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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469582/exploring-the-intersections-of-trauma-structural-adversity-and-psychosis-among-a-primarily-african-american-sample-a-mixed-methods-analysis
#1
Cherise Rosen, Nev Jones, Eleanor Longden, Kayla A Chase, Mona Shattell, Jennifer K Melbourne, Sarah K Keedy, Rajiv P Sharma
Traumatic life events (TLEs) have been associated with multiple psychiatric diagnoses, including anxiety disorders, major depression, PTSD, and psychosis. To advance our understanding of the complex interactions between forms of adversity as they manifest across the lifespan, psychosis, and symptom content, we undertook a mixed-methods investigation of TLEs and psychosis. Our research explored the association between cumulative exposures, type of TLE, and proximity to the traumatic event and psychosis; the association between TLEs and clinical symptomology including specific types of delusions and/or hallucinations; and how qualitative data further inform understanding of complex relationships and patterns of past trauma and symptoms as they unfold over time...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460283/depression-goals-and-motivations-in-people-with-persecutory-delusions
#2
Natasha Vorontsova, Lyn Ellett
Goals motivated by avoidance, rather than approach, and by external, rather than internal, motivations, have been implicated in the persistence of depression. This paper reports the first empirical investigation of the goals and motivations of individuals experiencing persecutory delusions. Participants completed assessments of goals and motivations, depression and paranoia. Higher levels of depression were associated with more avoidant motivations and lower goal self-concordance, but not with numbers of approach motivations...
April 22, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458894/prop1-gene-mutations-in-a-36-year-old-female-presenting-with-psychosis
#3
Durgesh Prasad Chaudhary, Tshristi Rijal, Kunal Kishor Jha, Harpreet Saluja
SUMMARY: Combined pituitary hormonal deficiency (CPHD) is a rare disease that results from mutations in genes coding for transcription factors that regulate the differentiation of pituitary cells. PROP1 gene mutations are one of the etiological diagnoses of congenital panhypopituitarism, however symptoms vary depending on phenotypic expression. We present a case of psychosis in a 36-year-old female with congenital panhypopituitarism who presented with paranoia, flat affect and ideas of reference without a delirious mental state, which resolved with hormone replacement and antipsychotics...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451897/sleeping-paranoia-away-an-actigraphy-and-experience-sampling-study-with-adolescents
#4
Timo Hennig, Tania M Lincoln
Paranoid symptoms co-occur with distress and poor functioning and constitute a risk for psychosis and other mental disorders. Poor sleep is known to be associated with paranoid symptoms, but the direction of the effect and the mediating factors have not been studied thoroughly. In an experience-sampling study, 61 adolescents wore an actigraph over eight nights and also rated their sleep, symptoms of paranoia, and potentially mediating factors. Shorter sleep time and more dreaming predicted paranoid symptoms in multilevel regression models...
April 27, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448245/temperament-character-profile-and-psychopathologies-in-patients-with-alopecia-areata
#5
Ali Talaei, Yalda Nahidi, Golsan Kardan, Lida Jarahi, Behzad Aminzadeh, Hasan Jahed Taherani, Mahsa Nahidi, Maliheh Ziaee
The aim of this study is to investigate psychopathologies and the temperament-character profile of Alopecia Areata patients and to compare them with healthy controls. Patients and controls who presented at a dermatology clinic were selected by convenience sampling to respond to Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), SCL-90-R, and a checklist about the demographic data and their dermatologic and psychiatric history. Patients reported higher harm avoidance and reward dependence than controls (Cohen's d =...
April 27, 2017: Journal of General Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442248/social-environments-and-interpersonal-distance-regulation-in-psychosis-a-virtual-reality-study
#6
Chris N W Geraets, Marije van Beilen, Roos Pot-Kolder, Jacqueline Counotte, Mark van der Gaag, Wim Veling
BACKGROUND: Experimentally studying the influence of social environments on mental health and behavior is challenging, as social context is difficult to standardize in laboratory settings. Virtual Reality (VR) enables studying social interaction in terms of interpersonal distance in a more ecologically valid manner. Regulation of interpersonal distance may be abnormal in patients with psychotic disorders and influenced by environmental stress, symptoms or distress. AIMS: To investigate interpersonal distance in people with a psychotic disorder and at ultrahigh risk for psychosis (UHR) compared to siblings and controls in virtual social environments, and explore the relationship between clinical characteristics and interpersonal distance...
