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Paranoia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092774/the-lonely-road-to-paranoia-a-path-analytic-investigation-of-loneliness-and-paranoia
#1
Fabian Lamster, Tania M Lincoln, Clara M Nittel, Winfried Rief, Stephanie Mehl
Loneliness and paranoia are related, but the mechanisms that link them to each other remain unclear. Systematic reviews on loneliness propose a social-cognitive model in which loneliness leads to negative evaluations of other persons and a lack of interpersonal trust. However, the data discussed in these reviews are based on healthy individuals. Building on this model, the present study investigated 1) whether negative interpersonal schemata mediate the association between loneliness and paranoia and 2) whether a low level of perceived social support and less frequent social contact are related to loneliness...
January 2, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075189/11-analytically-confirmed-cases-of-mexedrone-use-among-polydrug-users
#2
Liam Roberts, Loretta Ford, Neel Patel, J Allister Vale, Sally M Bradberry
INTRODUCTION: Mexedrone, 3-methoxy-2-(methylamino)-1-(4-methylphenyl)propan-1-one, is the alpha-methoxy-derivative of mephedrone (4-methyl-N-methyl cathinone). Mexedrone inhibits the re-uptake of serotonin and dopamine in a dose-dependent manner and has affinity for serotonin and dopamine membrane transporters and receptors (5-HT2 and D2 receptors), producing sympathomimetic effects similar to amfetamines. To date there are no published clinical reports on mexedrone use that are analytically confirmed...
January 11, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033512/the-beliefs-about-paranoia-scale-confirmatory-factor-analysis-and-tests-of-a-metacognitive-model-of-paranoia-in-a-clinical-sample
#3
Elizabeth K Murphy, Sarah Tully, Melissa Pyle, Andrew I Gumley, David Kingdon, Matthias Schwannauer, Douglas Turkington, Anthony P Morrison
This study aimed to confirm the factor structure of the Beliefs about Paranoia Scale (BaPS), a self-report measure to assess metacognitive beliefs about paranoia, and to test hypotheses of a metacognitive model. We hypothesised that positive and negative beliefs about paranoia would be associated with severity of suspiciousness, and that the co-occurrence of positive and negative beliefs would be associated with increased suspiciousness. A total of 335 patients meeting criteria for a schizophrenia spectrum disorder completed the BaPS, the Positive and Negative Syndromes Scale (PANSS), and the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales (PSYRATS)...
November 12, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029348/ethnic-identity-and-paranoid-thinking-implicit-out-group-preference-and-language-dominance-predict-paranoia-in-emirati-women
#4
Justin Thomas, Richard P Bentall, Lowri Hadden, Lily O'Hara
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Psychotic experiences including persecutory beliefs are elevated among immigrant and minority populations, especially when living in low ethnic density neighbourhoods (the ethnic density effect). Discrimination, victimization and experiencing a sense of 'not belonging' are hypothesized to play a role in this effect. Because a secure ethnic identity protects against poor self-esteem it may also protect against paranoia. This study explores the relationship between language proficiency (Arabic/English), in-group identity (implicit and explicit) and paranoia in female Emirati university students...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003468/the-clinical-features-of-paranoia-in-the-20th-century-and-their-representation-in-diagnostic-criteria-from-dsm-iii-through-dsm-5
#5
Kenneth S Kendler
This review traces, through psychiatric textbooks, the history of the Kraepelinian concept of paranoia in the 20th century and then relates the common reported symptoms and signs to the diagnostic criteria for paranoia/delusional disorder in DSM-III through DSM-5. Clinical descriptions of paranoia appearing in 10 textbooks, published 1899 to 1970, revealed 11 prominent symptoms and signs reported by 5 or more authors. Three symptoms (systematized delusions, minimal hallucinations, and prominent ideas of reference) and 2 signs (chronic course and minimal affective deterioration) were reported by 8 or 9 of the authors...
December 21, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001137/covert-medications-act-of-compassion-or-conspiracy-of-silence
#6
Robert C Macauley
As the population in the United States gets older, more people suffer from dementia, which often causes neuropsychiatric symptoms such as agitation and paranoia. This can lead patients to refuse medications, prompting consideration of covert administration (that is, concealing medication in food or drink). While many condemn this practice as paternalistic, deceptive, and potentially harmful, the end result of assuming the "moral high ground" can be increased suffering for patients and families. This article addresses common criticisms of covert medication and presents a detailed algorithm by which to determine whether the practice is ethically permissible in specific cases...
