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Verity Statham, Lisa-Marie Emerson, Georgina Rowse
Paranoia can be conceptualized as consisting of a hierarchy of cognitions, ranging from commonly experienced thoughts about less severe perceived threats, up to less common, persecutory thoughts about extreme threats, which are associated with distressing psychosis. This review systematically appraises self-report paranoia questionnaires validated for use among the general population; the type of paranoia assessed, measurement or psychometric properties, and subsequent validation with clinical samples are all considered...
September 20, 2018: Psychological Assessment
Vanessa Saalfeld, Zeina Ramadan, Vaughan Bell, Nichola J Raihani
The ability to attribute intentions to others is a hallmark of human social cognition but is altered in paranoia. Paranoia is the most common positive symptom of psychosis but is also present to varying degrees in the general population. Epidemiological models suggest that psychosis risk is associated with low social rank and minority status, but the causal effects of status and group affiliation on paranoid thinking remain unclear. We examined whether relative social status and perceived group affiliation, respectively, affect live paranoid thinking using two large- N ( N  = 2030), pre-registered experiments...
August 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Sarah Reeve, Alecia Nickless, Bryony Sheaves, Daniel Freeman
Insomnia has been shown to contribute to the development of psychotic experiences, predominantly via increasing negative affect. However, the role of insomnia in the persistence of psychotic experiences is yet to be investigated in a clinical population. Furthermore, other plausible influences, such as psychotic experiences contributing to insomnia, remain to be evaluated. This study tests the role of insomnia as a predictor of persistence of psychotic experiences versus other potential causal routes. Twenty-nine patients aged 18-30 with non-affective psychosis completed three assessments over three months of their insomnia, negative affect, and psychotic experiences...
August 25, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Tobias E Hillmann, Marcel Riehle, Tania M Lincoln
The vigilance-avoidance hypothesis of paranoia states that in paranoia visual attention is shifted away from threat-related stimuli. This may be an explanation for reduced scanning of salient facial features in psychosis and subsequently impaired emotion recognition. Here, we explored whether higher levels of paranoia would predict reduced visual attention to salient facial features and impaired emotion recognition and whether reduced visual attention to salient facial features mediates the association between paranoia and errors in emotion recognition...
August 16, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Lauren Hood
Cannabis, or the dried leaves, stems, and seeds of the hemp plant Cannabis sativa, is the most widely used illicit drug in America. Typically smoked, vaporized or ingested orally, cannabis is used primarily for recreational purposes, though a few synthetic cannabinoids have been approved for medicinal treatments. Psychoactive cannabinoids, or the pharmacologically active compounds within cannabis, are responsible for producing the infamous "high" sensation, characterized by feelings of euphoria and relaxation, though can also provoke hallucinations, paranoia and anxiety...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Rebecca Butler, Katherine Berry, Lyn Ellett, Sandra Bucci
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Interpersonal stress is key to the development and maintenance of paranoia. Much attention has been given to the impact of interpersonal stressors, such as criticism, on outcomes in psychosis. Less attention has been given to the potentially protective effects of positive interpersonal factors. This study tested experimentally whether criticism and warm comments elicited changes in state paranoia. Whether warm comments provided protective effects when participants faced subsequent social exclusion was also examined...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Donald W Black, Nancee Blum, Jeff Allen
We examined which items on the Borderline Evaluation of Severity Over Time and the Zanarini Rating Scale for Borderline Personality Disorder improved during participation in Systems Training for Emotional Predictability and Problem Solving (STEPPS). Data on 193 subjects from two independent sources were included: (1) a randomized controlled trial at an academic medical centre and (2) uncontrolled data from Iowa's correctional system. STEPPS effect size was estimated by contrasting effect size for those in the randomized controlled trial assigned to STEPPS + treatment as usual to effect size for those assigned to treatment as usual alone...
August 28, 2018: Personality and Mental Health
Mariamne Rose, Lyn Ellett, Vyv Huddy, Gary P Brown
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Quality of reasoning within non-clinical paranoia and mental simulation of future paranoia themed events was investigated by use of a simulation task to determine whether paranoid individuals would be restricted or more adept at reasoning about paranoia relevant material in comparison to a social anxiety group and a group with low paranoia and social anxiety. METHOD: Participants (N = 63) were divided into the three groups based on paranoia and social anxiety scores...
August 21, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Regina Espinosa, Carmen Valiente, Filippo Varese, Richard P Bentall
There is a need to develop novel interventions for psychosis, targeted at specific psychological mechanisms. We used a classical conditioning paradigm to a) modify implicit self-esteem and b) examine subsequent effects on subclinical psychotic symptoms measured by the Experience Sampling Methodology. This study is a proof-of-concept pilot investigation conducted with 28 students with high paranoia levels, assessing variations in their self-esteem, paranoid beliefs, and subclinical psychotic symptoms daily. After 2 days, participants were randomized to receive either a positive conditioning task (repeatedly pairing self-relevant words with an image of a smiling face) or a neutral conditioning task (repeatedly pairing self-relevant words with random smiling, angry, or neutral faces)...
