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Annika Clamor, Julian Koenig, Julian F Thayer, Tania M Lincoln
Arousal and the way it is coped with are relevant to the emergence of psychotic symptoms. Heart rate variability (HRV) stems from autonomic responses to environmental demands such as stress and is an index of physiological arousal, adaptability, and homeostatic reflexes forming autonomic balance. A randomized-controlled between-subjects trial that compared HRV-biofeedback (BF) to an active relaxation and to a waiting control condition was conducted in a sample with attenuated subclinical psychotic symptoms (N = 84)...
October 11, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Cynthia Lien, Tony Rosen, Elizabeth M Bloemen, Robert C Abrams, Maria Pavlou, Mark S Lachs
OBJECTIVES: To identify patterns of personal experience or behavior in self-neglect by exploring narratives of cognitively intact older adults. DESIGN: Descriptive study involving semistructured interviews and unstructured narratives. SETTING: A parent study of self-neglect characteristics. PARTICIPANTS: Cognitively intact, self-neglecting older adults referred from 11 community-based senior services agencies (N = 69)...
October 14, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Jadwiga Nędza, Renata Polaniak, Rafał J Bułdak, Milena Majchrzak, Joanna Margasiń-Ska, Marcin Rojkiewicz, Rafał Celiński, Elżbieta Grochowska-Niedworok
Recently, there has been an increase in the consumption of designer drugs, substances aimed at producing psychoactive, energizing, euphoric or anesthetic effects. Designer drugs are substitutes of actual narcotics, whose possession is banned under Polish law according to the Act of 29 July 2005. The latest reports suggest that the number of synthetic psychoactive substances is increasing. In the span of 2012, a total of 28 new synthetic cannabinoids were discovered in member states of the European Union. Synthetic psychoactive substances appear in different forms on the market: tablets (often very colourful and interestingly-shaped), seeds, dried product (sprayed with synthetic substance and redried), crystals or powder...
July 29, 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Juliana Tournebize, Valérie Gibaja, Jean-Pierre Kahn
BACKGROUND: Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the United States and Europe. In recent years, a range of new substances with cannabis-like effects - known as synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) - have suddenly burst on the drug scene. However, there is limited information about the clinical hazards linked to the use of these emerging substances. This review summarizes the literature to date relating the health effects of SCs. METHOD: A systematic literature review of original case studies was performed using 'Pubmed' and the 'Web of Science' (January, 1980 - July, 2015)...
August 11, 2016: Substance Abuse
Niels Van Quaquebeke
A 6-month, time-lagged online survey among 441 employees in diverse industries was conducted to investigate the role paranoia plays as an antecedent and as a consequence of advancement in organizations. The background of the study is the argument that it requires active social sense-making and behavioral adaptability to advance in organizations. The present paper thus explores the extent to which employees' paranoid cognitions-representative of a heightened albeit suspicious sense-making and behavioral adaptability-link with their advancement in organizations (operationalized as changes in afforded span of control), both as an antecedent and an outcome...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
J E Rhodes, L J Healey
The study aimed to investigate the experience of adults with a diagnosis of psychosis and who have survived childhood physical abuse. We interviewed eight participants and used interpretative phenomenological analysis to generate themes. The main themes were of perceiving an everyday world of aggression and contempt by others, pervasive mistrust, feeling isolated and for some, attacking oneself with hate. Most participants were also able to reflect on what they saw as 'paranoia' or 'voices'. Paranoia was described as a fluctuating compulsive 'thread' of meaning, feeling and sometimes a transformation of the self...
September 29, 2016: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
Ali S Haider, Maryam Alam, Ebun Adetutu, Richa Thakur, Caleb Gottlich, Danielle L DeBacker, Lianne Marks
Hashimoto's encephalitis (HE), also known as steroid-responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis (SREAT), can be a debilitating manifestation of an autoimmune reaction against the thyroid that is often under-diagnosed primarily due to a lack of definitive diagnostic criteria. This is a case of a 52-year-old woman who has been diagnosed with HE after presenting with recurrent and severe psychosis in conjunction with paranoia and a thyroidopathy. Her symptoms are chronic, having first been documented as presenting 15 years prior and showing progressive exacerbation in both frequency and severity...
2016: Curēus
Katarzyna Sitko, Filippo Varese, William Sellwood, Amy Hammond, Richard Bentall
It has been proposed that insecure attachment can have adverse effects on the course of psychosis once symptoms have emerged. There is longitudinal evidence that increased insecure attachment is associated with increased severity of psychotic symptoms. The present study examined whether in the flow of daily life attachment insecurity fluctuates, whether elevated stress precedes the occurrence of attachment insecurity, and whether elevated attachment insecurity precedes the occurrence of paranoia. Twenty clinical participants with a psychosis-spectrum diagnosis and twenty controls were studied over six consecutive days using the experience sampling method (ESM)...
September 3, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Maarten Bak, Marjan Drukker, Laila Hasmi, Jim van Os
INTRODUCTION: Dynamic relationships between the symptoms of psychosis can be shown in individual networks of psychopathology. In a single patient, data collected with the Experience Sampling Method (ESM-a method to construct intensive time series of experience and context) can be used to study lagged associations between symptoms in relation to illness severity and pharmacological treatment. METHOD: The patient completed, over the course of 1 year, for 4 days per week, 10 daily assessments scheduled randomly between 10 minutes and 3 hours apart...
