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James Hurley, Jo Hodgekins, Sian Coker, David Fowler
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The Threat Anticipation Model (Freeman, 2007) implicates social anxiety, jumping to conclusions (JTC) and belief inflexibility in persecutory delusions. We investigated whether Cognitive Bias Modification for Interpretation (CBM-I; Turner et al., 2011) improves social anxiety by targeting negative interpretation bias of ambiguous social information. We determined whether the Maudsley Review Training Programme (MRTP; Waller et al., 2011) improves JTC, belief inflexibility and paranoia...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Measha Bright, Sophie Parker, Paul French, Anthony P Morrison, Sarah Tully, Suzanne L K Stewart, Adrian Wells
AIM: The Metacognitions Questionnaire-30 (MCQ-30) has been used to assess metacognitive beliefs in a range of mental health problems. The aim of this study is to assess the validity of the MCQ-30 in people at risk for psychosis. METHODS: One hundred eighty-five participants meeting criteria for an at risk mental state completed the MCQ-30 as part of their involvement in a randomized controlled trial. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were conducted to assess factor structure and construct validity...
June 7, 2018: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
Katarina Krkovic, Björn Schlier, Tania Lincoln
Research suggests that trauma is associated with the development of psychotic experiences, such as paranoia, via affective processes. However, the empirical evidence on the exact mechanism is limited and it is unclear which aspects of trauma are relevant. Here we tested whether self-reported frequency of trauma, recurring trauma, age, and type of trauma are predictive of later threat beliefs in daily life and which role affective processes (self-reported negative affect and autonomic arousal) play in this association...
June 4, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Tania M Lincoln, Johanna Sundag, Björn Schlier, Anne Karow
Background: Vulnerability-stress models postulate that social stress triggers psychotic episodes in vulnerable individuals. However, experimental evidence for the proposed causal pathway is scarce and the translating mechanisms are insufficiently understood. The study assessed the impact of social exclusion on paranoid beliefs in a quasi-experimental design and investigated the role of emotion regulation (ER) as a vulnerability indicator and emotional responses as a putative translating mechanism...
June 6, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Gøril Rolfseng Grøntvedt, Tobias Navarro Schröder, Sigrid Botne Sando, Linda White, Geir Bråthen, Christian F Doeller
The German psychiatrist and neuropathologist Alois Alzheimer was fascinated by the symptoms of Auguste D., a 50-year-old woman admitted to the Frankfurt Psychiatric Hospital in 1901 who suffered from memory disturbances, paranoia and progressive confusion. After her death and autopsy, Alzheimer described histological alterations in her brain that later came to be known as amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (Figure 1). The case report was published in a psychiatric textbook some years later, and this peculiar and (at the time) seemingly rare illness was later named Alzheimer's disease...
June 4, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Jan Cosgrave, Ross Haines, Stuart Golodetz, Gordon Claridge, Katharina Wulff, Dalena van Heugten-van der Kloet
Insight problem solving is thought to underpin creative thought as it incorporates both divergent (generating multiple ideas and solutions) and convergent (arriving at the optimal solution) thinking approaches. The current literature on schizotypy and creativity is mixed and requires clarification. An alternate approach was employed by designing an exploratory web-based study using only correlates of schizotypal traits (paranoia, dissociation, cognitive failures, fantasy proneness, and unusual sleep experiences) and examining which (if any) predicted optimal performance on an insight problem-solving task...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
J Kuipers, G Moffa, E Kuipers, D Freeman, P Bebbington
BACKGROUND: Non-psychotic affective symptoms are important components of psychotic syndromes. They are frequent and are now thought to influence the emergence of paranoia and hallucinations. Evidence supporting this model of psychosis comes from recent cross-fertilising epidemiological and intervention studies. Epidemiological studies identify plausible targets for intervention but must be interpreted cautiously. Nevertheless, causal inference can be strengthened substantially using modern statistical methods...
May 29, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Emily S Finn, Philip R Corlett, Gang Chen, Peter A Bandettini, R Todd Constable
Individuals often interpret the same event in different ways. How do personality traits modulate brain activity evoked by a complex stimulus? Here we report results from a naturalistic paradigm designed to draw out both neural and behavioral variation along a specific dimension of interest, namely paranoia. Participants listen to a narrative during functional MRI describing an ambiguous social scenario, written such that some individuals would find it highly suspicious, while others less so. Using inter-subject correlation analysis, we identify several brain areas that are differentially synchronized during listening between participants with high and low trait-level paranoia, including theory-of-mind regions...
May 23, 2018: Nature Communications
Katarina Krkovic, Annika Clamor, Tania M Lincoln
Stress is associated with the development of mental disorders such as depression and psychosis. The ability to regulate emotions is likely to influence how individuals respond to and recover from acute stress, and may thus be relevant to symptom development. To test this, we investigated whether self-reported emotion regulation predicts the endocrine, autonomic, affective, and symptomatic response to and recovery from a stressor. Social-evaluative stress was induced by the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in N = 67 healthy individuals (53...
April 30, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Danish Imtiaz, Arshia Khan, Adriana Seelye
The goal of this project is to develop a novel and innovative mobile solution to address behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) that occur in individuals with Alzheimer's. BPSD can include agitation, restlessness, aggression, apathy, obsessive-compulsive and repetitive behaviors, hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and wandering. Alzheimer's currently affects 5.4 million adults in the United States and that number is projected to increase to 14 million by 2050. Almost 90% of all affected with AD experience BPSD, resulting in increased healthcare costs, heavier burden on caregivers, poor patient outcomes, early nursing home placement, long-term hospitalizations, and misuse of medications...
