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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931265/diagnostic-and-interventional-optical-angioscopy-in-ex-vivo-carotid-arteries
#1
Luis E Savastano, Neeraj Chaudhary, Carlos Murga-Zamalloa, Michael Wang, Thomas Wang, B Gregory Thompson
BACKGROUND: Angioscopy - or endovascular endoscopy - is a catheter-based technique employing a flexible fiberoptic angioscope to directly visualize arterial lumen. Poor resolution and excessive stiffness of pre-existent angioscopes limited their use clinically. Recent advances resulted in novel fused optical fiber bundle angioscopes with improved flexibility and imaging resolution. Use of these devices in endovascular neurosurgery is still largely unexplored. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate image quality and feasibility of optical angioscopes for diagnostic and interventional neuro-angioscopy in carotid arteries of human cadavers...
February 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931260/stereotactic-accuracy-and-surgical-utility-of-the-o-arm-in-deep-brain-stimulation-surgery
#2
Jonathan Dennis Carlson, Kate Elizabeth McLeod, Pamela Sue McLeod, Jamelynn Brooke Mark
BACKGROUND: The stereotactic accuracy of intraoperative imaging is critical to clinical outcome, particularly in "asleep" deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery that typically forgoes neurophysiological techniques. Different intraoperative imaging modalities and associated accuracies have been reported, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and O-arm. OBJECTIVE: To analyze intraoperative O-arm imaging accuracy and to evaluate the utility of microelectrode mapping...
February 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931253/relationship-of-the-optic-nerve-to-the-medial-rectus-muscle-during-endonasal-dissection-of-the-medial-intraconal-orbital-apex
#3
Dmitriy Petrov, John Craig, Jayesh Thawani, Kalil Abdullah, James N Palmer, Nithin D Adappa, John Y K Lee
BACKGROUND: Few studies have established surgical landmarks for endoscopic endonasal dissection of the intraconal orbital apex (OA). OBJECTIVE: We describe the optic nerve (ON) anatomy and its relationships, as seen during a fully endoscopic, endonasal approach to the medial intraconal OA. METHODS: The study question was approached through a cadaver dissection and a radiographic study. Four formalin-fixed, latex-injected cadaver heads were dissected using transnasal endoscopic techniques...
February 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931252/a-simplified-method-of-accurate-postprocessing-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging-for-use-in-brain-tumor-resection
#4
Phillip A Bonney, Andrew K Conner, Lillian B Boettcher, Ahmed A Cheema, Chad A Glenn, Adam D Smitherman, Nathan A Pittman, Michael E Sughrue
BACKGROUND: Use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in brain tumor resection has been limited in part by a perceived difficulty in implementing the techniques into neurosurgical practice. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate a simple DTI postprocessing method performed without a neuroscientist and to share results in preserving patient function while aggressively resecting tumors. METHODS: DTI data are obtained in all patients with tumors located within presumed eloquent cortices...
February 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931250/minimally-invasive-transpalpebral-endoscopic-assisted-amygdalohippocampectomy
#5
Mauricio Mandel, Eberval Gadelha Figueiredo, Suzana Abramovicz Mandel, Rafael Tutihashi, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira
BACKGROUND: Although anterior temporal lobectomy may be a definitive surgical treatment for epileptic patients with mesial temporal sclerosis, it often results in verbal, visual, and cognitive dysfunction. Studies have consistently reported the advantages of selective procedures compared with a standard anterior temporal lobectomy, mainly in terms of neuropsychological outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To describe a new technique to perform a selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH) through a transpalpebral approach with endoscopic assistance...
February 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931182/-primary-open-angle-glaucoma
#6
Esther M Hoffmann, Verena Prokosch-Willing
Glaucoma leads to blindness but there are diagnostic and therapeutic developments that aid ophthalmologists in the improved mangement of the disease compared to the past. Known risk factors such as age, myopia, dark pigmented skin, genetics, and elevated intraocular pressure play an important role for the individual patient's prognosis, and many yet unknown or not sufficiently investigated risk factors come along. The structured examination of the optic nerve head is crucial for the clincial diagnosis by the ophthalmologist...
September 20, 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931085/hcv-induced-autophagosomes-are-generated-via-homotypic-fusion-of-phagophores-that-mediate-hcv-rna-replication
#7
Linya Wang, Ja Yeon Kim, Helene Minyi Liu, Michael M C Lai, Jing-Hsiung James Ou
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) induces autophagy to promote its replication, including its RNA replication, which can take place on double-membrane vesicles known as autophagosomes. However, how HCV induces the biogenesis of autophagosomes and how HCV RNA replication complex may be assembled on autophagosomes were largely unknown. During autophagy, crescent membrane structures known as phagophores first appear in the cytoplasm, which then progress to become autophagosomes. By conducting electron microscopy and in vitro membrane fusion assay, we found that phagophores induced by HCV underwent homotypic fusion to generate autophagosomes in a process dependent on the SNARE protein syntaxin 7 (STX7)...