2016: Journal of Clinical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997328/pathological-jealousy-an-interactive-condition
#7
Mary V Seeman
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to describe the psychopathology, antecedents, and current management of pathological jealousy from an interpersonal perspective. METHOD: The Google Scholar database was searched with the following terms: delusional jealousy; morbid jealousy; paranoid jealousy; pathological jealousy; Othello syndrome; delusional disorder-jealous type; conjugal paranoia. From a total of 600 articles, 40 were selected based on their currency and pertinence to the interpersonal aspects of jealousy...
2016: Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990352/paranoid-individuals-with-schizophrenia-show-greater-social-cognitive-bias-and-worse-social-functioning-than-non-paranoid-individuals-with-schizophrenia
#8
Amy E Pinkham, Philip D Harvey, David L Penn
Paranoia is a common symptom of schizophrenia that may be related to how individuals process and respond to social stimuli. Previous investigations support a link between increased paranoia and greater social cognitive impairments, but these studies have been limited to single domains of social cognition, and no studies have examined how paranoia may influence functional outcome. Data from 147 individuals with schizophrenia were used to examine whether actively paranoid and non-paranoid individuals with schizophrenia differ in social cognition and functional outcomes...
March 2016: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979698/social-cognition-and-paranoia-in-forensic-inpatients-with-schizophrenia-a-cross-sectional-study
#9
Helen Bratton, Suzanne O'Rourke, Louise Tansey, Paul Hutton
BACKGROUND: People diagnosed with schizophrenia have difficulties in emotion recognition and theory of mind, and these may contribute to paranoia. The aim of this study was to determine whether this relationship is evident in patients residing in a secure forensic setting. METHOD: Twenty-seven male participants with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and a history of offending behaviour were assessed using The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT), The Ambiguous Intentions Hostility Questionnaire (AIHQ) and The Green et al...
December 12, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974999/eszopiclone-induced-parasomnia-with-suicide-attempt-a-case-report
#10
J Gibson Pennington, Jeffrey Guina
Eszopiclone is a benzodiazepine-like hypnotic that is commonly prescribed to treat insomnia. However, eszopiclone's efficacy has been questionable in several clinical trials, and its pharmacologic profile makes its effects on sleep and behavior difficult to predict. We report a case demonstrating an instance of eszopiclone-induced parasomnia involving paranoia and a suicide attempt in a patient taking eszopiclone. We explore possible biochemical explanations examining the pharmacologic profile of eszopiclone and its potential for drug-drug interactions, especially with concomitant administration of monoaminergic medications such as antidepressants...
September 2016: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27969065/cross-cultural-variations-in-psychiatrists-perception-of-mental-illness-a-tool-for-teaching-culture-in-psychiatry
#11
Jhilam Biswas, B N Gangadhar, Matcheri Keshavan
A frequent debate in psychiatry is to what extent major psychiatric diagnoses are universal versus unique across cultures. We sought to identify cultural variations between psychiatrists' diagnostic practices of mental illness in Boston Massachusetts and Bangalore, India. We surveyed psychiatrists to identify differences in how frequently symptoms appear in major mental illness in two culturally and geographically different cities. Indian psychiatrists found somatic symptoms like pain, sleep and appetite to be significantly more important in depression and violent and aggressive behavior to be significantly more common in mania than did American psychiatrists...
October 2016: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941376/paraneoplastic-syndrome-with-anti-nmdar-encephalitis-associated-with-ovarian-teratomas
#12
Puskar Pattanayak, Lilja B Solnes
We report on a 33-year-old woman who had a paraneoplastic syndrome with anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis, associated with ovarian teratomas. She presented with acute onset seizures, grandiosity, elevated mood, disorganized thoughts, and paranoia. Cerebral spinal fluid analysis revealed anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antibodies. A PET/CT was requested, which identified a possible fat and calcification containing right adnexal lesion on the noncontrast CT portion, which was suspicious for a teratoma...
December 9, 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936880/-everyday-suspicion-our-life-is-delusional
#13
Zoltán Janka
Suspicious thinking in given situations can be useful and helps the adaptation as events occurring in the world also corroborate this. Factors participating in the development of paranoia can be listed as psychodynamic (projection), salience attributional, neurobiological (dopamine), impaired perceptual (hearing loss), sociocultural (minority, pseudocommunity), self-esteem (worrying, depression, mania), and cognitive (jump-to-conclusion) mechanisms. Along the spectrum of thinking, from the mild to the severe, enhanced worrying, salience attribution, overvalued concepts, suspicion/mistrust, paranoid ideations, and crystallized delusions may occur with different contents...
