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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051432/drug-vaping-from-the-dangers-of-misuse-to-new-therapeutic-devices
#1
V Varlet
Users of e-cigarettes are unwitting volunteers participating in a worldwide epidemiological study. Because of the obvious benefits of e-cigarettes compared with traditional cigarette smoking, these electronic devices have been introduced all around the world to support tobacco smoking cessation. Same potential harm reduction could be considered by cannabis vaping for marijuana smokers. However, the toxicities of liquids and aerosols remain under investigation because although the use of e-cigarettes is likely to be less harmful than traditional cigarette smoking, trace levels of contaminants have been identified...
December 16, 2016: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048810/-simultaneous-determination-of-15-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-cigarette-filter-by-gas-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#2
Xiaotao Zhang, Li Zhang, Yibin Ruan, Weiwei Wang, Houwei Ji, Qiang Wan, Fucheng Lin, Jian Liu
A method for the simultaneous determination of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cigarette filter was developed by isotope internal standard combined with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The cigarette filters were extracted with dichloromethane, and the extract was filtered with 0.22 μm organic phase membrane. The samples were isolated by DB-5MS column (30 m×0.25 mm, 0.25 μm) and detected using multiple reaction monitoring mode of electron impact source under positive ion mode. The linearities of the 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (acenapthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, ben[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene and indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene) were good, and the correlation coefficients (R(2)) ranged from 0...
October 8, 2017: Se Pu, Chinese Journal of Chromatography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048187/electronic-cigarette-user-plasma-nicotine-concentration-puff-topography-heart-rate-and-subjective-effects-influence-of-liquid-nicotine-concentration-and-user-experience
#3
Marzena Hiler, Alison Breland, Tory Spindle, Sarah Maloney, Thokozeni Lipato, Nareg Karaoghlanian, Alan Shihadeh, Alexa Lopez, Carolina Ramôa, Thomas Eissenberg
Electronic cigarette (ECIG) nicotine delivery and other effects may depend on liquid nicotine concentration and user experience. This study is the first to systematically examine the influence of ECIG liquid nicotine concentration and user experience on nicotine delivery, heart rate, puff topography, and subjective effects. Thirty-three ECIG-experienced individuals and 31 ECIG-naïve cigarette smokers completed 4 laboratory conditions consisting of 2, 10-puff bouts (30-sec interpuff interval) with a 3.3-V ECIG battery attached to a 1...
October 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046158/e-cigarettes-impact-of-e-liquid-components-and-device-characteristics-on-nicotine-exposure
#4
Elise E DeVito, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use has increased substantially in recent years. While e-cigarettes have been proposed as a potentially effective smoking cessation tool, dual-use in smokers is common and e-cigarettes are widely used by non-smokers, including youth and young-adult non-smokers. Nicotine, the primary addictive component in cigarettes, is present at varying levels in many e-liquids. E-cigarettes may lead to initiation of nicotine use in adult and youth non-smokers, re-initiation of nicotine dependence in ex-smokers or increased severity of nicotine dependence in dual-users of cigarettes and e-cigarettes...
October 16, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038357/exposure-to-electronic-cigarette-vapors-affects-pulmonary-and-systemic-expression-of-circadian-molecular-clock-genes
#5
Ariane Lechasseur, Éric Jubinville, Joanie Routhier, Jean-Christophe Bérubé, Mélanie Hamel-Auger, Maude Talbot, Jennifer Lamothe, Sophie Aubin, Marie-Ève Paré, Marie-Josée Beaulieu, Yohan Bossé, Caroline Duchaine, Mathieu C Morissette
E-cigarette use has exploded in the past years, especially among young adults and smokers desiring to quit. While concerns are mostly based on the presence of nicotine and flavors, pulmonary effects of propylene glycol and glycerol inhalation, the main solvents of e-liquid have not been thoroughly investigated. In this preclinical study, mice were exposed 2 h daily for up to 8 weeks to vapors of propylene glycol and/or glycerol generated by an e-cigarette. Lung transcriptome analysis revealed it affected the expression level of genes of the circadian molecular clock, despite causing no inflammatory response...
October 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036888/a-novel-vaping-machine-dedicated-to-fully-controlling-the-generation-of-e-cigarette-emissions
#6
Sébastien Soulet, Charly Pairaud, Hélène Lalo
The accurate study of aerosol composition and nicotine release by electronic cigarettes is a major issue. In order to fully and correctly characterize aerosol, emission generation has to be completely mastered. This study describes an original vaping machine named Universal System for Analysis of Vaping (U-SAV), dedicated to vaping product study, enabling the control and real-time monitoring of applied flow rate and power. Repeatability and stability of the machine are demonstrated on flow rate, power regulation and e-liquid consumption...
