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Santosh Kumar, Rivka Elbaum
Silica cells are specialized epidermal cells found on both surfaces of grass leaves, with almost the entire lumen filled with solid silica. The mechanism precipitating silicic acid into silica is not known. Here we investigate this process in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) leaves. Using fluorescent confocal microscopy, we followed silica cells' ontogeny, aiming to understand the fate of vacuoles and nuclei. Correlating the confocal and scanning electron microscopy, we timed the initiation of silica deposition in relation to cell's viability...
October 23, 2017: New Phytologist
Peter W Santos, Jianghua He, Ahmad Tuffaha, James B Wetmore
BACKGROUND: Calcific uremic arteriolopathy (CUA) is an often-fatal condition in dialysis patients. The clinical descriptions and treatments of CUA patients have been confined mostly to case reports. We report a comprehensive characterization of CUA and its associated diagnosis, treatment patterns, and outcome. METHODS: An internet-based registry collected information about CUA in dialysis patients. Univariate analysis using Cox proportional hazards models estimated hazard ratios of the association between clinical characteristics, laboratory values, and treatments with all-cause mortality...
October 20, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
Marie Juul Ornstrup, Annemarie Brüel, Jesper Skovhus Thomsen, Torben Harsløf, Bente Lomholt Langdahl, Steen Bønløkke Pedersen
Resveratrol (RSV) is a natural polyphenolic compound. A recent study suggests a positive effect on BMD in men; however, the underlying changes in microstructure and strength remain unknown. We aimed to investigate the effects of RSV on the skeleton in hindlimb-immobilized and non-immobilized rats. Seventy-two female Wistar rats were divided into six groups. Two baseline (BSL) groups underwent short-term diet intervention for 4 weeks before sacrifice [phytoestrogen-deficient diet (PD) (BSL + PD) or RSV diet (600 mg/kg body weight/day) (BSL + RSV)]...
October 20, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
X L Dong, W X Yu, C M Li, S He, L P Zhou, C W Poon, M S Wong
Dietary patterns may interfere with the efficacy of herbal intervention. Our results demonstrated the protective effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza aqueous extract (SMA) on bone metabolism were influenced by levels of dietary fat and sucrose in ovariectomized (OVX) rats through its actions on attenuating lipid deposition and oxidative stress in rats. INTRODUCTION: Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM), also known as Danshen, has been tested as an osteoporosis treatment in a series of small, short human trials that generally report improvements in bone property...
October 23, 2017: Osteoporosis International
V Ramaswamy, P M Muraleedharan, C Prakash Babu
The importance of mineral dust and aerosols in the transfer of bio-essential elements to terrestrial and marine ecosystems far removed from the source region is well known. Aerosol concentrations measured at the surface over the west coast of India during the SW monsoon period (June to September) are usually very low as pristine maritime air from the Southern Indian Ocean blows over this region. However, we find very high levels of mineral dust and dust derived nutrients in rainwater collected during the SW monsoon period...
October 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
Dangfeng Zhang, Zhaohui Ge, Xin Ma, Liqiang Zhi, Yunzhi Zhang, Xueyuan Wu, Shuxin Yao, Wei Ma
Previous studies have linked the WNT pathway and human skeleton formation; therefore, genes related to WNT might contribute to the onset and development of osteoporosis. In this study, we investigated the potential genetic association of WLS, which encodes an important mediator in the WNT pathway, with osteoporosis and its related quantitative traits in a sample of 6,620 individuals from Han Chinese population. A two-stage approach, with a discovery stage with 859 cases and 1,690 controls and a validation stage with 1,039 cases and 3,032 controls, was applied in the study...
