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Paranoia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828697/metacognitive-training-in-patients-recovering-from-a-first-psychosis-an-experience-sampling-study-testing-treatment-effects
#1
Karin Pos, Carin J Meijer, Oukje Verkerk, Onno Ackema, Lydia Krabbendam, Lieuwe de Haan
Cognitive biases, negative affect and negative self-esteem are associated with paranoia in people with psychotic disorders. Metacognitive group training (MCT) aims to target these biases although research has shown mixed results. Our objective was to establish the effect of MCT on paranoid ideation in patients with recent onset psychosis in a powerful experience sampling design. 50 patients between the age of 18 and 35 were included in a single-blind, parallel group RCT comparing MCT with occupational therapy (OT) as an active control condition...
August 21, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816222/an-outlier-in-public-health-history-in-india-a-t-w-simeons-s-scheme-for-rural-medical-relief-kolhapur-1943-47
#2
Shubhada Pandya
It is customary to date provision of health services in rural India to the Report of the Bhore Committee (1946) and its descendants. It is presumed that in pre-Bhore India (the last half-century of the British era) the rural public health scenario was devoid of discerning commentators and practical effort. The presumption is misleading. Historical material shows that attempts, official and non-official, to improve rural environments and attend to the health problems of villagers were not wanting. Such efforts followed two main, sometimes intersecting, streams, namely sanitation and medical relief...
March 2017: National Medical Journal of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781400/neuroticism-is-associated-with-challenging-experiences-with-psilocybin-mushrooms
#3
Frederick S Barrett, Matthew W Johnson, Roland R Griffiths
OBJECTIVES: Classic hallucinogens (e.g. psilocybin and LSD) have substantial effects on perception, cognition, and emotion that can often be psychologically challenging, however we know very little regarding the source of significant individual variability that has been observed in the frequency and intensity of challenging experiences (i.e. "bad trips") with psychedelics. Previous clinical and observational literature suggests that there may be an association between neuroticism and challenging psychedelic experiences...
October 15, 2017: Personality and Individual Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769826/posttraumatic-reactions-to-psychosis-a-qualitative-analysis
#4
Weili Lu, Kim T Mueser, Stanley D Rosenberg, Philip T Yanos, Neisrein Mahmoud
The current study aimed to evaluate the potentially traumatic aspects of psychotic symptoms and psychiatric treatment of psychosis using qualitative methods. Participants included 63 people with first episode psychosis or multiple psychotic episodes recruited from an inpatient psychiatric unit and an urban state psychiatric hospital in the North East region of the United States. Quasi-structured interviews were used to explore those aspects of symptoms and treatment that were perceived as traumatic Emotional reactions to the most traumatic aspect of symptoms and treatment, during and after the event, were also examined...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735169/aberrant-link-between-empathy-and-social-attribution-style-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#5
Philipp Homan, Marianne C Reddan, Tobias Brosch, Harold W Koenigsberg, Daniela Schiller
In social interactions, we often need to quickly infer why other people do what they do. More often than not, we infer that behavior is a result of personality rather than circumstances. It is unclear how the tendency itself may contribute to psychopathology and interpersonal dysfunction. Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by severe interpersonal dysfunction. Here, we investigated if this dysfunction is related to the tendency to over-attribute behaviors to personality traits. Healthy controls and patients with BPD judged positive and negative behaviors presented within a situational constraint during functional magnetic resonance imaging...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715666/cognitive-affective-and-social-factors-maintaining-paranoia-in-adolescents-with-mental-health-problems-a-longitudinal-study
#6
Jessica C Bird, Felicity Waite, Eleanor Rowsell, Emma C Fergusson, Daniel Freeman
Paranoia may be a significant concern during adolescence, but there has been little research on excessive mistrust in young people. In this longitudinal study we set out to test the predictive ability of a number of cognitive, affective, and social factors in the early development of paranoia in a clinical adolescent population. Thirty four help-seeking adolescents, aged 11-16 years, reporting paranoid thoughts and attending mental health services were recruited. Self-report and interview assessments of paranoia were conducted at baseline...
July 13, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712041/nightmares-in-the-general-population-identifying-potential-causal-factors
#7
Stephanie Rek, Bryony Sheaves, Daniel Freeman
BACKGROUND: Nightmares are inherently distressing, prevent restorative sleep, and are associated with a number of psychiatric problems, but have rarely been the subject of empirical study. Negative affect, linked to stressful events, is generally considered the key trigger of nightmares; hence nightmares have most often been considered in the context of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, many individuals with heightened negative affect do not have nightmares. The objective of this study was to identify mechanistically plausible factors, beyond negative affect, that may explain why individuals experience nightmares...
