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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679608/detection-and-quantitative-determination-of-heavy-metals-in-electronic-cigarette-refill-liquids-using-total-reflection-x-ray-fluorescence-spectrometry
#1
Eleni Kamilari, Konstantinos Farsalinos, Konstantinos Poulas, Christos G Kontoyannis, Malvina G Orkoula
Electronic cigarettes are considered healthier alternatives to conventional cigarettes containing tobacco. They produce vapor through heating of the refill liquids (e-liquids) which consist of propylene glycol, vegetable glycerin, nicotine (in various concentrations), water and flavoring agents. Heavy metals may enter the refill liquid during the production, posing a risk for consumer's health due to their toxicity. The objective of the present study was the development of a methodology for the detection and quantitative analysis of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr), employing Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TXRF) as an alternative technique to ICP-MS or ICP-OES commonly used for this type of analysis...
April 18, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678615/reported-exposure-to-e-cigarette-advertising-and-promotion-in-different-regulatory-environments-findings-from-the-international-tobacco-control-four-country-itc-4c-survey
#2
E Wadsworth, A McNeill, L Li, D Hammond, J F Thrasher, H-H Yong, K M Cummings, G T Fong, S C Hitchman
Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) advertising regulations differ across countries. This study examines how differences in e-cigarette advertising regulations influence exposure to e-cigarette advertising, and perceptions about what participants had seen and read about e-cigarettes. Data come from the ITC Four Country Survey (Canada [CA], United States [US], Australia [AU] and United Kingdom [UK]) carried out between August 2013 and March 2015 (n = 3460). In 2014, AU and CA had laws prohibiting the retail sale of e-cigarettes containing nicotine while the US and UK had no restrictions, although a voluntary agreement restricting advertising in the UK was introduced during fieldwork...
April 17, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676648/global-tobacco-use-old-and-new-products
#3
Ana Navas-Acien
Tobacco use and exposure to tobacco smoke remain major but avoidable causes of premature mortality and disease worldwide. Although the age-standardized prevalence of daily smoking has declined for both men and women in many countries, the number of smokers continues to increase because of global population growth. Although cigarettes are the most commonly used tobacco product, the tobacco epidemic has become tremendously complex with the emergence and popularity of alternative products such as waterpipes and electronic cigarettes (also known as e-cigarettes)...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674512/discordance-between-perceived-and-actual-tobacco-product-use-prevalence-among-us-youth-a-comparative-analysis-of-electronic-and-regular-cigarettes
#4
Israel Terungwa Agaku, Satomi Odani, David Homa, Brian Armour, Rebecca Glover-Kudon
IMPORTANCE: Two components of social norms-descriptive (estimated prevalence) and injunctive (perceived acceptability)-can influence youth tobacco use. OBJECTIVE: To investigate electronic cigarettes (e-cigarette) and cigarette descriptive norms and measure the associations between overestimation of e-cigarette and cigarette prevalence and tobacco-related attitudes and behaviours. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: School-based, using paper-and-pencil questionnaires...
April 18, 2018: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671928/electronic-cigarette-use-among-cancer-patients-reasons-for-use-beliefs-and-patient-provider-communication
#5
John B Correa, Karen O Brandon, Lauren R Meltzer, Hannah J Hoehn, Bárbara Piñeiro, Thomas H Brandon, Vani N Simmons
OBJECTIVE: Smoking tobacco cigarettes after a cancer diagnosis increases risk for several serious adverse outcomes. Thus, patients can significantly benefit from quitting smoking. Electronic cigarettes are an increasingly popular cessation method. Providers routinely ask about combustible cigarette use, yet little is known about use and communication surrounding e-cigarettes among cancer patients. This study aims to describe cancer patient patterns, beliefs, and communication with oncology providers about e-cigarette use...
April 19, 2018: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667242/electronic-cigarettes-harm-reduction-tool-or-new-substance-use-behavior
#6
Aurélie Mayet, Chrystel Lavagna
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 17, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658616/multiple-tobacco-use-among-young-adult-waterpipe-smokers-in-egypt
#7
Aya Mostafa, Moustafa El Houssinie, Aisha Aboul Fotouh
Background: The use of multiple tobacco products is an emerging trend. Studies on multiple use among waterpipe smokers are limited. Objectives: We aimed to estimate the proportion of other tobacco products used by current adult waterpipe smokers in Egypt and identify the determinants of multiple tobacco product use. Methods: Population-based surveys were conducted using interview questionnaires during 2015-2017 in urban Cairo and rural Menoufia...