October 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
Timothy E L Douglas, Josefien Schietse, Aneta Zima, Svetlana Gorodzha, Bogdan V Parakhonskiy, Dmitry Khalenow, Roman Shkarin, Anna Ivanova, Tilo Baumbach, Venera Weinhardt, Christian V Stevens, Valérie Vanhoorne, Chris Vervaet, Lieve Balcaen, Frank Vanhaecke, Anna Slośarczyk, Maria A Surmeneva, Roman A Surmenev, Andre G Skirtach
Mineralized hydrogels are increasingly gaining attention as biomaterials for bone regeneration. The most common mineralization strategy has been addition of preformed inorganic particles during hydrogel formation. This maintains injectability. One common form of bone cement is formed by mixing particles of the highly reactive calcium phosphate alpha-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) with water to form hydroxyapatite (HA). The calcium ions released during this reaction can be exploited to crosslink anionic, calcium-binding polymers such as the polysaccharide gellan gum (GG) to induce hydrogel formation...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Iwona Lewicka, Rafał Kocyłowski, Mariusz Grzesiak, Zuzanna Gaj, Przemysław Oszukowski, Joanna Suliburska
The aim of this study was to review the role of selected trace elements in pregnancy and fetal development. Citations related to the role of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) and selenium (Se) during pregnancy were searched in PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, using keywords and MeSH terms. Inadequate supply of trace elements can cause abnormalities of fetal development and predispose a child to disorders later on in life. Trace elements are the key elements of complex enzymes responsible for the modulation of the antioxidant defense system of the organism...
2017: Ginekologia Polska
Ayomadewa Mercy Olatunya, Oladele Simeon Olatunya, Emmanuel Temitope Akintayo
Malnutrition and lack of economic sustainability are major problems in developing countries. This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the nutrients' contents of three locally grown nuts in Nigeria (local groundnut, Kampala groundnut and breadnut) and highlight their health and economic potentials. Proximate analysis, chemical properties, minerals and fatty acids composition of the nuts were determined. The highest protein, crude fibre and carbohydrate contents were found in Kampala groundnut, local groundnut and breadnut respectively...
October 2017: Heliyon
Vanessa Schoeppler, Elke Reich, Jean Vacelet, Martin Rosenthal, Alexandra Pacureanu, Alexander Rack, Paul Zaslansky, Emil Zolotoyabko, Igor Zlotnikov
Demospongiae is a class of marine sponges that mineralize skeletal elements, the glass spicules, made of amorphous silica. The spicules exhibit a diversity of highly regular three-dimensional branched morphologies that are a paradigm example of symmetry in biological systems. Current glass shaping technology requires treatment at high temperatures. In this context, the mechanism by which glass architectures are formed by living organisms remains a mystery. We uncover the principles of spicule morphogenesis...
October 2017: Science Advances
Francesco Conti, Stefano Balducci, Luca Pugliese, Valeria D'Errico, Martina Vitale, Elena Alessi, Gerardo Salerno, Carla Iacobini, Stefano Menini, Lucilla Bollanti, Antonio Nicolucci, Giuseppe Pugliese
OBJECTIVE: Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) provides an estimate of bone mineral density (BMD) and also evaluates bone quality, which has been related to increased fracture risk in people with diabetes. This study aimed at assessing the correlates of calcaneal QUS parameters in diabetic subjects encompassing various degrees of micro and macrovascular complications and a wide-range of peripheral nerve function. METHODS: Four hundred consecutive diabetic patients were examined by QUS to obtain values of broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), the speed of sound (SOS), quantitative ultrasound index (QUI), and BMD...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
Thomas J Pasvol, Fred Fyles, Caroline Foster, Sarah Fidler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2017: Journal of Virus Eradication
Cristiana Catena, Gian Luca Colussi, Gabriele Brosolo, Nicole Bertin, Marileda Novello, Andrea Palomba, Leonardo A Sechi
Structured interventions on lifestyle have been suggested as a cost-effective strategy for prevention of cardiovascular disease. Epidemiologic studies demonstrate that dietary salt restriction effectively decreases blood pressure, but its influence on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is still under debate. Evidence gathered from studies conducted in patients with primary aldosteronism, essential hypertension, or heart failure demonstrates that long-term exposure to elevated aldosterone results in cardiac structural and functional changes that are independent of blood pressure...