October 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033021/-smoking-cessation-and-pregnancy
#7
M Underner, O Pourrat, J Perriot, G Peiffer, N Jaafari
Active and passive smoking during pregnancy induce several deleterious effects that may have a negative impact on pregnancy progress, fetus development and both mother and newborn health. Smoking cessation should be a rule for any woman as soon as the beginning of her pregnancy, or better in anticipation of a pregnancy when contraception is no more taken. Every caregiver must help every pregnant woman who smokes to quit smoking. Smoking cessation interventions in pregnant women must combine a psychological support (mainly with cognitive behavioral therapy) and nicotine replacement therapy, which can also be used during breast feeding...
October 9, 2017: Gynecologie, Obstetrique, Fertilite & Senologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025078/a-cloud-on-the-horizon-a-survey-into-the-use-of-electronic-vaping-devices-for-recreational-drug-and-new-psychoactive-substance-nps-administration
#8
M S Blundell, P I Dargan, D M Wood
Background: There is limited published scientific data on vaping recreational drugs other than cannabis. A recent review suggested that 15% of people vaping cannabis have also vaped a synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist (SCRA) and identified over 300 Internet reports of e-liquid manufacture of recreational drugs and/or new psychoactive substances (NPS). Aim: To determine the prevalence of use of electronic vaping devices for recreational drug and NPS delivery in the UK...
September 14, 2017: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024622/smoking-cessation-efforts-by-u-s-adult-smokers-with-medical-comorbidities
#9
Sara Kalkhoran, Gina R Kruse, Yuchiao Chang, Nancy A Rigotti
BACKGROUND: Continued cigarette smoking by individuals with chronic medical diseases can adversely impact their symptoms, disease progression, and mortality. We assessed the association between medical comorbidities and smoking cessation efforts among U.S. adult smokers. METHODS: We analyzed cross-sectional data from 12,494 past-year cigarette smokers age ≥18 years from Wave 1 (2013-2014) of the nationally-representative Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study...
October 9, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023906/influence-of-risk-perception-on-attitudes-and-norms-regarding-electronic-cigarettes
#10
Craig W Trumbo
The use of electronic cigarettes has grown substantially over the last few years. Currently, about 4% of adults use electronic cigarettes, about 16% of high school students report use in the past 30 days, as do approximately 11-25% of college students. A hallmark of the reduction in tobacco use has been the shift in social norms concerning smoking in public. Such norms may also drive views on acceptability of public electronic cigarette use. While normative factors have been given attention, little substantive application of the literature on risk perception has been brought to bear...
October 11, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022571/epidemiology-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-young-individuals
#11
REVIEW
Charlotte Andersson, Ramachandran S Vasan
In the past 2 decades, a high prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as obesity, physical inactivity, and poor diet, has been observed among young individuals living in developed countries. The rate of substance abuse (opioids, cocaine, electronic cigarettes, and anabolic steroids) is also increasing among young adults, whereas cigarette smoking might be declining. Among younger individuals (aged 18-50 years), the incidence of cardiovascular diseases over the same time period has either been steady or has increased, in contrast to the trend towards a lower incidence of cardiovascular disease in adults aged >50 years...
October 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020756/using-focus-group-interviews-to-analyze-the-behavior-of-users-of-new-types-of-tobacco-products
#12
Jinyoung Kim, Sungkyu Lee
Objectives: To characterize the usage patterns of new types of tobacco products (NTTPs) to develop effective strategies for the regulation of NTTPs in Korea. Methods: We conducted focus group interviews to identify the NTTP usage patterns of research subjects. The NTTPs were limited to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), waterpipe tobacco, and rolling tobacco. We categorized 30 research subjects into 4 groups. The e-cigarette group was divided into adult and adolescent groups...
September 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Yebang Ŭihakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020019/they-re-heating-up-internet-search-query-trends-reveal-significant-public-interest-in-heat-not-burn-tobacco-products
#13
Theodore L Caputi, Eric Leas, Mark Dredze, Joanna E Cohen, John W Ayers
Heat-not-burn tobacco products, battery powered devices that heat leaf tobacco to approximately 500 degrees Fahrenheit to produce an inhalable aerosol, are being introduced in markets around the world. Japan, where manufacturers have marketed several heat-not-burn brands since 2014, has been the focal national test market, with the intention of developing global marketing strategies. We used Google search query data to estimate, for the first time, the scale and growth potential of heat-not-burn tobacco products...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993719/the-prevalence-and-marketing-of-electronic-cigarettes-in-proximity-to-at-risk-youths-an-investigation-of-point-of-sale-practices-near-alternative-high-schools
#14
Stephen Miller, James Pike, Jared Chapman, Bin Xie, Brian N Hilton, Susan L Ames, Alan W Stacy
This study examines the point-of-sale marketing practices used to promote electronic cigarettes at stores near schools that serve at-risk youth. One hundred stores selling tobacco products within a half mile of alternative high schools in Southern California were assessed for this study. Seventy percent of stores in the sample sold electronic cigarettes. Convenience stores heavily frequented by youth had the highest number of interior ads for e-cigarettes and were the most likely to employ in-store product placement strategies...