September 19, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931067/in-vivo-imaging-system-for-explants-analysis-a-new-approach-for-assessment-of-cell-transplantation-effects-in-large-animal-models
#8
Weronika Zarychta-Wiśniewska, Anna Burdzinska, Radosław Zagozdzon, Bartosz Dybowski, Marta Butrym, Zdzisław Gajewski, Leszek Paczek
INTRODUCTION: Despite spectacular progress in cellular transplantology, there are still many concerns about the fate of transplanted cells. More preclinical studies are needed, especially on large animal models, to bridge the translational gap between basic research and the clinic. Herein, we propose a novel approach in analysis of cell transplantation effects in large animals explants using in vivo imaging system (IVIS®) or similar equipment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the in vitro experiment cells labeled with fluorescent membrane dyes: DID (far red) or PKH26 (orange) were visualized with IVIS®...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931045/effect-of-extracytoplasmic-function-sigma-factors-on-autoaggregation-hemagglutination-and-cell-surface-properties-of-porphyromonas-gingivalis
#9
Kazutaka Fujise, Yuichiro Kikuchi, Eitoyo Kokubu, Kazuko Okamoto-Shibayama, Kazuyuki Ishihara
Porphyromonas gingivalis is a bacterium frequently isolated from chronic periodontal lesions and is involved in the development of chronic periodontitis. To colonize the gingival crevice, P. gingivalis has to adapt to environmental stresses. Microbial gene expression is regulated by transcription factors such as those in two-component systems and extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors. ECF sigma factors are involved in the regulation of environmental stress response genes; however, the roles of individual ECF sigma factors are largely unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931028/the-efficacy-of-extracorporeal-shockwave-lithotripsy-for-symptomatic-ureteral-stones-predictors-of-treatment-failure-without-the-assistance-of-computed-tomography
#10
Bing-Juin Chiang, Chun-Hou Liao, Yu-Hua Lin
OBJECTIVES: Non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) is not always performed clinically if the diagnosis of ureteral calculi has been confirmed using other radiographic imaging modalities. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of successful extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) without assistance of NCCT. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with symptomatic solitary ureteral stones who underwent ESWL between November 2015 and January 2016...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931014/phonological-memory-in-sign-language-relies-on-the-visuomotor-neural-system-outside-the-left-hemisphere-language-network
#11
Yuji Kanazawa, Kimihiro Nakamura, Toru Ishii, Toshihiko Aso, Hiroshi Yamazaki, Koichi Omori
Sign language is an essential medium for everyday social interaction for deaf people and plays a critical role in verbal learning. In particular, language development in those people should heavily rely on the verbal short-term memory (STM) via sign language. Most previous studies compared neural activations during signed language processing in deaf signers and those during spoken language processing in hearing speakers. For sign language users, it thus remains unclear how visuospatial inputs are converted into the verbal STM operating in the left-hemisphere language network...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931001/an-automated-rapid-iterative-negative-geotaxis-assay-for-analyzing-adult-climbing-behavior-in-a-drosophila-model-of-neurodegeneration
#12
Wenze Cao, Li Song, Jingjing Cheng, Na Yi, Luyi Cai, Fu-de Huang, Margaret Ho
Neurodegenerative diseases are frequently associated with a progressive loss of movement ability, reduced life span, and age-dependent neurodegeneration. To understand the mechanism of these cellular events, and their causal relationships with each other, Drosophila melanogaster, with its sophisticated genetic tools and diverse behavioral features, are used as disease models for assessing neurodegenerative phenotypes. Here we describe a high-throughput method to analyze Drosophila adult negative geotaxis behavior, as an indication for possible motor defects associated with neurodegeneration...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931000/trapping-of-micro-particles-in-nanoplasmonic-optical-lattice
#13
Dinesh Bhalothia, Ya-Tang Yang
The plasmonic optical tweezer has been developed to overcome the diffraction limits of the conventional far field optical tweezer. Plasmonic optical lattice consists of an array of nanostructures, which exhibit a variety of trapping and transport behaviors. We report the experimental procedures to trap micro-particles in a simple square nanoplasmonic optical lattice. We also describe the optical setup and the nanofabrication of a nanoplasmonic array. The optical potential is created by illuminating an array of gold nanodiscs with a Gaussian beam of 980 nm wavelength, and exciting plasmon resonance...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930998/in-vitro-ovule-cultivation-for-live-cell-imaging-of-zygote-polarization-and-embryo-patterning-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#14
Daisuke Kurihara, Yusuke Kimata, Tetsuya Higashiyama, Minako Ueda
