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Asogan N Gounden, Sooboo Singh, Sreekantha B Jonnalagadda
The study investigates the degradation of 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP) and the influence of solution pH, alkalinity, H2 O2 and O3 dosage. Debromination efficiency of 2,4,6-TBP was the highest in basic water (pH = 10.61). The extent of TOC removal compared favourably with the amount of substrate converted, suggesting favourable mineralization of oxygenated by-products (OBPs). Ozonation in basic water favoured the formation of toxicBrO3 - , while in acidic water (pH = 2.27) BrO3 - yield was lowest...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Silvie Koval, Gregoire Krahenbuhl, Karryn Warren, Graham O'Brien
In urban environments airborne particulates (dust) must be managed to ensure that industry and community coexist in a mutually beneficial and sustainable manner. The composition of the dust is a function of the local environment and industry. In general, there is a view by many community members that a significant proportion of inhalable (PM10 ) and respirable (PM2.5 ) dust in these environments could be coal. Thus there is a need to have an analytical method that provides a quantitative analysis of the amount and size distribution of the different particulates that can be present in air samples...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
C Fowler, R J M Lynch, D Shingler, D Walsh, C Carson, A Neale, R J Willson, A Brown
OBJECTIVE: To assess Scanning Electron Microscopy in Back-Scattered Emission mode (BSE-SEM) for measurement of lesion mineral content as a function of depth. Direct comparison is made with Transverse Micro-Radiography (TMR) and Surface Micro-Hardness (SMH) on carious and erosive lesions. DESIGN: Caries lesions prepared from sound bovine enamel at 37 °C and pH 4.6 in unsaturated (7d) or part-saturated (8d, 4.1 mM Ca2+ , 8 mM Pi) lactic acid /methyl cellulose gel system, followed by TMR analysis...
June 13, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
Yongwen Guo, Weihua Guo, Jie Chen, Guoqing Chen, Weidong Tian, Ding Bai
OBJECTIVE: The role of Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS) cells in periodontal formation has been controversial. This study aimed to further clarify whether HERS cells participate in formation of the periodontium, and the necessity of HERS cells in differentiation of dental follicle cells (DFCs) for periodontal regeneration. DESIGN: HERS cells and DFCs were isolated and identified from post-natal 7-day Sprauge-Dawley rats. In vitro, direct co-culture of HERS cells and DFCs as well as the individual culture of HERS and DFCs were performed and followed by alizarin red staining and the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis...
June 18, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
Martina Trckova, Alena Lorencova, Vladimir Babak, Jiri Neca, Miroslav Ciganek
A three-week trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of leonardite and lignite, natural sources of humic substances, on selected indicators of health status of weaned piglets. A total of 45 weaned piglets were assigned to three dietary treatments: Control - basal diet without any medication; Leonardite or Lignite - diet supplemented with lignite or leonardite at a dose of 20 g/kg, respectively. Leonardite differed from lignite in the content of humic substances and minerals. Diarrhoea incidence and severity, growth performance, haematological and biochemical status, biomarkers of oxidative stress, serum fatty acid (FA) profile and faecal microbiota composition were monitored...
June 12, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Didem Dagdeviren, Zana Kalajzic, Douglas J Adams, Ivo Kalajzic, Alan Lurie, Maija I Mednieks, Arthur R Hand
OBJECTIVE: To determine if spaceflight and microgravity affect non-weight bearing bones and development and mineralization of teeth, reasoning that combining an organ and a cellular level approach can lead to greater insights about these effects. DESIGN: Mandibles and incisors of mice flown on the US STS-135 space shuttle mission and the Russian Bion-M1 satellite were studied using micro-computed tomography and immunohistochemistry. Ground controls were mice housed in standard vivarium cages and flight habitats...
June 7, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
Jiancheng Yang, Xiaofeng Meng, Dandan Dong, Yanru Xue, Xin Chen, Shenghang Wang, Ying Shen, Gejing Zhang, Peng Shang
During deep-space exploration missions, astronauts will be exposed to abnormal space environments including microgravity and hypomagnetic field (HyMF) that is 10,000 times weaker than geomagnetic field (GMF). It is well known that microgravity in space can induce bone loss; however, it is ill-defined whether HyMF involved in this process. Herein, we aimed to investigate the combined effects of HyMF and microgravity on bone loss. A mouse model of hindlimb suspension (HLU) was adopted to simulate microgravity-induced bone loss, that was exposed to a hypomagnetic field of <300 nanotesla (nT) generated by a geomagnetic field-shielding chamber...
