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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469637/mental-illness-in-sweden-1896-1905-reflected-through-case-records-from-a-local-general-hospital
#1
Malin Appelquist, Louise Brådvik, Marie Åsberg
Mental illness in a hospital in a medium-sized town in Sweden was studied. Consecutive case records from 1896 to 1905, and also from 2011, were selected. In the historical sample, neurasthenia was the most common diagnosis, followed by affective disorders and alcohol abuse. ICD-10 diagnoses corresponded well with the historical diagnoses. Melancholia resembled modern criteria for depression. Mania, insania simplex and paranoia indicated more severe illness. Abuse was more common among men and hysteria among women...
February 1, 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460461/expressive-suppression-is-associated-with-state-paranoia-in-psychosis-an-experience-sampling-study-on-the-association-between-adaptive-and-maladaptive-emotion-regulation-strategies-and-paranoia
#2
Clara Marie Nittel, Tania Marie Lincoln, Fabian Lamster, Dirk Leube, Winfried Rief, Tilo Kircher, Stephanie Mehl
OBJECTIVES: Although emotional instability and problems in emotion regulation (ER) are known to be linked to the formation and maintenance of psychosis and paranoia, it remains unclear whether the use of specific ER strategies is associated with it. The first aim of the study was to explore the association between emotional instability and paranoia. The second and third aims were to investigate whether the use of maladaptive ER strategies leads to paranoia in patients with psychosis in daily life and whether the use of more adaptive ER strategies reduces paranoia...
February 20, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452128/are-sleep-disturbances-causally-linked-to-the-presence-and-severity-of-psychotic-like-dissociative-and-hypomanic-experiences-in-non-clinical-populations-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Jack Barton, Simon D Kyle, Filippo Varese, Steven H Jones, Gillian Haddock
The present review aimed to 1) identify what sleep disturbances co-occur alongside psychotic-like, dissociative and hypomanic experiences; 2) assess the strength of potential associations between the severity of sleep disturbances and of the experiences studied; and 3) appraise evidence for a causal link. MedLine and PsycInfo were searched and 44 studies were deemed eligible. Results showed that insomnia was associated with all individual psychotic-like, dissociative and hypomanic experiences reviewed (effect size range: small-to-large)...
February 13, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448863/mental-health-literacy-sub-clinical-personality-disorders-and-job-fit
#4
Adrian Furnham, Kelly Petropoulou
BACKGROUND: This study looked at lay theories of how people with sub-clinical personality disorders experience the world of work. AIMS: The aim was to investigate the paradox that subclinical and clinical personality disorders are seen as beneficial for success, rather than a handicap in certain jobs. METHODS: In all, 230 participants read 14 vignettes derived from Oldham and Morris's book describing DSMIII personality disorders for a popular audience...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429948/virtual-reality-based-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-versus-waiting-list-control-for-paranoid-ideation-and-social-avoidance-in-patients-with-psychotic-disorders-a-single-blind-randomised-controlled-trial
#5
Roos M C A Pot-Kolder, Chris N W Geraets, Wim Veling, Marije van Beilen, Anton B P Staring, Harm J Gijsman, Philippe A E G Delespaul, Mark van der Gaag
BACKGROUND: Many patients with psychotic disorders have persistent paranoid ideation and avoid social situations because of suspiciousness and anxiety. We investigated the effects of virtual-reality-based cognitive behavioural therapy (VR-CBT) on paranoid thoughts and social participation. METHODS: In this randomised controlled trial at seven Dutch mental health centres, outpatients aged 18-65 years with a DSM-IV-diagnosed psychotic disorder and paranoid ideation in the past month were randomly assigned (1:1) via block randomisation to VR-CBT (in addition to treatment as usual) or the waiting list control group (treatment as usual)...
February 8, 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427197/the-network-structure-of-paranoia-in-the-general-population
#6
Vaughan Bell, Ciarán O'Driscoll
PURPOSE: Bebbington and colleagues' influential study on 'the structure of paranoia in the general population' used data from the British National Psychiatric Morbidity Survey and latent variable analysis methods. Network analysis is a relatively new approach in psychopathology research that considers mental disorders to be emergent phenomena from causal interactions among symptoms. This study re-analysed the British National Psychiatric Morbidity Survey data using network analysis to examine the network structure of paranoia in the general population...