In most flowering plants, the zygote and embryo are hidden deep in the mother tissue, and thus it has long been a mystery of how they develop dynamically; for example, how the zygote polarizes to establish the body axis and how the embryo specifies various cell fates during organ formation. This manuscript describes an in vitro ovule culture method to perform live-cell imaging of developing zygotes and embryos of Arabidopsis thaliana. The optimized cultivation medium allows zygotes or early embryos to grow into fertile plants...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930996/assessment-of-the-anticoagulant-and-anti-inflammatory-properties-of-endothelial-cells-using-3d-cell-culture-and-non-anticoagulated-whole-blood
#15
Riccardo Sfriso, Anjan Bongoni, Yara Banz, Nikolai Klymiuk, Eckhard Wolf, Robert Rieben
In vivo, endothelial cells are crucial for the natural anticoagulation of circulating blood. Consequently, endothelial cell activation leads to blood coagulation. This phenomenon is observed in many clinical situations, like organ transplantation in the presence of pre-formed anti-donor antibodies, including xenotransplantation, as well as in ischemia/reperfusion injury. In order to reduce animal experimentation according to the 3R standards (reduction, replacement and refinement), in vitro models to study the effect of endothelial cell activation on blood coagulation would be highly desirable...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930993/confocal-imaging-of-neuropeptide-y-phluorin-a-technique-to-visualize-insulin-granule-exocytosis-in-intact-murine-and-human-islets
#16
Madina Makhmutova, Tao Liang, Herbert Gaisano, Alejandro Caicedo, Joana Almaça
Insulin secretion plays a central role in glucose homeostasis under normal physiological conditions as well as in disease. Current approaches to study insulin granule exocytosis either use electrophysiology or microscopy coupled to the expression of fluorescent reporters. However most of these techniques have been optimized for clonal cell lines or require dissociating pancreatic islets. In contrast, the method presented here allows for real time visualization of insulin granule exocytosis in intact pancreatic islets...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930991/using-an-adapted-microfluidic-olfactory-chip-for-the-imaging-of-neuronal-activity-in-response-to-pheromones-in-male-c-elegans-head-neurons
#17
Douglas K Reilly, Daniel E Lawler, Dirk R Albrecht, Jagan Srinivasan
The use of calcium indicators has greatly enhanced our understanding of neural dynamics and regulation. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, with its completely mapped nervous system and transparent anatomy, presents an ideal model for understanding real-time neural dynamics using calcium indicators. In combination with microfluidic technologies and experimental designs, calcium-imaging studies using these indicators are performed in both free-moving and trapped animals. However, most previous studies utilizing trapping devices, such as the olfactory chip described in Chronis et al...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930989/demonstration-of-a-hyperlens-integrated-microscope-and-super-resolution-imaging
#18
Dasol Lee, Minkyung Kim, Sunae So, Inki Kim, Gwanho Yoon, Kyunghoon Kim, Junsuk Rho
The use of super-resolution imaging to overcome the diffraction limit of conventional microscopy has attracted the interest of researchers in biology and nanotechnology. Although near-field scanning microscopy and superlenses have improved the resolution in the near-field region, far-field imaging in real-time remains a significant challenge. Recently, the hyperlens, which magnifies and converts evanescent waves into propagating waves, has emerged as a novel approach to far-field imaging. Here, we report the fabrication of a spherical hyperlens composed of alternating silver (Ag) and titanium oxide (TiO2) thin layers...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930985/visualizing-angiogenesis-by-multiphoton-microscopy-in-vivo-in-genetically-modified-3d-plga-nhap-scaffold-for-calvarial-critical-bone-defect-repair
#19
Jian Li, Holger Jahr, Wei Zheng, Pei-Gen Ren
The reconstruction of critically sized bone defects remains a serious clinical problem because of poor angiogenesis within tissue-engineered scaffolds during repair, which gives rise to a lack of sufficient blood supply and causes necrosis of the new tissues. Rapid vascularization is a vital prerequisite for new tissue survival and integration with existing host tissue. The de novo generation of vasculature in scaffolds is one of the most important steps in making bone regeneration more efficient, allowing repairing tissue to grow into a scaffold...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930980/immunostaining-for-dna-modifications-computational-analysis-of-confocal-images
#20
Ashley H Ramsawhook, Lara C Lewis, Maria Eleftheriou, Abdulkadir Abakir, Paulina Durczak, Robert Markus, Seema Rajani, Nicholas R F Hannan, Beth Coyle, Alexey Ruzov
For several decades, 5-methylcytosine (5mC) has been thought to be the only DNA modification with a functional significance in metazoans. The discovery of enzymatic oxidation of 5mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC) as well as detection of N6-methyladenine (6mA) in the DNA of multicellular organisms provided additional degrees of complexity to the epigenetic research. According to a growing body of experimental evidence, these novel DNA modifications may play specific roles in different cellular and developmental processes...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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