2016: PloS One
Thies Lüdtke, Levente Kriston, Johanna Schröder, Tania M Lincoln, Steffen Moritz
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Negative affect and a tendency to "jump to conclusions" (JTC) are associated with paranoia. So far, only negative affect has been examined as a precursor of subsequent paranoia in daily life using experience sampling (ESM). We addressed this research gap and used ESM to test whether JTC fluctuates in daily life, whether it predicts subsequent paranoia, and whether it mediates the effect of negative affect on paranoia. METHODS: Thirty-five participants with schizophrenia spectrum disorders repeatedly self-reported negative affect, JTC, and paranoia via online questionnaires on two consecutive days...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
W Veling, J Counotte, R Pot-Kolder, J van Os, M van der Gaag
BACKGROUND: Childhood trauma is associated with higher risk for mental disorders, including psychosis. Heightened sensitivity to social stress may be a mechanism. This virtual reality study tested the effect of childhood trauma on level of paranoid ideations and distress in response to social stress, in interaction with psychosis liability and level of social stress exposure. METHOD: Seventy-five individuals with higher psychosis liability (55 with recent onset psychotic disorder and 20 at ultra-high risk for psychosis) and 95 individuals with lower psychosis liability (42 siblings and 53 controls) were exposed to a virtual café in five experiments with 0-3 social stressors (crowded, other ethnicity and hostility)...
September 13, 2016: Psychological Medicine
Maksim A Shlykov, Swapnil Rath, Alison Badger, Gerald Scott Winder
We present the case of an elderly woman with hypothyroidism and no psychiatric history who presented with new onset of psychosis, paranoia, catatonic features and Capgras syndrome (CS). This case illustrates the spectrum of neuropsychiatric symptoms that may accompany hypothyroidism and the importance of considering thyroid dysfunction as a primary contributor to severe psychiatric symptoms, especially in previously stable patients. We demonstrate the effectiveness of combination levothyroxine and olanzapine, with its favourable cardiac profile, in the treatment of myxoedema madness...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Murray G Tucker, Sebastian Kekulawala, Michelle Kent, Sam Mostafa, Richard Harvey
BACKGROUND: The high prevalence of comorbid illicit drug use in persons with chronic psychotic illness represents a strong determinant of psychotic relapse and rehospitalization. Epidemiological studies indicate changing patterns of illicit drug use in Australia, which are concerning because of increased use of crystal methamphetamine, also known as "ice." An important complication of habitual use of crystal methamphetamine is the development of a dose-dependent acute psychotic reaction...
2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Tobias E Hillmann, Leonie Ascone, Jürgen Kempkensteffen, Tania M Lincoln
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A promising candidate for a vulnerability indicator for psychosis is the restricted scanpath. Restricted scanning of social stimuli, such as faces, might also contribute to misinterpretations of facial expressions and thus increase the likelihood of delusional interpretations. Moreover, similar to other vulnerability indicators of psychosis, scanpaths may be susceptible to stress. Thus, we hypothesized that scanpath restriction would increase as a function of delusion-proneness, stress and their interaction...
August 28, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Anthony Bateman, Jennifer O'Connell, Nicolas Lorenzini, Tessa Gardner, Peter Fonagy
BACKGROUND: Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is an under-researched mental disorder. Systematic reviews and policy documents identify ASPD as a priority area for further treatment research because of the scarcity of available evidence to guide clinicians and policymakers; no intervention has been established as the treatment of choice for this disorder. Mentalization-based treatment (MBT) is a psychotherapeutic treatment which specifically targets the ability to recognise and understand the mental states of oneself and others, an ability shown to be compromised in people with ASPD...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra, Thomas Gregor Issac, Suresh Kumar Korada, Karru Venkata Ravi Teja, Mariamma Philip
INTRODUCTION: About 20-50% of relatively young onset dementia belongs to frontotemporal type. Most of these patients are diagnosed as psychiatric illness as their memory and instrumental activities of daily living remain unaltered till late and most of these patients do not qualify for dementia by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV criteria. In this study, we analyzed the behavioral symptoms in our patients with radiologically and neuropsychologically proven as probable behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (FTD)...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
Ashley McKie, Kristina Askew, Robert Dudley
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Ruminative self-focus is a maladaptive form of emotional processing and is linked to distress, whereas mindful self-focus is adaptive and linked to low distress. However, the effects of these different modes of self-focus have not yet been examined in symptoms associated with psychotic disorders, such as paranoid ideation. This study aimed to explore whether inducing ruminative self-focus maintains paranoid ideation whilst inducing mindful self-focus reduces paranoid ideation...
July 30, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Leonie Ascone, Edo S Jaya, Tania M Lincoln
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Low social rank is associated with paranoia, but there is a lack of evidence for causality. We tested the effects of social comparisons on negative affect and paranoia with an online social rank paradigm, and whether striving to avoid inferiority or fears of social rejection moderated paranoid reactions. METHOD: Female students (N = 172) were randomly exposed to one of two validated online profiles depicting a same-aged, high (unfavourable comparison) vs...
August 8, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Julie Courts, Virginia Maskill, Andrew Gray, Paul Glue
AIMS: Use of synthetic cannabinoids is associated with significant physical and psychological harms. This research quantified reported toxicities from published reports and assessed the influence of size of the reported study population on rates of symptom reporting. METHODS: Systematic review of published case reports and case series of toxicity associated with use of synthetic cannabinoids. RESULTS: Symptoms associated with synthetic cannabinoid toxicity were reported for 3695 individuals, predominantly young males...
August 24, 2016: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
Masoumeh Esmaeilivand, Fereshteh Jalalvandi, Mohammad Mehdi Mohammadi, Shima Parandin, Parvin Taghizadeh, Peyman Arasteh
INTRODUCTION: In the background of increasing use of internet in Asian countries, the study of psychological health in internet addicted users seems to be vital and necessary. Therefore the present study aimed to determine mental health among internet addicted and non-internet addicted Iranian and Indian students. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 400 students in various colleges from Pune and Mumbai cities of Maharashtra. Internet Addiction Test and Symptom Check List (SCL) 90-R were used...
2016: Global Journal of Health Science
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