February 9, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401155/combined-nmda-inhibitor-use-in-a-patient-with-multisubstance-induced-psychotic-disorder
#7
Matteo Caloro, Giuseppa Calabrò, Eleonora de Pisa, Enrico Rosini, Georgios D Kotzalidis, Davide Lonati, Carlo Alessandro Locatelli, Pietro Papa, Fabrizio Schifano, Paolo Girardi
: Novel psychoactive substance use is a major social concern. Their use may elicit or uncover unpredictably as yet undescribed clinical pictures. We aimed to illustrate a multisubstance use case indistinguishable from paranoid schizophrenia, so to alert clinicians on possibly misdiagnosing substance-induced psychotic disorders. CASE REPORT: We describe a case of a 32-year-old man who started at 18 years with cannabinoids and ketamine, and is currently using N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399432/mistrustful-and-misunderstood-a-review-of-paranoid-personality-disorder
#8
Royce Lee
Purpose of review: Paranoid Personality Disorder (PPD) has historically been neglected by science out of proportion to its prevalence or its association with negative clinical outcomes. This review provides an update on what is known about PPD regarding its prevalence, demographics, comorbidity, biological mechanism, risk factors, and relationship to psychotic disorders. Recent Findings: PPD has long been the subject of a rich and prescient theoretical literature which has provided a surprisingly coherent account of the psychological mechanism of non-delusional paranoia...
June 2017: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398206/paranoia-and-anxiety-a-cluster-analysis-in-a-non-clinical-sample-and-the-relationship-with-worry-processes
#9
Xiaoqi Sun, Suzanne Ho-Wai So, Chui-De Chiu, Raymond Chor-Kiu Chan, Patrick Wing-Leung Leung
BACKGROUND: Worry processes are implicated in paranoia and anxiety. However, clinical studies focused on patients with co-occurring paranoia and anxiety. As both paranoia and anxiety are distributed across clinical and non-clinical groups, an investigation on worry processes among non-clinical individuals will allow us to delineate the specific worry mechanisms in paranoia and anxiety respectively. AIMS: To identify clusters of non-clinical individuals who report varied levels of paranoia and anxiety, and to compare worry processes across clusters...
February 1, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387267/a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-a-brief-online-mindfulness-based-intervention-on-paranoia-in-a-non-clinical-sample
#10
Robert Shore, Clara Strauss, Kate Cavanagh, Mark Hayward, Lyn Ellett
Paranoia is common and distressing in the general population and can impact on health, emotional well-being and social functioning, such that effective interventions are needed. Brief online mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have been shown to reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression in non-clinical samples; however, at present, there is no research investigating whether they can reduce paranoia. The current study explored whether a brief online MBI increased levels of mindfulness and reduced levels of paranoia in a non-clinical population...
2018: Mindfulness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384891/familial-risk-for-psychiatric-disorders-in-military-veterans-who-have-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-with-psychosis-a-retrospective-electronic-record-review
#11
Aengus ÓConghaile, Diane L Smedberg, Ah L Shin, Lynn E DeLisi
AIMS/OBJECTIVES/BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a leading cause of morbidity among military veterans, with up to one-in-five individuals with PTSD also having psychotic symptoms. The current study was designed to determine the association between a known family history of psychiatric illness and risk of developing psychosis in patients with PTSD. METHODS: Retrospective medical record review was performed on a cohort study of 414 consecutive individuals admitted to the Veteran Administration in 2014 with a diagnosis of military-related PTSD, but without a prior diagnosis of a psychotic disorder...
January 30, 2018: Psychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384872/the-psychological-results-of-438-patients-with-persisting-gerd-symptoms-by-symptom-checklist-90-revised-scl-90-r-questionnaire
#12
Ping Li, Fei Wang, Guo-Zhong Ji, Lin Miao, Sihong You, Xia Chen
Persisting gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms affect mental state and social activities and mental disorders likewise play a crucial role on GERD symptoms. The aim of this study was to analyze the data of Symptom Checklist by 90-Revised (SCL-90-R) questionnaire in patients with persisting GERD symptom and to explore the impact of psychological factors on them.The patients accepted SCL-90-R questionnaire survey, following endoscopy, high-resolution manometry (HRM) and ambulatory impedance-pH monitoring...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366847/emotion-regulation-as-a-moderator-of-the-interplay-between-self-reported-and-physiological-stress-and-paranoia
#13
Katarina Krkovic, Stephanie Krink, Tania M Lincoln
Experience sampling method (ESM) studies have found an association between daily stress and paranoid symptoms, but it is uncertain whether these findings generalize to physiological indicators of stress. Moreover, the temporality of the association and its moderating factors require further research. Here, we investigate whether physiological and self-rated daily stress predict subsequent paranoid symptoms and analyze the role of emotion regulation as a putative moderator. We applied ESM during 24 h to repeatedly assess heart rate, self-rated stress, and subclinical paranoia in a sample of 67 psychosis-prone individuals as measured with Community Assessment for Psychotic Experiences (CAPE)...
January 20, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343559/a-genetic-locus-for-paranoia
#14
Bernard Crespi, Silven Read, Iiro Salminen, Peter Hurd
The psychological effects of brain-expressed imprinted genes in humans are virtually unknown. Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurogenetic condition mediated by genomic imprinting, which involves high rates of psychosis characterized by hallucinations and paranoia, as well as autism. Altered expression of two brain-expressed imprinted genes, MAGEL2 and NDN, mediates a suite of PWS-related phenotypes, including behaviour, in mice. We phenotyped a large population of typical individuals for schizophrenia-spectrum and autism-spectrum traits, and genotyped them for the single-nucleotide polymorphism rs850807, which is putatively functional and linked with MAGEL2 and NDN Genetic variation in rs850807 was strongly and exclusively associated with the ideas of reference subscale of the schizophrenia spectrum, which is best typified as paranoia...
