Wu, Liqing Zhao, Zhangyong Hong, Zhinan Yin
Dendritic cells (DC) play critical roles in initiating and regulating the innate immunity as well as the adaptive immune responses. However, the role of conventional dendritic cells (cDC) in Con A-induced fulminant hepatitis is unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that depletion of cDC using either CD11c-DTR Tg mice or anti-CD11c antibody significantly reduced the severity of liver injury, indicating a detrimental role of cDC in Con A-induced hepatitis. We further elucidated the pathological role of cDC through being the critical source of IL-12, which induced the secretion of IFN-γ by NKT cells...
November 28, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890169/hepatitis-c-virus-infection-and-rheumatic-diseases-the-impact-of-direct-acting-antiviral-agents
#9
REVIEW
Patrice Cacoub, Cloé Commarmond, David Sadoun, Anne Claire Desbois
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with liver and extrahepatic complications, including B-cell lymphoma, cardiovascular and kidney diseases, glucose metabolism impairment and rheumatic conditions ie, arthralgia, myalgia, cryoglobulinemia vasculitis, sicca syndrome and the production of autoantibodies. The treatment has long been based on interferon alpha (IFN) that was found poorly effective, and contraindicated in many autoimmune/inflammatory disorders because of possible exacerbation of rheumatic disorders...
February 2017: Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884763/acox2-deficiency-an-inborn-error-of-bile-acid-synthesis-identified-in-an-adolescent-with-persistent-hypertransaminasemia
#10
Maria J Monte, Marta Alonso-Peña, Oscar Briz, Elisa Herraez, Carmen Berasain, Josepmaria Argemi, Jesus Prieto, Jose J G Marin
BACKGROUND: Acyl-CoA oxidase (ACOX2) is involved in the shortening of C27 cholesterol derivatives to generate C24 bile acids. Inborn errors affecting the rest of peroxisomal enzymes involved in bile acid biosynthesis have been described. These conditions are usually characterized by serious hepatic and/or neurologic manifestations. AIMS: We have investigated bile acid profile and enzymes involved in their biosynthesis in the first reported case of ACOX2 deficiency identified in an adolescent boy with persistent unexplained hypertransaminasemia and his family...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882046/the-role-of-genetic-and-immune-factors-for-the-pathogenesis-of-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-in-childhood
#11
REVIEW
Priscila Menezes Ferri, Ana Cristina Simões E Silva, Soraya Luiza Campos Silva, Diego Junior Queiroga de Aquino, Eleonora Druve Tavares Fagundes, Débora Marques de Miranda, Alexandre Rodrigues Ferreira
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a rare cholestatic liver disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the biliary tree resulting in liver fibrosis. PSC is more common in male less than 40 years of age. The diagnosis of PSC is based on clinical, laboratory, image, and histological findings. A biochemical profile of mild to severe chronic cholestasis can be observed. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography is the golden standard method for diagnosis, but magnetic resonance cholangiography is currently also considered a first-line method of investigation...
2016: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876037/the-efficacy-of-adalimumab-in-psoriatic-arthritis-concomitant-to-overlapping-primary-biliary-cholangitis-and-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-a-case-report
#12
Teresa Del Ross, Amelia Ruffatti, Annarosa Floreani, Ariela Hoxha, Leonardo Punzi
BACKGROUND: The overlap syndrome of primary biliary cholangitis (formerly called primary biliary cirrhosis) and primary sclerosing cholangitis is an extremely rare condition that has never been described in association with other immune-mediated diseases, including psoriatic arthritis. While treatment with anti-Tumour Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) agents has proved to be effective in inflammatory arthropathies such as psoriatic arthritis, they have been employed in only a limited number of patients with autoimmune hepatitis, and their effectiveness is unclear...
November 22, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860532/hepatitis-c-virus-e2-protein-induces-upregulation-of-il-8-pathways-and-production-of-heat-shock-proteins-in-human-thyroid-cells
#13
Sara Salehi Hammerstad, Mihaela Stefan, Jason Blackard, Randall P Owen, Hanna J Lee, Erlinda Concepcion, Zhengzi Yi, Weijia Zhang, Yaron Tomer
CONTEXT: Thyroiditis is one of the most common extra hepatic manifestations of hepatitis C virus infection. By binding to surface cell receptor CD81, hepatitis C envelop glycoprotein E2 mediates entry of HCV into cells. Studies have shown that different viral proteins may individually induce host responses to infection. We hypothesized that HCV E2 protein binding to CD81 expressed on thyroid cells activates a cascade of inflammatory responses that can trigger autoimmune thyroiditis in susceptible individuals...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857890/prevalence-of-thyroid-disorders-in-hepatitis-c-virus-positive-patients-on-interferon-and-antiviral-therapy
#14
Gitanjali Goyal, Kmds Panag, Ravinder Garg
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is common worldwide. The treatment typically involves a combination of interferon-alpha (IFN-α) and ribavirin (RBV) therapy; however, the use of IFN-α is well documented to be associated with thyroid disease, the most common autoimmune disorder associated with IFN-α. AIM: The aim of the present study was to know the prevalence of thyroid abnormality in the HCV-positive patients on IFN and antiviral therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty known HCV positive patients were enrolled for the study...