April 22, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436017/attachment-styles-and-clinical-correlates-in-people-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis
#7
Debra A Russo, Jan Stochl, Joanne Hodgekins, Maria Iglesias-González, Penelope Chipps, Michelle Painter, Peter B Jones, Jesus Perez
Evidence suggests that attachment styles may influence subclinical psychosis phenotypes (schizotypy) and affective disorders and may play a part in the association between psychosis and childhood adversity. However, the role of attachment in the initial stages of psychosis remains poorly understood. Our main aim was to describe and compare attachment styles in 60 individuals at ultra high risk for psychosis (UHR) and a matched sample of 60 healthy volunteers (HV). The HV had lower anxious and avoidant attachment scores than the UHR individuals (p < ...
April 24, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435819/psychological-disorders-among-iranian-infertile-couples-undergoing-assisted-reproductive-technology-art
#8
Mansoureh Karimzadeh, Nasser Salsabili, Firouzeh Akbari Asbagh, Robab Teymouri, Golamreza Pourmand, Tahereh Soleimanieh Naeini
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, infertility affects 10%-15% of couples and most of them seek medical help including Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) treatments. Undergoing ART treatments create many physical and emotional burdens. This study examined the psychological consequences of infertility in Iranian infertile males and females as well as their spouses, unlike previous studies that examined mainly females with infertility. METHODS: Subjects in this descriptive analytical design were recruited from the IVF Department of Mirza Koochak Khan Hospital and the Rouyesh Infertility Treatment Center of Tehran, Iran between Aug 2014 and Sep 2015...
March 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421867/symptom-related-attributional-biases-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder
#9
Nicole Sanford, Todd S Woodward
INTRODUCTION: Biases in causal attributions and evidence integration have been implicated in delusions, but have not been investigated simultaneously to examine additive or multiplicative effects. It was hypothesised that paranoid delusions would correlate with self-serving and personalising biases ("defence" model of paranoia), particularly when these biases were disconfirmed. METHODS: Constrained principal component analysis was used to investigate differences between schizophrenia patients (paranoid vs...
April 19, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419917/the-effect-of-social-exclusion-on-state-paranoia-and-explicit-and-implicit-self-esteem-in-a-non-clinical-sample
#10
C Stewart, F Rogers, M Pilch, I Stewart, Y Barnes-Holmes, S Westermann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 14, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409716/gang-membership-links-to-violence-exposure-paranoia-ptsd-anxiety-and-forced-control-of-behavior-in-prison
#11
Jane Wood, Sophie Dennard
OBJECTIVE: Gang membership inherently links to violence, and violent experiences strongly relate to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and paranoia. Yet to date, gang members' mental health has received little attention, and their paranoia has not been examined. This study, using established measures, assessed street gang and nongang prisoners' levels of violence exposure, symptoms of PTSD, paranoia, and anxiety, forced behavioral control, and segregation in prison. METHOD: Participants were 65 (32 gang and 33 nongang) prisoners, recruited using opportunity sampling...
2017: Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392953/acute-psychosis-as-main-manifestation-of-central-pontine-myelinolysis
#12
Mangala Gopal, Melvin Parasram, Harsh Patel, Chike Ilorah, Hrachya Nersesyan
Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) is an acute demyelinating neurological disorder affecting primarily the central pons and is frequently associated with rapid correction of hyponatremia. Common clinical manifestations of CPM include spastic quadriparesis, dysarthria, pseudobulbar palsy, and encephalopathy of various degrees; however, coma, "locked-in" syndrome, or death can occur in most severe cases. Rarely, CPM presents with neuropsychiatric manifestations, such as personality changes, acute psychosis, paranoia, hallucinations, or catatonia, typically associated with additional injury to the brain, described as extrapontine myelinolysis (EPM)...
2017: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342226/psychopathology-and-personality-traits-associated-with-driving-while-intoxicated-in-beijing-china-implications-for-interventions
#13
Rong-Jiang Zhao, Wei Sun, Li-Li Zhang, Yan-Ping Bao, Liang Huang, Ping Dong, Shuang-Jiang Zhou, Zhi-Qing Wang, Thomas R Kosten, Hong-Qiang Sun
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Driving while intoxicated (DWI) represents an area of grave concern in China, yet little research has focused on it or on the personality traits and psychiatric disorders among these drivers. METHODS: We enrolled 325 of 382 residents charged with DWI in a compulsory detention center in Beijing, China. And 351 male drivers who had never had any alcohol arrests as control participants. All were screened for Axis I disorders using the Chinese version of the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV-TR (SCID), the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2), and the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF)...
June 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326948/rare-presentation-of-intrathecal-morphine-withdrawal-psychosis
#14
Rohit Aiyer, Vivek Jain, Anurag Bhatia, Boris Mekinulov, Semih Gungor
We report a case of a 57-year-old male patient with intrathecal morphine pump failure who presented with psychosis as part of a clinical presentation of opioid withdrawal. The patient was being treated for chronic back pain with an intrathecal morphine pump for several years. The patient spontaneously started to experience psychotic symptoms which included disorganized thinking, delusional thoughts, paranoia, auditory and visual hallucinations. Upon interrogation of intrathecal pump, it was found not to be functioning, thereby not delivering intrathecal morphine...
