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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340080/measuring-pm2-5-ultrafine-particles-air-nicotine-and-wipe-samples-following-the-use-of-electronic-cigarettes
#1
Paul Melstrom, Bartosz Koszowski, Meridith Hill Thanner, Eunha Hoh, Brian King, Rebecca Bunnell, Tim McAfee
Background: Few studies have examined the extent of inhalation or dermal contact among bystanders following short-term, secondhand e-cigarette exposure. Objective: Measure PM2.5 (particles <2.5 microns), UF (ultrafine particles <100nm), and nicotine in air and deposited on surfaces and clothing pre-/during/post- a short-term (two-hour) e-cigarette exposure. Methods: E-cigarettes were used ad libitum by three experienced users for two hours during two separate sessions (disposable e-cigarettes, then tank-style e-cigarettes, or "tanks") in a 1858ft3 room...
March 9, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340053/does-the-regulatory-environment-for-e-cigarettes-influence-the-effectiveness-of-e-cigarettes-for-smoking-cessation-longitudinal-findings-from-the-itc-four-country-survey
#2
Hua-Hie Yong, Sara C Hitchman, K Michael Cummings, Ron Borland, Shannon M L Gravely, Ann McNeill, Geoffrey T Fong
Introduction: To date, no studies have explored how different regulatory environments may influence the effectiveness of ECs as a smoking cessation aid. Objective: This study compares the real-world effectiveness of adult smokers using ECs for quitting compared with quitting unassisted or quitting with NRT and/or prescription medications in two countries with restrictive policies towards ECs (i.e., Canada and Australia) versus two countries with less restrictive policies (i...
March 4, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339800/the-dark-cloud-of-recreational-drugs-and-vaping
#3
M S Blundell, P I Dargan, D M Wood
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are increasing in popularity with 19% of UK smokers reporting to have used them. The ability to regulate the evaporation temperature in newer electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) facilitates the potential for use of these devices to 'vape' cannabis, novel psychoactive substances (NPS) and other recreational drugs. Vaping cannabis does have the potential to reduce tobacco use and combustible cannabis/tobacco-related disease, but with over one-third of UK adults reporting life-time use of recreational drugs and increasing e-cigarette uptake in adolescent groups the misuse of these devices poses a serious potential public health risk...
March 9, 2017: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339576/a-descriptive-report-of-electronic-cigarette-use-after-participation-in-a-community-based-tobacco-cessation-trial
#4
Elana Curry, Julianna M Nemeth, Amy Wermert, Sara Conroy, Abigail Shoben, Amy K Ferketich, Mary Ellen Wewers
Introduction: Smokers are using electronic cigarettes, also known as e-cigarettes, as a cessation aid, despite uncertainty about their efficacy. This report describes the association between use of e-cigarettes before and after cessation treatment and tobacco abstinence at 12 months. It also presents characteristics of e-cigarette users and reasons for use. Methods: A longitudinal observational secondary analysis of self-reported e-cigarette use was conducted among adult Appalachian smokers enrolled in a community-based tobacco dependence treatment trial (n = 217)...
January 21, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335449/the-relation-between-frequency-of-e-cigarette-use-and-frequency-and-intensity-of-cigarette-smoking-among-south-korean-adolescents
#5
Jung Ah Lee, Sungkyu Lee, Hong-Jun Cho
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of adolescent electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use has increased in most countries. This study aims to determine the relation between the frequency of e-cigarette use and the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking. Additionally, the study evaluates the association between the reasons for e-cigarette use and the frequency of its use. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, we included 6655 adolescents with an experience of e-cigarette use who were middle and high school students aged 13-18 years...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332500/cardiovascular-effects-of-electronic-cigarettes
#6
REVIEW
Neal L Benowitz, Joseph B Fraiman
Cardiovascular safety is an important consideration in the debate on the benefits versus the risks of electronic cigarette (EC) use. EC emissions that might have adverse effects on cardiovascular health include nicotine, oxidants, aldehydes, particulates, and flavourants. To date, most of the cardiovascular effects of ECs demonstrated in humans are consistent with the known effects of nicotine. Pharmacological and toxicological studies support the biological plausibility that nicotine contributes to acute cardiovascular events and accelerated atherogenesis...
March 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332307/ethanol-concentration-in-56-refillable-electronic-cigarettes-liquid-formulations-determined-by-headspace-gas-chromatography-with-flame-ionization-detector-hs-gc-fid
#7
Justin L Poklis, Carl E Wolf, Michelle R Peace
Personal battery powered vaporizers or electronic cigarettes were developed as an alternative to traditional cigarettes. The modern electronic cigarettes were patented in 2004 by Hon Lik in China. In May 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) imposed regulatory statutes on e-cigarettes and their liquid formulations (e-liquids); prior to that, they were unregulated. E-liquids are typically composed of propylene glycol and/or glycerin, flavoring component(s), and active ingredient(s), such as nicotine...