2018: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
Rebecca Jayne Stack, Alex Meredith
Single parent families are at high risk of financial hardship which may impact on psychological wellbeing. This study explored the impact of financial hardship on wellbeing on 15 single parents. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and analysed using constructivist thematic analysis. Participants described food and fuel poverty, and the need to make sacrifices to ensure that children's basic needs were met. In some cases, participants went without food and struggled to pay bills. Isolation, anxiety, depression, paranoia, and suicidal thoughts were described...
2018: Journal of Family and Economic Issues
Aditya Bardia, Ayca Gucalp, Noashir DaCosta, Nashat Gabrail, Michael Danso, Haythem Ali, Kimberly L Blackwell, Lisa A Carey, Joel R Eisner, Edwina S Baskin-Bey, Tiffany A Traina
PURPOSE: Seviteronel (INO-464) is an oral, selective cytochrome P450c17a (CYP17) 17,20-lyase (lyase) and androgen receptor inhibitor with in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor activity. This open-label phase 1 clinical study evaluated safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK), and activity of once-daily (QD) seviteronel in women with locally advanced or metastatic TNBC or ER+ breast cancer. METHODS: Seviteronel was administered in de-escalating 750, 600, and 450 mg QD 6-subject cohorts...
May 9, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Hongfang Li, Aimei Zhang, Yanlei Hao, Hongzhi Guan, Zhanyun Lv
RATIONALE: Autoimmune encephalitis and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome are classic paraneoplastic neurological conditions common in patients with small cell lung cancer. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient complained of tiredness, fluctuating recent memory loss, and inability to find his home. His family members reported a change in character, irritability, and paranoia. One month later, the patient had 1 grand mal seizure lasting 5 minutes. DIAGNOSIS: The patient was diagnosed with limbic encephalitis combined with Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Kiho Park, Kee-Hong Choi
This study examined whether better emotional context processing is associated with better community functioning among persons with schizophrenia, and whether the relationship between the two variables is moderated by level of paranoid symptoms. The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale-Expanded Version, Emotional Context Processing Scale, and Multnomah Community Ability Scale were administered to 39 community-dwelling participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Emotional context processing had a small-to-moderate association with community functioning...
April 26, 2018: Community Mental Health Journal
Mª C Díaz-González, Carolina Pérez Dueñas, Araceli Sánchez-Raya, Juan A Moriana Elvira, Vicente Sánchez Vázquez
BACKGROUND: Currently, there is a strong movement to implement mindfulness interventions with young people. The objective of this randomised clinical trial was to assess the potential effects of a mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) programme for adolescent outpatients in mental health facilities in Cordoba, Spain. METHOD: A total of 101 adolescents aged 13-16 years old, receiving psychological or psychiatric treatment for various disorders, were eligible for the study...
May 2018: Psicothema
David Hakizimana, Lars Poulsgaard, Kåre Fugleholm
Recurrent chemical meningitis from cyclic leakage of cyst content from a craniopharyngioma is a rare phenomenon. Here, we report a case of leaking cystic craniopharyngioma presenting with recurrent episodes of sterile meningitis, depression, and paranoia. The diagnosis after an initial craniotomy and exploration was hypophysitis. Signs and symptoms were not alleviated by puncture and biopsy of the tumour but they disappeared after complete resection with a final histological diagnosis of craniopharyngioma.
June 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
Briana J Hempel, Matthew M Clasen, Katharine H Nelson, Claudia J Woloshchuk, Anthony L Riley
Rising interest in medical marijuana has prompted research into its phytocannabinoid constituents, particularly Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). Coadministration of CBD with THC has been shown to modulate a number of THC's effects, including its negative stimulus properties (e.g., anxiety, paranoia, psychosis) in a clinical setting. The present series of experiments extended these analyses by examining the ability of CBD to impact the aversive effects of THC as assessed in a combined taste and place conditioning procedure...
April 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Lyn Ellett, Jess Kingston, Paul Chadwick
Consistent with a continuum approach to mental health, a growing body of research has established that paranoia occurs in the general population. The stress-vulnerability model would predict an association between environments high in threat and the presence of state paranoia, even in those with low dispositional trait paranoia. The present research examines whether urban cycling, a naturalistic environment high in interpersonal threat, is associated with state paranoia - operationalised as an explicit perception that other road users intend the agent harm...
March 23, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Oliver Pain, Frank Dudbridge, Alastair G Cardno, Daniel Freeman, Yi Lu, Sebastian Lundstrom, Paul Lichtenstein, Angelica Ronald
This study aimed to test for overlap in genetic influences between psychotic-like experience traits shown by adolescents in the community, and clinically-recognized psychiatric disorders in adulthood, specifically schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression. The full spectra of psychotic-like experience domains, both in terms of their severity and type (positive, cognitive, and negative), were assessed using self- and parent-ratings in three European community samples aged 15-19 years (Final N incl...
June 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Keri K Wong, Adrian Raine
Purpose of the Review: This review identifies the early developmental processes that contribute to schizotypy and suspiciousness in adolescence and adulthood. It includes the most recent literature on these phenomena in childhood. Recent Findings: The early developmental processes that affect schizotypy and paranoia in later life are complex. In contrast to existing studies of psychiatric patients and clinical/nonclinical adult populations, the study of schizotypy and suspiciousness in young children and adolescents is possible due to new child-appropriate dimensional assessments...
2018: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
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