June 18, 2018: Bone
Hongdong Chen, Yeyang Wang, Huaiqian Dai, Xinggui Tian, Zhong-Kai Cui, Zhenguo Chen, Le Hu, Qiancheng Song, Anling Liu, Zhiyong Zhang, Guozhi Xiao, Jian Yang, Yu Jiang, Xiaochun Bai
High concentration of citrate exists in bone of humans and all osteo-vertebrates, and citrate incorporation imparts important biomechanical and other functional properties to bone. However, which cells are responsible for citrate production in bone remains unclear and whether the citrate component changes with bone loss during osteoporosis is also not known. Here, we show that the citrate content is markedly reduced in the bone of mice or rats with age-related, ovariectomy-induced or retinoic acid-induced bone loss...
June 18, 2018: Bone
Gilles D Joanisse, Robert L Bradley, Caroline M Preston
Kalmia angustifolia is a boreal ericaceous shrub that can rapidly spread on black spruce forest cutovers in eastern Canada, where CPRS (i.e. Cutting with Protection of Regeneration and Soils") is practiced. The proliferation of Kalmia often coincides with a reduction in the growth rate of regenerating black spruce seedlings. We report on a study where we compared the local effects of Kalmia and black spruce seedling patches (i.e. two types of "Vegetation") on chemical and biochemical soil properties in CPRS cutovers within mesic spruce-moss and xeric spruce-lichen ecosystems, as well as in four mature spruce-moss forests (i...
2018: PloS One
Jennifer F Hoy, Robyn Richardson, Peter R Ebeling, Jhon Rojas, Nicholas Pocock, Stephen J Kerr, Esteban Martinez, Andrew Carr
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of switching tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) or treatment with an intravenous bisphosphonate on bone mineral density (BMD) in HIV-positive adults with low bone mass. DESIGN: Two-year, randomised, open-label study at 10 sites in Australia and Spain. PARTICIPANTS: Of 112 adults on TDF-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) screened, 87 with low BMD (T-score < -1.0 at hip or spine by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) and undetectable plasma HIV viral load were randomised to either switch TDF to another active antiretroviral drug or to continue TDF-based ART and receive intravenous zoledronic acid (ZOL) 5 mg annually for 2 years...
June 20, 2018: AIDS
Roger Diegel, Brad Black, Jean C Pfau, Tracy McNew, Curtis Noonan, Raja Flores
An increased risk for Systemic Autoimmune Diseases (SAID) has been reported in Libby, Montana, where extensive exposures to fibrous amphiboles occurred due to mining and use of asbestos-laden vermiculite. In addition, positive antinuclear autoantibody tests are associated with exposure to Libby Asbestiform Amphiboles (LAA) in both humans and mice. Among 6603 subjects who underwent health screening at the Center for Asbestos Related Diseases (CARD, Libby MT), 13.8% were diagnosed with an autoimmune disease, with prevalence values for the most common SAID being significantly higher than expected in the United States...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Nai-Jen Chang, Yanjmaa Erdenekhuyag, Pei-Hsi Chou, Chih-Jou Chu, Chih-Chan Lin, Ming-You Shie
BACKGROUND: Treating articular cartilage lesions is clinically challenging. However, whether the addition of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to bioimplants along with early rehabilitation exercise provides therapeutic effects and regenerates the osteochondral defect remains uninvestigated. HYPOTHESIS: The addition of PRP to a polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) scaffold along with continuous passive motion (CPM) in osteochondral defects may offer beneficial in situ microenvironment changes to facilitate hyaline cartilage and subchondral bone tissue repair...
June 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Hiroki Okudera, Yuka Sakai, Kentaro Yamagata, Hiroaki Takeda
The structure of the low-temperature polar (orthorhombic) phase of russellite (Bi2 WO6 ) was examined on artificial specimens with precise single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments. The final atomic arrangement thus obtained was identical to that reported by Knight [Miner. Mag. (1992), 56, 399-409] with powder neutron diffraction. The residual density attributable to a stereochemically-active lone pair of electrons of bismuth was prominent at approximately the centre of a larger cap of BiO8 square antiprisms, that is on the line from the Bi sites to an adjacent WO4 2- slab along the b-axis direction...