April 5, 2018: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656668/effect-of-smoking-on-gene-expression-profile-overall-mechanism-impact-on-respiratory-system-function-and-reference-to-electronic-cigarettes
#8
Paulina Natalia Kopa, Rafał Pawliczak
Cigarette smoke has an crucial impact on transcriptome alteration by its effect on chromatin remodeling and DNA methylation status. The first mechanism is associated with the histone acetylation/deacetylation balance damage as a result of increased activity of NFĸB and lipid peroxidation products, which lead to an increased activity of HATs and DNMTs and reduced HDACs. The second mechanism is connected with direct damaging of DNA by smoke components, activation of downstream repair mechanism and recruitment of DNMTs into the breakage site, "nicotine effect" and carbon monoxide activity on gene transcription and DNA methylation reduction...
April 16, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653256/impact-of-presence-of-children-on-indoor-tobacco-restrictions-in-households-of-urban-and-rural-adult-tobacco-users
#9
Benjamin T Kopp, Alice Hinton, Rong Lu, Sarah Cooper, Haikady Nagaraja, Mary Ellen Wewers
OBJECTIVES: Secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) in children is changing due to new public policy and electronic nicotine products (e-cigarettes). We examined factors related to self-imposed indoor household tobacco restrictions, with emphasis on children in the household and associations with combustible and non-combustible product use. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of urban and rural Ohio adult tobacco users classified participants as exclusive combustible users, smokeless tobacco (SLT) users, e-cigarette users, or dual users...
April 10, 2018: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623987/electronic-cigarettes-in-physician-practice
#10
Colin P Mendelsohn
There is growing evidence for the effectiveness of e-cigarettes as a quitting aid and, although not completely harmless, the scientific consensus is that they are substantially less harmful than smoking tobacco. More research is needed, but there is now sufficient empirical evidence and real-world experience over more than a decade to consider their use as a legitimate tobacco harm reduction tool for smokers who are unable or unwilling to quit with conventional strategies. Smokers should be advised that the highest success rates occur with daily use with nicotine e-liquid and newer e-cigarette models...
April 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618352/government-and-public-health-responses-to-e-cigarettes-in-new-zealand-vapers-perspectives
#11
Trish Fraser, Marewa Glover, Penelope Truman
BACKGROUND: The New Zealand (NZ) government is to lift the ban on the sale of nicotine for use in electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). METHODS: Using a naturalistic approach, we sought to understand how the current law was experienced by e-cigarette users (vapers). Twenty-nine vapers were interviewed by telephone, between May and September 2016, using a semi-structured interview schedule. Open-ended questions covered: initiating vaping, the experience of stopping smoking, technical problems encountered, reasons for vaping, acceptability of vaping, addiction to vaping and advice given to smokers about vaping...
April 5, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617887/e-cigarettes-comparing-the-possible-risks-of-increasing-smoking-initiation-with-the-potential-benefits-of-increasing-smoking-cessation
#12
Kenneth E Warner, David Mendez
Introduction: The public health community is divided regarding electronic cigarettes. Skeptics emphasize potential vaping-induced increases in smoking among children and possible health hazards for adults. Enthusiasts consider e-cigarettes much less dangerous than smoking and believe they increase adult smoking cessation. We compare potential health benefits and costs to put these two perspectives in context. Methods: Using a dynamic model that tracks the US adult population's smoking status and smoking-related deaths over time, we simulate the effects of vaping-induced smoking initiation and cessation on life-years saved or lost to the year 2070...
March 29, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615835/the-effect-of-electronic-cigarette-and-tobacco-smoke-exposure-on-copd-bronchial-epithelial-cell-inflammatory-responses
#13
Andrew Higham, Declan Bostock, George Booth, Josiah V Dungwa, Dave Singh
Background: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) are used to help smoking cessation. However, these devices contain harmful chemicals, and there are safety concerns. We have investigated the effects of e-cigs on the inflammatory response and viability of COPD bronchial epithelial cells (BECs). Methods: BECs from COPD patients and controls were exposed to e-cig vapor extract (ECVE) and the levels of interleukin (IL)-6, C-X-C motif ligand 8 (CXCL8), and lactate dehydrogenase release were measured...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608714/are-electronic-cigarettes-an-effective-aid-to-smoking-cessation-or-reduction-among-vulnerable-groups-a-systematic-review-of-quantitative-and-qualitative-evidence
#14
Sarah Gentry, Nita Forouhi, Caitlin Notley
Introduction: Smoking prevalence remains high in some vulnerable groups, including those who misuse substances, have a mental illness, are homeless or are involved with the criminal justice system. E-cigarette use is increasing and may support smoking cessation/reduction. Methods: Systematic review of quantitative and qualitative data on the effectiveness of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation/reduction among vulnerable groups. Databases searched were MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL, ASSIA, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses and Open Grey...