July 15, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711798/psychotic-like-experiences-and-happiness-in-the-english-general-population
#8
Ai Koyanagi
BACKGROUND: Psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) have been associated with a variety of adverse outcomes but how they affect happiness in individuals with PLE is unknown. Thus, the aim of the study was to assess the association between PLEs and happiness, and the factors that may influence this association. METHODS: Nationally representative data from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey including adults aged ≥ 16 years was analyzed. The Psychosis Screening Questionnaire was used to assess past 12-month PLE...
November 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702987/quality-of-life-and-psychological-disturbances-in-adults-with-atopic-dermatitis-in-the-czech-republic
#9
E Březinová, M Nečas, V Vašků
Atopic dermatitis (AD) leads to severe psychosocial disturbances that are quite frequently underestimated. We evaluate the quality of life (QoL) of adult patients with AD and their family members using DLQI, B-IPQ, FDLQI questionnaires, observe psychopathological features with CAQ II questionnaire and evaluate correlations between QoL, psychological disturbances and objective/subjective parameters of disease severity. A reduction in QoL has been proven by all questionnaires with statistically significant relationships between all of them...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674445/paranoia-and-the-social-representation-of-others-a-large-scale-game-theory-approach
#10
Nichola J Raihani, Vaughan Bell
Current definitions of paranoia include two key components: unfounded ideas of harm and the idea that the harm is intended by others. However, attributions of harmful intent have been poorly studied and mainly using artificial scenarios rather than participation in genuine social interactions where genuine resources are at stake. Using a large non-clinical population (N = 3229) recruited online, we asked people to complete a measure of paranoid ideation before playing a modified Dictator Game, where the 'dictator' can allocate money to the partner (the 'receiver')...
July 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670128/clinical-features-of-limbic-encephalitis-with-lgi1-antibody
#11
Meiling Wang, Xiaoyu Cao, Qingxin Liu, Wenbin Ma, Xiaoqian Guo, Xuewu Liu
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyze the clinical manifestation, course, evolution, image manifestation, and treatments of LGI1 limbic encephalitis (LE). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Studies confirmed that LE with the complex antibody of voltage-gated potassium channels is LGI1 LE. Since then, LE cases have been reported. In this study, 10 typical LE cases were searched in PubMed. These cases and one additional case, which we reported herein, were retrospectively analyzed...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670127/suicide-and-lyme-and-associated-diseases
#12
Robert C Bransfield
PURPOSE: The aim of this paper is to investigate the association between suicide and Lyme and associated diseases (LAD). No journal article has previously performed a comprehensive assessment of this subject. INTRODUCTION: Multiple case reports and other references demonstrate a causal association between suicidal risk and LAD. Suicide risk is greater in outdoor workers and veterans, both with greater LAD exposure. Multiple studies demonstrate many infections and the associated proinflammatory cytokines, inflammatory-mediated metabolic changes, and quinolinic acid and glutamate changes alter neural circuits which increase suicidality...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662715/cognitive-bias-modification-for-paranoia-cbm-pa-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#13
Jenny Yiend, Antonella Trotta, Christopher Meek, Ilvana Dzafic, Nora Baldus, Bryony Crane, Thomas Kabir, Daniel Stahl, Margaret Heslin, Sukhwinder Shergill, Philip McGuire, Emmanuelle Peters
BACKGROUND: Persecutory delusions are the most common type of delusions in psychosis and present in around 10-15% of the general population. Persecutory delusions are thought to be sustained by biased cognitive and emotional processes. Recent advances favour targeted interventions, focussing on specific symptoms or mechanisms. Our aim is to test the clinical feasibility of a novel psychological intervention, which manipulates biased interpretations toward more adaptive processing, in order to reduce paranoia in patients...
June 29, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653442/attachment-and-dissociation-as-mediators-of-the-link-between-childhood-trauma-and-psychotic-experiences
#14
Josie Pearce, Jane Simpson, Katherine Berry, Sandra Bucci, Andrew Moskowitz, Filippo Varese
Exposure to childhood trauma has been implicated in the development of paranoia and hearing voices, but the mechanisms responsible for these associations remain unclear. Understanding these mechanisms is essential for ensuring that targeted interventions can be developed to better support people experiencing distress associated with paranoia and voices. Recent models have proposed that dissociation may be a mechanism specifically involved in the development of voices and insecure attachment in the development of paranoia...