2017: International Journal of Endocrinology
Inga Schneider, Theresa Greupner, Andreas Hahn
The aim of the present study was to compare the magnesium bioavailability from four mineral waters with different types of mineralization (e.g. SO4(2-), HCO3(-), calcium) with the magnesium bioavailability from bread and from a magnesium supplement. A single-center, randomized, controlled trial with a crossover design with 22 healthy men and women was conducted at the Institute of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Leibniz University Hannover, Germany. The participants consumed the six test products providing 100 mg of magnesium each on six examination days with a one-week washout phase in between...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
Qiang Ye, Paulette Spencer, Esra Yuca, Candan Tamerler
Failure of dental composite restorations is primarily due to recurrent decay at the tooth-composite interface. At this interface, the adhesive and its bond with dentin is the barrier between the restored tooth and the oral environment. In vivo degradation of the bond formed at the adhesive/dentin (a/d) interface follows a cascade of events leading to weakening of the composite restoration. Here, a peptide-based approach is developed to mineralize deficient dentin matrices at the a/d interface. Peptides that have an inherent capacity to self-assemble on dentin and to induce calcium-phosphate remineralization are anchored at the interface...
May 2017: Macromolecular Materials and Engineering
Jingyi Cui, Huaqing Liu, Jing Shao, Dong-Mei Xu, Yi Wang, Zheng Fei, Jiyu Wei, Wei Lu, Chun-Rong Wang, Rui He, Yangya Tan, Yi Fan, Yuping Ning, Ryan M Cassidy, Jair C Soares, Xingbing Huang, Xiang Yang Zhang
Patients with schizophrenia have a high prevalence of developing osteoporosis and osteoporosis-related fractures. We examined the prevalence of osteoporosis and its clinical correlates in Chinese patients with schizophrenia, which is not well-studied. A total of 199 inpatients (males/females=132/67; average age: 54.5±11.1years) and 107 healthy controls (males/females=22/85; average age: 41.7±11.9years) were recruited. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by ultrasonography of the calcaneus. The prevalence of osteoporosis and low BMD (osteoporosis and osteopenia) was 23...
October 19, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
Negin Nouraei, Daniel M Mason, Kristin M Miner, Michael A Carcella, Tarun N Bhatia, Benjamin K Dumm, Dishaben Soni, David A Johnson, Kelvin C Luk, Rehana K Leak
Lewy body disorders are characterized by the emergence of α-synucleinopathy in many parts of the central and peripheral nervous systems, including in the telencephalon. Dense α-synuclein(+) pathology appears in regio inferior of the hippocampus in both Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies and may disturb cognitive function. The preformed α-synuclein fibril model of Parkinson's disease is growing in use, given its potential for seeding the self-propagating spread of α-synucleinopathy throughout the mammalian brain...
October 19, 2017: Experimental Neurology
Domenick T Zero
BACKGROUND: The generating of acids from the microbial metabolism of dietary sugars and the subsequent decrease in biofilm pH below the pH at which tooth mineral begins to demineralize (critical pH) are the key elements of the dental caries process. Caries preventive strategies that rapidly neutralize biofilm acids can prevent demineralization and favor remineralization and may help prevent the development of sugar-induced dysbiosis that shifts the biofilm toward increased cariogenic potential...
November 2017: Journal of the American Dental Association
Alessandra F Perna, Alessandra Pizza, Annarita Di Nunzio, Rocco Bellantone, Marco Raffaelli, Tommaso Cicchella, Giovanni Conzo, Luigi Santini, Miriam Zacchia, Francesco Trepiccione, Diego Ingrosso
The triad composed by α-Klotho, fibroblast growth factor-23, and its receptor are involved in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) is a metalloproteinase causing the proteolytic shedding of α-Klotho from the cell membrane, and its role in chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder is not yet known. We studied the circulating levels of the above-mentioned mediators in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism due to uremia, compared to control subjects, as well as in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism...
November 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
Prashant Rajput, Dharmendra Kumar Singh, Amit Kumar Singh, Tarun Gupta
A comprehensive study was carried out from central part of Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP; at Kanpur) to understand abundance, temporal variability, processes (secondary formation and fog-processing) and source-apportionment of PM1-bound species (PM1: particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter ≤ 1.0 μm) during wintertime. A total of 50 PM1 samples were collected of which 33 samples represent submicron aerosol characteristics under non-foggy condition whereas 17 samples represent characteristics under thick foggy condition...
October 19, 2017: Environmental Pollution
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