June 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica Section B, Structural Science, Crystal Engineering and Materials
Anthony M T Bell, C Michael B Henderson
The leucite tectosilicate mineral analogues K2 X2+ Si5 O12 (X = Fe2+ , Co, Zn) and Rb2 X2+ Si5 O12 (X = Mn) have been synthesized at elevated temperatures both dry at atmospheric pressure and at controlled water vapour pressure; for X = Co and Zn both dry and hydrothermally synthesized samples are available. Rietveld refinement of X-ray data for hydrothermal K2 X2+ Si5 O12 (X = Fe2+ , Co, Zn) samples shows that they crystallize in the monoclinic space group P21 /c and have tetrahedral cations (Si and X) ordered onto distinct framework sites [cf...
June 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica Section B, Structural Science, Crystal Engineering and Materials
Anna G Nilsson, Daniel Sundh, Fredrik Bäckhed, Mattias Lorentzon
The importance of the gut microbiome for bone metabolism in mice has recently been demonstrated, but no studies are available in humans. Lactobacillus reuteri ATCCPTA 6475 (L. reuteri 6475) has been reported to increase bone mineral density (BMD) in mice but its effect on the human skeleton is unknown. The objective of this trial was to investigate if L. reuteri 6475 affects bone loss in older women with low BMD. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, women from the population who were 75 to 80 years old and had low BMD were randomized to orally receive 1010 colony-forming units of L...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
Mauricio G Araujo, Jan Lindhe
OBJECTIVE: The aim is to define clinical and histologic characteristics of peri-implant tissues in health and describe the mucosa-implant interface. IMPORTANCE: An understanding of the characteristics of healthy peri-implant tissues facilitates the recognition of disease (i.e., departure from health). FINDINGS: The healthy peri-implant mucosa is, at the microscopic level, comprised of a core of connective tissue covered by either a keratinized (masticatory mucosa) or non-keratinized epithelium (lining mucosa)...
June 2018: Journal of Periodontology
M T Tran, R Oldenbourg
We report methods to generate three-dimensional maps of birefringence, its position and orientation in juvenile shells of the Atlantic hard clamshell (Mercenaria mercenaria). For measuring the retardance and optic axis orientation of curved shell surfaces in three dimensions, we developed enhanced acquisition and processing algorithms and combined results from conventional and light field imaging approaches to reconstruct the three-dimensional shell shape and its anisotropic optical properties. Our work represents the first successful attempt to generate such maps at a spatial resolution of about 2 μm and angular steps of about 9° in terms of the inclination angles of the optic axis...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Microscopy
Chhabilal Regmi, Etel Maya-Flores, Soo Wohn Lee, Vicente Rodríguez-González
Nickel hydroxide β-Ni(OH)2 hexagonal nanosheets were synthetized via a hydrothermal exfoliation process. The practical microwave assisted hydrothermal method facilitated obtain layered nickel 3D nanoplates with cerium functionalization in 5h. The as-produced nanostructures were characterized by XRD, XPS, FESEM, FT-IR, PL, UV-vis, and BET techniques. The hydroxilated structures are nano-thick hexagonal plates having sides with 28 nm in length and 5 nm of average thickness. UV and PL irradiation was used to study the photoactive properties in the degradation of a pharmaceutical emerging pollutant, naproxen...
June 21, 2018: Nanotechnology
Jia-Qi Yan, Yun Zhang, Fang-Shu Liu, Ting-Ting Cai, Kang-Qiang Tong, Can Zhu, Lu-Qi Hu, Shu-Min Lv
OBJECTIVE: To study whether tricalcium phosphate(TCP) wear particles cause injuries of periprosthetic osteocytes in the mouse calvaria, and to explain its molecular mechanism. METHODS: Thirty six-week(ICR)male mice were randomly divided into sham group, model (TCP) group and 3-methyladenine (3-MA) group. A murine calvarial model of osteolysis was established by 30 mg of TCP wear particles implantation over the periosteum around the middle suture of calvaria in mice...
January 8, 2018: Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology
Mauricio G Araujo, Jan Lindhe
OBJECTIVE: The aim is to define clinical and histologic characteristics of peri-implant tissues in health and describe the mucosa-implant interface. IMPORTANCE: An understanding of the characteristics of healthy peri-implant tissues facilitates the recognition of disease (i.e., departure from health). FINDINGS: The healthy peri-implant mucosa is, at the microscopic level, comprised of a core of connective tissue covered by either a keratinized (masticatory mucosa) or non-keratinized epithelium (lining mucosa)...
June 2018: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
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