October 2016: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857838/hyponatraemia-secondary-to-nivolumab-induced-primary-adrenal-failure
#15
Harris Trainer, Paul Hulse, Claire E Higham, Peter Trainer, Paul Lorigan
: Checkpoint inhibitors, such as ipilimumab and pembrolizumab, have transformed the prognosis for patients with advanced malignant melanoma and squamous non-small-cell lung cancer, and their use will only expand as experience is gained in a variety of other malignancies, for instance, renal and lymphoma. As the use of checkpoint inhibitors increases, so too will the incidence of their unique side effects, termed immune-related adverse events (irAEs), which can affect dermatological, gastrointestinal, hepatic, endocrine and other systems...
2016: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855469/right-sided-heart-failure-and-extracorporeal-life-support-in-patients-undergoing-pericardiectomy-for-constrictive-pericarditis-a-risk-factor-analysis-for-adverse-outcome
#16
Erik Beckmann, Issam Ismail, Serghei Cebotari, Alexander Busse, Andreas Martens, Malakh Shrestha, Christian Kühn, Axel Haverich, Christine Fegbeutel
Background Right ventricular failure is a life-threatening postoperative complication after pericardiectomy. We conducted a retrospective study with a special emphasis on right ventricular failure. Methods Between June 1997 and September 2011, 69 patients underwent surgical pericardiectomy at our center. Mean age was 59 ( ±  15.5) years, and 49 (71%) patients were male. Causes of constrictive pericarditis included idiopathic (52%, n = 36), tuberculosis (9%, n = 6), postcardiotomy (12%, n = 8), radiation (4%, n = 3), renal insufficiency (12%, n = 8), and autoimmune disease (12%, n = 8)...
November 17, 2016: Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848888/immunotherapy-in-liver-diseases-a-balance-between-immunity-and-tolerance
#17
Alaknanda Mishra, Pramod K Upadhyay, Perumal Nagarajan
In today's context when liver diseases have spread across countries and people of all ages, it is of high importance to consider novel methods of non-toxic and long lived therapeutics. Among various therapies, immunotherapy for acute and chronic liver diseases is rapidly moving to the forefront among treatment options in hepatology medicine. Liver has a unique immuno- biological advantage which is utilized to maintain a balance between immunity and tolerance. This intricate balance of hepatic immune cells can be modulated to effect treatments in various liver diseases...
November 16, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846740/prognostic-value-of-clinical-variables-and-liver-histology-for-development-of-fibrosis-and-cirrhosis-in-autoimmune-hepatitis
#18
Lauri Puustinen, Sonja Boyd, Harri Mustonen, Perttu Arkkila, Johanna Arola, Martti Färkkilä
OBJECTIVE: In autoimmune hepatitis, data on the prognostic value of baseline liver biopsy and the sequential histology is controversial. Our aim was to evaluate the prognostic value of clinical variables and biopsy at the time of diagnosis and during the disease course. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All 98 patients in our hospital during 1995-2012 were included. Sequential biopsies were available in 66 patients. Analyses based on clinical and histological variables were performed to find parameters predicting the progression of fibrosis, and development of cirrhosis...
November 16, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843539/regulatory-and-activated-effector-t-cells-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-relation-to-autoimmunity
#19
Hanan Fouad, Maissa El Raziky, Eman Medhat Hassan, Ghada Mahmoud Abdel Aziz, Samar K Darweesh, Ahmed Reda Sayed
AIM: To investigate how Tregs are regulated in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients via assessment of Tregs markers (granzyme 2, CD69 and FoxP3), Teffs markers [TNFRSF4 (OX40), INFG] and CD4, CD25 genes. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted on 120 subjects divided into 4 groups: Group I (n = 30) treatment naïve chronic HCV patients; Group II (n = 30) chronic HCV treated with Peg/Riba; Group III (n = 30) chronic HCV associated with non-organ specific autoantibody and Group IV (n = 30) healthy persons as a control group...
October 28, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833448/a-possible-link-between-the-epstein-barr-virus-infection-and-autoimmune-thyroid-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Anna Dittfeld, Katarzyna Gwizdek, Marek Michalski, Romuald Wojnicz
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), also known as human herpesvirus 4, is a member of the Herpesviridae virus family. EBV infection can cause infectious mononucleosis (IM) in the lytic phase of EBV's life cycle. Past EBV infection is associated with lymphomas, and may also result in certain allergic and autoimmune diseases. Although potential mechanisms of autoimmune diseases have not been clearly elucidated, both genetic and environmental factors, such as infectious agents, are considered to be responsible for their development...
2016: Central-European Journal of Immunology
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