2017: Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993519/tobacco-industry-strategies-undermine-government-tax-policy-evidence-from-commercial-data
#15
Rosemary Hiscock, J Robert Branston, Ann McNeill, Sara C Hitchman, Timea R Partos, Anna B Gilmore
OBJECTIVE: Taxation equitably reduces smoking, the leading cause of health inequalities. The tobacco industry (TI) can, however, undermine the public health gains realised from tobacco taxation through its pricing strategies. This study aims to examine contemporary TI pricing strategies in the UK and implications for tobacco tax policy. DESIGN: Review of commercial literature and longitudinal analysis of tobacco sales and price data. SETTING: A high-income country with comprehensive tobacco control policies and high tobacco taxes (UK)...
October 9, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992579/e-cigarette-use-among-treatment-seeking-smokers-moderation-of-abstinence-by-use-frequency
#16
Emily N Subialka Nowariak, Rebecca K Lien, Raymond G Boyle, Michael S Amato, Laura A Beebe
INTRODUCTION: Emerging literature suggests that frequency of use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) may be an important moderating variable in the relationship between e-cigarette use and smoking cessation. However, few studies have focused specifically on treatment-seekers, a group that may differ in important ways from smokers in the general population. This study looks at the relationship between e-cigarette use frequency and abstinence among a sample of treatment-seeking tobacco users...
September 30, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988005/a-longitudinal-study-of-electronic-cigarette-use-and-onset-of-conventional-cigarette-smoking-and-marijuana-use-among-mexican-adolescents
#17
Paula Lozano, Inti Barrientos-Gutierrez, Edna Arillo-Santillan, Paola Morello, Raul Mejia, James D Sargent, James F Thrasher
PURPOSE: This study evaluated whether e-cigarette trial among Mexican adolescents increased the likelihood of trial and use of conventional cigarettes or marijuana use at follow-up. METHOD: A school-based longitudinal survey was conducted in 60 public middle schools from the three largest cities in Mexico. Students (12-13years old) were surveyed in 2015 and followed up 20 months later (n=6574). Generalized estimating equations models were used to evaluate the association between e-cigarette trial at baseline and conventional cigarettes smoking and marijuana use at follow-up...
September 28, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985322/chemical-evaluation-of-electronic-cigarettes-multicomponent-analysis-of-liquid-refills-and-their-corresponding-aerosols
#18
Nicolas Beauval, Sébastien Antherieu, Mélissa Soyez, Nicolas Gengler, Nathalie Grova, Michael Howsam, Emilie M Hardy, Marc Fischer, Brice M R Appenzeller, Jean-François Goossens, Delphine Allorge, Guillaume Garçon, Jean-Marc Lo-Guidice, Anne Garat
Electronic cigarette use has raised concern worldwide regarding potential health risks and its position in tobacco cessation strategies. As part of any toxicity assessment, the chemical characterization of e-liquids and their related vapors are among fundamental data to be determined. Considering the lack of available reference methods, we developed and validated several analytical procedures in order to conduct a multicomponent analysis of six e-liquid refills and their resultant vapor emissions (generated by a smoking machine), and compared them with tobacco smoke...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984212/-fatal-intoxication-with-nicotine-for-e-cigarette
#19
D H van der Meer, A D Pranger, I Jansen, E B Wilms, H Kieft, J G Maring
BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of the electronic e-cigarette a few years ago, its use has greatly increased. The liquid formulations used in these e-cigarettes contain nicotine in high concentrations; ingestion of these liquids can be fatal. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 42-year-old male was admitted to the Intensive Care ward due to cardiac arrest. The patient had ingested highly concentrated liquid nicotine, originating from a vial with liquid for e-cigarettes. When the ambulance personnel found the patient he did not have a pulse; following CPR and administration of adrenaline his pulse returned...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983782/electronic-cigarettes-their-constituents-and-potential-links-to-asthma
#20
REVIEW
Phillip W Clapp, Ilona Jaspers
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vaping is gaining popularity in the USA, particularly among teens and young adults. While e-cigs are commonly represented as safer alternatives to tobacco cigarettes, little is known regarding the health effects of their short- or long-term use, especially in individuals with pre-existing respiratory diseases such as asthma. Flavored e-cig liquids (e-liquids) and e-cig aerosols contain airway irritants and toxicants that have been implicated in the pathogenesis and worsening of lung diseases...
October 5, 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
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