February 28, 2017: Pain Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325154/the-behavioral-profile-of-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-and-%C3%AE-pyrrolidinopentiophenone-pvp-a-systematic-review
#15
Cornel N Stanciu, Thomas M Penders, Samantha A Gnanasegaram, Elvin Pirapakaran, Juvraj S Padda, Jeeven S Padda
BACKGROUND: New psychoactive substances are emerging at an alarming rate. With novel structures and properties they produce unique behavioral characteristics during intoxication. Synthetic cathinones are some of the most common. More and more are presenting to emergency departments due to consequences of use. Aside from isolated reports, little is known about these compounds. OBJECTIVE: Here we review literature pertaining to two common synthetic cathinones, MDPV and alphaPVP, and correlate clinically with guidance on management of intoxications...
March 21, 2017: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318838/do-paranoid-delusions-exist-on-a-continuum-with-subclinical-paranoia-a-multi-method-taxometric-study
#16
A Elahi, G Perez Algorta, F Varese, J C McIntyre, R P Bentall
BACKGROUND: There is widespread interest in whether psychosis exists on a continuum with healthy functioning. Previous research has implied that paranoia, a common symptom of psychosis, exists on a continuum but this has not been investigated using samples including both patients and non-patients and up-to-date taxometric methods. AIM: To assess the latent structure of paranoia in a diverse sample using taxometric methods. METHOD: We obtained data from 2836 participants, including the general population as well as at-risk mental state and psychotic patients using the P-scale of the Paranoia and Deservedness Scale...
March 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253090/differential-patterns-in-mind-perception-in-subclinical-paranoia-relationships-to-self-reported-empathy
#17
Benjamin Buck, Neil Hester, David L Penn, Kurt Gray
INTRODUCTION: Although social cognition skills and biases are well-studied in paranoia, "mind perception" - perceiving the extent to which someone even possesses a thinking, feeling mind - is not. We sought to better characterise the profile of mind perception for individuals with paranoia. METHODS: We examined links between mind perception and paranoia in a large (n = 890) subclinical sample. Participants completed measures of paranoia, schizotypy, mind perception, and dispositional empathy...
March 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246404/vigour-in-active-avoidance
#18
Camilla L Nord, Gita Prabhu, Tobias Nolte, Peter Fonagy, Ray Dolan, Michael Moutoussis
It would be maladaptive to learn about catastrophes by trial and error alone. Investment in planning and effort are necessary. Devoting too many resources to averting disaster, however, can impair quality of life, as in anxiety and paranoia. Here, we developed a novel task to explore how people adjust effort expenditure (vigor) so as to avoid negative consequences. Our novel paradigm is immersive, enabling us to measure vigor in the context of (simulated) disaster. We found that participants (N = 118) exerted effort to avoid disaster-associated states, adjusting their effort expenditure according to the baseline probability of catastrophe, in agreement with theoretical predictions...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243759/did-king-herod-suffer-from-a-rheumatic-disease
#19
Cianna Leatherwood, Richard S Panush
Herod the Great was appointed "king of Jews," to govern Judea, by the Roman Emperor and Senate. He lived from 73/74 BCE to 4 CE. He died with an illness and symptoms that have been the source of considerable speculation. Richard Strauss depicted Herod in his classic opera, "Salome." That opera was derived from a play of the same name by Oscar Wilde, which was based on an 1876 painting, "Salome Dancing Before Herod," by Gustave Moreau. The operatic Herod was afflicted with an illness characterized by dementia, hallucinations, paranoia, alcoholism (from drinking the Emperor's wine), violence, twitches, and sterility; different interpretations showed him also with falls, chills, shaking, thirst, forgetfulness, and sleepiness, for which we suggest the novel diagnosis of chronic lead intoxication (which can manifest to rheumatologists as saturnine gout)...
February 27, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239195/who-is-the-scientist-subject-a-critique-of-the-neo-kantian-scientist-subject-in-lorraine-daston-and-peter-galison-s-objectivity
#20
REVIEW
Esha Shah
The main focus of this essay is to closely engage with the role of scientist-subjectivity in the making of objectivity in Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison's book Objectivity, and Daston's later and earlier works On Scientific Observation and The Moral Economy of Science. I have posited four challenges to the neo-Kantian and Foucauldian constructions of the co-implication of psychology and epistemology presented in these texts. Firstly, following Jacques Lacan's work, I have argued that the subject of science constituted by the mode of modern science suffers from paranoia...
2017: Minerva
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