September 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Bernard J Crespi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Biology Letters
Joseph O Baker, Samuel Stroope, Mark H Walker
Extensive literature in the social and medical sciences link religiosity to positive health outcomes. Conversely it is often assumed that secularity carries negative consequences for health; however, recent research outlining different types of secular individuals complicates this assumption. Using a national sample of American adults, we compare physical and mental health outcomes for atheists, agnostics, religiously nonaffiliated theists, and theistic members of organized religious traditions. Results indicate better physical health outcomes for atheists compared to other secular individuals and members of some religious traditions...
September 2018: Social Science Research
Askin Gülsen, Bülent Uygur
BACKGROUND: Smoking tobacco is believed to be common among patients with psychiatric disorders like anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, and affective disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychological symptoms of people without known psychiatric diseases who have freely decided to quit smoking. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was designed, and 124 healthy active-smokers (66 female) and 127 healthy non-smokers (61 female) were recruited. The symptom check list and Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) were used to assess psychological symptoms and nicotine addiction level...
July 31, 2018: Respiratory Care
Suzanne Ho-Wai So, Anson K C Chau, Emmanuelle R Peters, Joel Swendsen, Philippa A Garety, Shitij Kapur
INTRODUCTION: There is an ongoing debate about whether negative affect are consequences or triggers of paranoid thinking. It has also been suggested that aberrant salience is central to the development of delusions. This study modelled the moment-to-moment relationships between negative affect, aberrant salience, and paranoia in acute inpatients with psychosis. METHODS: Participants with active paranoid delusions were assessed using clinical rating scales and experience sampling method (ESM) over 14 days...
September 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Michal Hajdúk, Hans S Klein, Philip D Harvey, David L Penn, Amy E Pinkham
OBJECTIVE: Previous research has suggested that paranoia is associated with impaired social functioning in patients with schizophrenia and healthy individuals with high levels of paranoid ideation. This study analysed the relationship between paranoia and interpersonal functioning across the paranoia continuum using network analysis. METHOD: Levels of paranoid ideation and interpersonal functioning were measured in a non-clinical sample (N = 853) and in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (N = 226)...
July 20, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
Hussam Hindi, James L Lawrence
The patient was a 60-year-old male who initially presented to the emergency room with extreme agitation aggravated by internal stimuli as well as visual hallucinations, paranoia, and grandiose delusions. He was diagnosed with nonspecific schizophrenia and treated with risperidone, trazodone, and lithium. Approximately 16 months later, he was readmitted to the hospital trying to enter a stranger's car that he thought was his. He was confused and was unable to give an accurate history. His psychomotor retardation and confusion were thought to be due to risperidone...
May 10, 2018: Curēus
R Steinberg
BACKGROUND: Not only the circumstances of the simultaneous death of King Louis II and his psychiatrist Bernhard von Gudden on Pentecost 1886 are still the subject of controversial discussion but also the nature of Louis' mental illness and the expert report that formed the basis for removing Louis from power. RESULTS: When one considers the psychiatric knowledge of the time, however, it becomes clearer how the four experts who assessed Louis reached a diagnosis of paranoia (madness)...
July 11, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
Ellen M Leslie, Andrew Smirnov, Adrian Cherney, Helene Wells, Margot Legosz, Robert Kemp, Jake M Najman
BACKGROUND: Prior research indicates that patterns of combined alcohol and methamphetamine use may be associated with experiencing subjective feelings of aggression or hostility during methamphetamine use episodes. OBJECTIVES: This study examines whether subjective effects of methamphetamine use (i.e., aggression or hostility and paranoia) are associated with aggressive behavior while under the influence of any illicit drugs, controlling for combined alcohol and methamphetamine use and a number of other potential predictors...
December 6, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Alyssa Jongeneel, Roos Pot-Kolder, Jacqueline Counotte, Mark van der Gaag, Wim Veling
BACKGROUND: Higher liability to psychosis is associated with low self-esteem and increased sensitivity to social stress. Recently, we reported a positive relation between liability to psychosis and affective and psychotic responses to social stress. This study investigated how self-esteem moderates paranoia, peak subjective distress and stress reactivity of people with different psychosis liability in response to social stressors in virtual reality. METHODS: Ninety-four individuals with lower (41 siblings and 53 controls) and 75 persons with higher psychosis liability (55 with recent onset psychotic disorder and 20 at ultra-high risk for psychosis) explored five times a virtual café with various social stressors (crowdedness, ethnic minority status, and hostility)...
June 26, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Megan Cowles, Lorna Hogg
BACKGROUND: There is strong evidence to suggest that anxiety is associated with paranoia in clinical and non-clinical samples. However, no research to date has directly manipulated anxiety to investigate if state-anxiety has a causal role in state-paranoia in clinical populations. AIMS: To investigate whether an anxious-mood induction leads to greater paranoia than a neutral-mood induction in people experiencing psychosis and paranoia and, if so, whether this is predicted by anxiety over and above other variables...
June 25, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
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