December 2016: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935733/correction-to-kane-et-al-2016
#14
Michael J Kane, Matt E Meier, Bridget A Smeekens, Georgina M Gross, Charlotte A Chun, Paul J Silvia, Thomas R Kwapil
Reports an error in "Individual differences in the executive control of attention, memory, and thought, and their associations with schizotypy" by Michael J. Kane, Matt E. Meier, Bridget A. Smeekens, Georgina M. Gross, Charlotte A. Chun, Paul J. Silvia and Thomas R. Kwapil (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 2016[Aug], Vol 145[8], 1017-1048). There were errors in Table 3 and Table 7 (these transcription errors were limited to descriptive statistics in the Tables and did not affect any inferential statistics)...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902586/neurological-psychological-and-cognitive-disorders-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-on-conservative-and-replacement-therapy
#15
Silvia Lai, Oriano Mecarelli, Patrizia Pulitano, Roberto Romanello, Leonardo Davi, Alessia Zarabla, Amalia Mariotti, Maria Carta, Giorgia Tasso, Luca Poli, Anna Paola Mitterhofer, Massimo Testorio, Nicla Frassetti, Paola Aceto, Alessandro Galani, Carlo Lai
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a highly prevalent condition in the world. Neurological, psychological, and cognitive disorders, related to CKD, could contribute to the morbidity, mortality, and poor quality of life of these patients. The aim of this study was to assess the neurological, psychological, and cognitive imbalance in patients with CKD on conservative and replacement therapy.Seventy-four clinically stable patients affected by CKD on conservative therapy, replacement therapy (hemodialysis (HD), peritoneal dialysis (PD)), or with kidney transplantation (KT) and 25 healthy controls (HC), matched for age and sex were enrolled...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901521/electronic-cigarette-use-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-prevalence-and-attitudes
#16
Brian J Miller, Alexandre Wang, Joyce Wong, Nina Paletta, Peter F Buckley
BACKGROUND: Smoking is highly prevalent in patients with schizophrenia. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are becoming increasingly popular among smokers. Surveys indicate overall favorable attitudes toward the use of e-cigarettes to reduce or quit smoking, relieve withdrawal symptoms, and with respect to perceived health risks; however, less is known about their use in patients with schizophrenia. In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of and attitudes toward e-cigarettes in patients with schizophrenia...
November 1, 2016: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880771/differences-in-connection-strength-between-mental-symptoms-might-be-explained-by-differences-in-variance-reanalysis-of-network-data-did-not-confirm-staging
#17
Berend Terluin, Michiel R de Boer, Henrica C W de Vet
BACKGROUND: The network approach to psychopathology conceives mental disorders as sets of symptoms causally impacting on each other. The strengths of the connections between symptoms are key elements in the description of those symptom networks. Typically, the connections are analysed as linear associations (i.e., correlations or regression coefficients). However, there is insufficient awareness of the fact that differences in variance may account for differences in connection strength...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856683/the-challenging-experience-questionnaire-characterization-of-challenging-experiences-with-psilocybin-mushrooms
#18
Frederick S Barrett, Matthew P Bradstreet, Jeannie-Marie S Leoutsakos, Matthew W Johnson, Roland R Griffiths
Acute adverse psychological reactions to classic hallucinogens ("bad trips" or "challenging experiences"), while usually benign with proper screening, preparation, and support in controlled settings, remain a safety concern in uncontrolled settings (such as illicit use contexts). Anecdotal and case reports suggest potential adverse acute symptoms including affective (panic, depressed mood), cognitive (confusion, feelings of losing sanity), and somatic (nausea, heart palpitation) symptoms. Responses to items from several hallucinogen-sensitive questionnaires (Hallucinogen Rating Scale, the States of Consciousness Questionnaire, and the Five-Dimensional Altered States of Consciousness questionnaire) in an Internet survey of challenging experiences with the classic hallucinogen psilocybin were used to construct and validate a Challenging Experience Questionnaire...
December 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853447/corrigendum-paranoia-as-an-antecedent-and-consequence-of-getting-ahead-in-organizations-time-lagged-effects-between-paranoid-cognitions-self-monitoring-and-changes-in-span-of-control
#19
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829400/is-schizophrenia-disappearing-the-rise-and-fall-of-the-diagnosis-of-functional-psychoses-an-essay
#20
Per Bergsholm
BACKGROUND: The categories of functional psychoses build on views of influential professionals. There have long been four main categories - affective, schizophrenic, schizoaffective/cycloid/reactive/polymorphic, and delusional/paranoid psychoses. The last three are included in "psychotic disorders". However, this dichotomy and the distinctions between categories may have been over-estimated and contributed to lack of progress. TEN TOPICS RELEVANT FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF FUNCTIONAL PSYCHOSES: 1...
November 9, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
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