March 23, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329057/coronary-artery-calcification-and-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-and-death-among-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#8
Jing Chen, Matthew J Budoff, Muredach P Reilly, Wei Yang, Sylvia E Rosas, Mahboob Rahman, Xiaoming Zhang, Jason A Roy, Eva Lustigova, Lisa Nessel, Virginia Ford, Dominic Raj, Anna C Porter, Elsayed Z Soliman, Jackson T Wright, Myles Wolf, Jiang He
Importance: Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is highly prevalent in dialysis-naive patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, there are sparse data on the association of CAC with subsequent risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in this population. Objective: To study the prospective association of CAC with risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality among dialysis-naive patients with CKD. Design, Setting, and Participants: The prospective Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study recruited adults with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 20 to 70 mL/min/1...
March 22, 2017: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323467/sales-of-nicotine-containing-electronic-cigarette-products-united-states-2015
#9
Kristy L Marynak, Doris G Gammon, Todd Rogers, Ellen M Coats, Tushar Singh, Brian A King
OBJECTIVES: To assess the proportion of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) products sold in the United States that contain nicotine according to retail scanner data. METHODS: We obtained unit sales data from January 11, 2015, to December 12, 2015, from The Nielsen Company for convenience stores; supermarkets; mass merchandisers; drug, club, and dollar stores; and Department of Defense commissaries. The data did not include purchases from tobacco specialty shops, "vape shops," or online sources...
March 21, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320748/association-of-husband-smoking-with-wife-s-hypertension-status-in-over-5%C3%A2-million-chinese-females-aged-20-to-49%C3%A2-years
#10
Ying Yang, Fangchao Liu, Long Wang, Qian Li, Xingyu Wang, Julia C Chen, Qiaomei Wang, Haiping Shen, Yiping Zhang, Donghai Yan, Man Zhang, Yuan He, Zuoqi Peng, Yuanyuan Wang, Jihong Xu, Jun Zhao, Ya Zhang, Hongguang Zhang, Xiaona Xin, Yan Wang, Dujia Liu, Tongjun Guo, Qiaoyun Dai, Xu Ma
BACKGROUND: The effect of second-hand smoking, especially husband smoking, on wife's hypertension has not been well studied. The current study was aimed to assess the association of husband smoking with wife's hypertension among females aged 20 to 49 years. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study included 5 027 731 females along with their husbands from the National Free Pre-pregnancy Checkup Projects conducted across 31 provinces in China in 2014. Smoking/passive smoking status was collected by a standard questionnaire and blood pressure was measured by an electronic device after 10 minutes rest...
March 20, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319226/secondhand-exposure-to-electronic-cigarette-aerosol-among-us-youths
#11
Teresa W Wang, Kristy L Marynak, Israel T Agaku, Brian A King
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296556/beliefs-about-the-direct-comparison-of-e-cigarettes-and-cigarettes
#12
Alexandra R Hershberger, Kenny A Karyadi, J Davis VanderVeen, Melissa A Cyders
BACKGROUND: Recent data suggests that positive beliefs about electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) use can lead to later e-cig use. Considering that many advertisements claim that e-cigs are superior to cigarettes, individuals' likelihood to view e-cigs more favorably than cigarettes can also influence subsequent e-cig use; however, no studies have directly assessed such a comparison. OBJECTIVES: The present study created and validated the Comparing E-Cigarettes and Cigarettes questionnaire (CEAC), which asks individuals to directly compare e-cigs and cigarettes on a number of dimensions, in two independent samples...
March 15, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289369/associations-of-attitudes-towards-electronic-cigarettes-with-advertisement-exposure-and-social-determinants-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
Benjamin Reinhold, Rebecca Fischbein, Surya Sruthi Bhamidipalli, Jennifer Bryant, Deric R Kenne
BACKGROUND: The exposure of young adults to electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) advertisements has risen rapidly. E-cigarette ads have been shown to increase short term perceived acceptability of using e-cigarettes in places where traditional cigarettes are banned. We set out to investigate if advertising exposure was related to perceptions of harm, addictiveness, and acceptability of use of e-cigarettes in places where traditional cigarettes are banned. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional design, 6037 students at a large Midwestern university between the ages of 18-24 were surveyed about e-cigarette use and smoking status...