June 27, 2017: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635534/exploring-premenstrual-dysphoric-disorder-pmdd-in-the-work-context-a-qualitative-study
#15
Claire Hardy, Jenna Hardie
This study aims to explore women's experience of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) in the workplace, and identify if organizations can do anything to help. Analysis of 15 semi-structured interviews, using an inductive thematic analysis approach, revealed the most common symptoms women experience at work include difficulty in concentrating, self-doubt, paranoia, fatigue, tearfulness, a heightened sensitivity to the environment and people, outbursts, and finding social interaction particularly difficult during this premenstrual "episode" phase...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631397/the-effects-and-toxicity-of-cathinones-from-the-users-perspectives-a-qualitative-study
#16
Sulaf Assi, Nargilya Gulyamova, Paul Kneller, David Osselton
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to explore the users' perspectives regarding the effects and toxicity of cathinones. METHODS: A systematic search of Internet discussion forums yielded 303 threads relevant to the research objectives. The threads were analysed by conventional content analysis where concepts were developed from codes and themes. RESULTS: The study identified 3 main themes in relation to cathinone use, effects, and toxicity...
May 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578719/stress-sensitivity-in-paranoia-poor-me-paranoia-protects-against-the-unpleasant-effects-of-social-stress
#17
A Udachina, R P Bentall, F Varese, G Rowse
BACKGROUND: The attributional theory of paranoia suggests that paranoid beliefs may protect individuals from low self-esteem and distress (Bentall et al. 2001). The current study tested this theory by investigating a hypothesis that paranoid beliefs in combination with low perceived deservedness of persecution (poor-me beliefs) confer protection against the distress caused by social but not activity related stress. METHODS: Paranoid symptoms, perceived deservedness of persecution, self-esteem, mood, and stress levels of individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (N = 91) and healthy controls (N = 52) were assessed in the context of daily life using the experience sampling method...
June 5, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558615/religious-fundamentalism-humor-and-treatment-outcomes-in-individuals-in-court-mandated-substance-abuse-outpatient-treatment
#18
William R Holcomb, William S Ivey
The relationship between religious fundamentalism, humor, and psychological well-being was examined with a sample of individuals ( n = 109) being treated for drug abuse in a court-mandated AA outpatient program. Three separate factors of religious fundamentalism were found through exploratory factor analysis of the Revised Religious Fundamentalism Scale, and these were named Righteous-Evil Worldview, True Religion, and Scriptural Literalism. Psychological well-being of individuals in court-mandated outpatient substance abuse treatment was found to be correlated with high levels of humor but not religious fundamentalism...
June 2017: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548578/emotional-cognitive-and-behavioral-reactions-to-paranoid-symptoms-in-clinical-and-nonclinical-populations
#19
Célia Barreto Carvalho, Carolina da Motta, José Pinto-Gouveia, Ermelindo Manuel Bernardo Peixoto
BACKGROUND: Paranoia is a disruptive belief that can vary across a continuum, ranging from persecutory delusions presented in clinical settings to paranoid cognitions that are highly prevalent in the general population. The literature suggests that paranoid thoughts derive from the activation of a paranoid schema or information processing biases that can be sensitive to socially ambiguous stimuli and influence the processing of threatening situations. METHODS: Four groups (schizophrenic participants in active psychotic phases, n=61; stable participants in remission, n=30; participants' relatives, n=32; and, healthy controls, n=64) were assessed with self-report questionnaires to determine how the reactions to paranoia of clinical patients differ from healthy individuals...
December 0: Clinical Schizophrenia & related Psychoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469582/exploring-the-intersections-of-trauma-structural-adversity-and-psychosis-among-a-primarily-african-american-sample-a-mixed-methods-analysis
#20
Cherise Rosen, Nev Jones, Eleanor Longden, Kayla A Chase, Mona Shattell, Jennifer K Melbourne, Sarah K Keedy, Rajiv P Sharma
Traumatic life events (TLEs) have been associated with multiple psychiatric diagnoses, including anxiety disorders, major depression, PTSD, and psychosis. To advance our understanding of the complex interactions between forms of adversity as they manifest across the lifespan, psychosis, and symptom content, we undertook a mixed-methods investigation of TLEs and psychosis. Our research explored the association between cumulative exposures, type of TLE, and proximity to the traumatic event and psychosis; the association between TLEs and clinical symptomology including specific types of delusions and/or hallucinations; and how qualitative data further inform understanding of complex relationships and patterns of past trauma and symptoms as they unfold over time...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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