March 28, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604326/whether-to-push-or-pull-nicotine-reduction-and-non-combusted-alternatives-two-strategies-for-reducing-smoking-and-improving-public-health
#15
Tracy T Smith, Dorothy K Hatsukami, Neal L Benowitz, Suzanne M Colby, F Joseph McClernon, Andrew A Strasser, Jennifer W Tidey, Cassidy M White, Eric C Donny
Combustible cigarettes remain the most harmful and addictive tobacco product, and reducing the prevalence of smoking continues to be a critical public health goal. While nicotine is the constituent primarily responsible for addiction to cigarettes, most of the harm associated with smoking comes from byproducts of tobacco combustion. Recently, two different approaches for reducing the harms of smoking have emerged, both of which focus on breaking the link between the addiction to nicotine and the harms caused by smoking...
March 28, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588352/patterns-perception-and-behavior-of-electronic-nicotine-delivery-systems-use-and-multiple-product-use-among-young-adults
#16
Mary P Martinasek, Amy Bowersock, Christopher W Wheldon
BACKGROUND: Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are battery-operated devices used to inhale vaporized or aerosolized nicotine. There is increasing research uncovering negative health effects of these devices. Less is known about the social and behavioral aspects among college students. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at a mid-sized private university in Florida. The survey was sent via e-mail to the student body of undergraduates. A final sample size of 989 students was analyzed to understand demographic differences between users and nonusers, initiation factors, and influencers, as well as multiple product behaviors...
March 27, 2018: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588116/use-and-risk-perception-of-electronic-nicotine-delivery-systems-and-tobacco-in-pregnancy
#17
Naleen Raj Bhandari, Kanesha D Day, Nalin Payakachat, Amy M Franks, Keith R McCain, Denise Ragland
INTRODUCTION: Given the rapid rise in availability and use, understanding the perception of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) products in pregnant women is vital. As more women of reproductive age use these products, it is likely that their use during pregnancy is also increasing. This study investigated the use of ENDS and tobacco cigarettes, along with knowledge and perceptions of associated health risks in pregnant women. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted at a university-based obstetrical clinic...
March 24, 2018: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584716/evaluation-of-e-liquid-toxicity-using-an-open-source-high-throughput-screening-assay
#18
M Flori Sassano, Eric S Davis, James E Keating, Bryan T Zorn, Tavleen K Kochar, Matthew C Wolfgang, Gary L Glish, Robert Tarran
The e-liquids used in electronic cigarettes (E-cigs) consist of propylene glycol (PG), vegetable glycerin (VG), nicotine, and chemical additives for flavoring. There are currently over 7,700 e-liquid flavors available, and while some have been tested for toxicity in the laboratory, most have not. Here, we developed a 3-phase, 384-well, plate-based, high-throughput screening (HTS) assay to rapidly triage and validate the toxicity of multiple e-liquids. Our data demonstrated that the PG/VG vehicle adversely affected cell viability and that a large number of e-liquids were more toxic than PG/VG...
March 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582078/association-between-receptivity-to-tobacco-advertising-and-progression-to-tobacco-use-in-youth-and-young-adults-in-the-path-study
#19
John P Pierce, James D Sargent, David B Portnoy, Martha White, Madison Noble, Sheila Kealey, Nicolette Borek, Charles Carusi, Kelvin Choi, Victoria R Green, Annette R Kaufman, Eric Leas, M Jane Lewis, Katherine A Margolis, Karen Messer, Yuyan Shi, Marushka L Silveira, Kimberly Snyder, Cassandra A Stanton, Susanne E Tanski, Maansi Bansal-Travers, Dennis Trinidad, Andrew Hyland
Importance: Cigarette marketing contributes to initiation of cigarette smoking among young people, which has led to restrictions on use of cigarette advertising. However, little is known about other tobacco advertising and progression to tobacco use in youth and young adults. Objective: To investigate whether receptivity to tobacco advertising among youth and young adults is associated with progression (being a susceptible never user or ever user) to use of the product advertised, as well as conventional cigarette smoking...
March 26, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580719/the-toxicity-of-e-cigarettes-and-children-s-respiratory-health
#20
REVIEW
Karin C Lødrup Carlsen, Håvard O Skjerven, Kai-Håkon Carlsen
Electronic cigarettes (E-cig), also referred to as Electronic Nicotine Delivery System (ENDS), were initially developed in 2003 to reduce the harmful effects of tobacco smoking. Since then, E-cig have become widely available in many countries and are used by many young people who would be unlikely to take up cigarette smoking. However, the adverse effects on child health remain largely unknown. E-cigs are available through regulated sale in many countries, but easily accessible by the internet in others. Adverse effects may be ascribed to the nicotine itself, to the accompanying substances in the aerosol (often referred to as vapour) or to temperature modifications of the content...
February 10, 2018: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
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