2017: Tobacco Induced Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285828/national-and-state-trends-in-sales-of-cigarettes-and-e-cigarettes-u-s-2011-2015
#14
Kristy L Marynak, Doris G Gammon, Brian A King, Brett R Loomis, Erika B Fulmer, Teresa W Wang, Todd Rogers
INTRODUCTION: In recent years, self-reported cigarette smoking has declined among youth and adults, while electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use has increased. However, sales trends for these products are less certain. This study assessed national and state patterns of U.S. cigarette and e-cigarette unit sales. METHODS: Trends in cigarette and e-cigarette unit sales were analyzed using retail scanner data from September 25, 2011 through January 9, 2016 for: (1) convenience stores; and (2) all other outlets combined, including supermarkets, mass merchandisers, drug, dollar, and club stores, and military commissaries (online, tobacco-only, and "vape" shops were not available)...
February 24, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278239/patterns-of-electronic-cigarette-use-and-level-of-psychological-distress
#15
Su Hyun Park, Lily Lee, Jenni A Shearston, Michael Weitzman
BACKGROUND: Psychological distress has been correlated with higher levels of nicotine dependence. To date, the possible association between individuals' levels of psychological distress and e-cigarette use has not been investigated, despite the dramatic growth of e-cigarette use in the US. We examined this possible association using a nationally representative sample of US adults. METHODS: A total of 36,697 adults from the 2014 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were included...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277706/user-identified-positive-outcome-expectancies-of-electronic-cigarette-use-a-concept-mapping-study
#16
Eric K Soule, Sarah F Maloney, Mignonne C Guy, Thomas Eissenberg, Pebbles Fagan
Electronic cigarette (ECIG) use is growing in popularity, but little is known about the perceived positive outcomes of ECIG use. This study used concept mapping (CM) to examine positive ECIG outcome expectancies. Sixty-three past 30-day ECIG users (38.1% female) between the ages of 18 and 64 (M = 37.8, SD = 13.3) completed a CM module. In an online program, participants provided statements that completed a prompt: "A specific positive, enjoyable, or exciting effect (i.e., physical or psychological) that I have experienced WHILE USING or IMMEDIATELY AFTER USING an electronic cigarette/electronic vaping device is...
March 9, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277273/canary-in-the-coal-mine-initial-reports-of-thermal-injury-secondary-to-electronic-cigarettes
#17
Zachary M Bauman, Jordan Roman, Matthew Singer, Gary A Vercruysse
The use of electronic cigarettes has become increasingly popular with claims suggesting healthier alternatives to tobacco cigarettes. However, research regarding the safety of such devices has been limited to an analysis of the inhaled vapor and the short and long-term effects on the body. A lesser recognized risk of electronic cigarette use is that of lithium-ion battery failure causing ignition, leading to severe thermal injury. Such incidents have been reported in the media but with inconsistencies from a lack of focus on the injuries sustained and a cause of ignition...
October 27, 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274388/shisha-waterpipe-smoking-initiation-among-youth-in-malaysia-and-global-perspective-a-scoping-review-2006-2015
#18
REVIEW
S K Singh, L Enzhong, D D Reidpath, P Allotey
OBJECTIVE: To explore the initiating factors of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) among youth. STUDY DESIGN: The analytic framework for this scoping review was performed using the methodology outlined by Arksey and O'Malley, which includes identification of the research question, study selection, charting the data, collating, summarizing and reporting the results that were primarily guided by the research question; 'what is known about the initiation of shisha smoking among youth?' METHODS: Electronic databases such as Cochrane, MEDLINE and PsycINFO were used to search for relevant articles...
March 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273096/benzene-formation-in-electronic-cigarettes
#19
James F Pankow, Kilsun Kim, Kevin J McWhirter, Wentai Luo, Jorge O Escobedo, Robert M Strongin, Anna K Duell, David H Peyton
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The heating of the fluids used in electronic cigarettes ("e-cigarettes") used to create "vaping" aerosols is capable of causing a wide range of degradation reaction products. We investigated formation of benzene (an important human carcinogen) from e-cigarette fluids containing propylene glycol (PG), glycerol (GL), benzoic acid, the flavor chemical benzaldehyde, and nicotine. METHODS/MAIN RESULTS: Three e-cigarette devices were used: the JUULTM "pod" system (provides no user accessible settings other than flavor cartridge choice), and two refill tank systems that allowed a range of user accessible power settings...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270392/qualitative-analysis-of-young-adult-ends-users-expectations-and-experiences
#20
Janet Hoek, Johannes Thrul, Pamela Ling
OBJECTIVES: Despite extensive research into the determinants of electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) uptake, few studies have examined the psychosocial benefits ENDS users seek and experience. Using a consumer ritual framework, we explored how ENDS users recreated or replaced smoking practices, and considered implications for smoking cessation. DESIGN: In-depth interviews; data analysed using thematic analysis. SETTING: Dunedin, New Zealand...
March 7, 2017: BMJ Open
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