January 2018: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328019/amygdala-reactivity-in-ethnic-minorities-and-its-relationship-to-the-social-environment-an-fmri-study
#15
Robert McCutcheon, Michael A P Bloomfield, Tarik Dahoun, Marina Quinlan, Sylvia Terbeck, Mitul Mehta, Oliver Howes
BACKGROUND: Ethnic minority individuals have an increased risk of developing a psychotic disorder, particularly if they live in areas of ethnic segregation, or low own group ethnic density. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying this ethnic minority associated risk are unknown. We used functional MRI to investigate neural responses to faces of different ethnicity, in individuals of black ethnicity, and a control group of white British ethnicity individuals. METHODS: In total 20 individuals of black ethnicity, and 22 individuals of white British ethnicity underwent a 3T MRI scan while viewing faces of black and white ethnicity...
January 12, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304427/longitudinal-associations-of-temperament-and-character-with-paranoid-ideation-a-population-based-study
#16
Aino Saarinen, Tom Rosenström, Mirka Hintsanen, Christian Hakulinen, Laura Pulkki-Råback, Terho Lehtimäki, Olli T Raitakari, Claude Robert Cloninger, Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen
The aim of this study was to examine (a) the associations of temperament and character dimensions with paranoid ideation over a 15-year follow-up in the general population (b) the associations of explosive temperament and organized character profiles with paranoid ideation. 2137 subjects of the Young Finns Study completed the Temperament and Character Inventory and the Paranoid Ideation Scale of the Symptom Checklist-90 Revised in 1997, 2001, and 2012. Temperament dimensions of high novelty seeking, high harm avoidance, low reward dependence and explosive temperament profile were associated with the development of higher paranoid ideation...
December 21, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296031/dextromethorphan-in-cough-syrup-the-poor-man-s-psychosis
#17
Bridgette Martinak, Ramy A Bolis, Jeffrey Ryne Black, Rachel E Fargason, Badari Birur
Dextromethorphan (3-methoxy-N-methylmorphinan), also known as "DXM" and "the poor man's PCP," is a synthetically produced drug that is available in more than 140 over-the-counter cough and cold preparations. Dextromethorphan (DXM) has overtaken codeine as the most widely used cough suppressant due to its availability, efficacy, and safety profile at directed doses. However, DXM is subject to abuse. When consumed at inappropriately high doses (over 1500 mg/day), DXM can induce a state of psychosis characterized by Phencyclidine (PCP)-like psychological symptoms, including delusions, hallucinations, and paranoia...
September 15, 2017: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282872/psychotic-spectrum-symptoms-cumulative-adversity-exposure-and-substance-use-among-high-risk-girls
#18
Amy E Lansing, Wendy Y Plante, Christine Fennema-Notestine, Shahrokh Golshan, Audrey N Beck
AIM: Psychotic-spectrum symptoms are linked to trauma, substance/alcohol use (SAU), criminality/violence and poor functional outcomes, supporting the need for early detection in vulnerable populations. To better understand high-risk girls' mental health, we assessed: (1) psychotic-spectrum symptoms; (2) cumulative trauma, adversity and loss exposures (C-TALE) and adversity-indicators (symptoms, maladaptive coping, stressor-reactivity); and SAU risk-factors; and (3) relationships among psychotic-spectrum symptoms, adversity-indicators and SAU risk-factors...
December 28, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275216/mdpv-in-forensic-routine-cases-psychotic-and-aggressive-behavior-in-relation-to-plasma-concentrations
#19
Marco Diestelmann, Anna Zangl, Inge Herrle, Eva Koch, Matthias Graw, Liane D Paul
The new psychoactive substance 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) belongs to the group of synthetic cathinones and is purchased mainly as "research chemical" or "bath salt" on the illegal drug market, also in South Bavaria. MDPV was detected in blood and urine samples from 2010 on in 50 authentic routine cases in a forensic setting. Plasma concentrations in 46 cases with available blood specimens ranged from approximately 1.0 to 301μg/L (median 23.7; mean 47.9μg/L), detected by a fully validated LC-MS/MS method...
December 8, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29265096/-accessory-symptoms-of-schizophrenia-e-bleuler-s-concept
#20
N Yu Pyatnitskiy
The analysis of E. Bleuler's concept of accessory symptoms of schizophrenia: delusions, hallucinations, depersonalization disorders, splitting of the ego, memory disorders, catatonic symptoms and acute syndromes (manic and melancholic states, acute paranoia, twilight states, clouding of consciousness, confusion, fugues and dipsomania) is presented. The relationship of accessory symptoms with primary and secondary schizophrenic symptoms according to the second concept of E. Bleuler is highlighted. The mechanisms of the origin of psychopathological accessory symptoms and E...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
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