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Paranoia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052952/factor-structure-of-the-cannabis-experiences-questionnaire-in-a-first-episode-psychosis-sample
#1
Michael L Birnbaum, Sean D Cleary, Claire Ramsay Wan, Luca Pauselli, Michael T Compton
AIM: The Cannabis Experiences Questionnaire (CEQ) was developed to measure the subjective experiences of cannabis use both during and after intoxication. Despite the need to better understand the nature of the complex and significant relationship between cannabis use and early psychosis, this questionnaire has rarely been used in individuals with first-episode psychosis. METHODS: We conducted a set of factor analyses using CEQ data from 194 first-episode psychosis patients who used cannabis in order to uncover the underlying factor structure of the questionnaire and thus the overarching types of psychological experiences during/after using cannabis in young people with psychotic disorders...
October 20, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052831/klingsor-syndrome-a-rare-surgical-emergency
#2
Gaurav Aggarwal, Samiran D Adhikary
Klingsor syndrome or self-Inflicted traumatic penile amputation is a rare clinical entity that is associated with psychiatric disorders, command hallucinations, religious preoccupations, substance abuse, and isolation from or neglect by society. In addition to being infrequently encountered, it is a rare surgical emergency, with paucity of data on appropriate and timely management to ensure optimal functional outcomes. We report the case of a 25-year-old unmarried male who inflicted this injury upon himself in a fit of paranoia as a way to expiate his sins and earn solace from God...
September 2017: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049381/a-structural-equation-model-of-the-relationship-between-insomnia-negative-affect-and-paranoid-thinking
#3
Alexander J Scott, Georgina Rowse, Thomas L Webb
BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence points to relationships between insomnia, negative affect, and paranoid thinking. However, studies are needed to examine (i) whether negative affect mediates the relation between insomnia and paranoid thinking, (ii) whether different types of insomnia exert different effects on paranoia, and (iii) to compare the impact of objective and self-reported sleeping difficulties. METHOD: Structural equation modelling was therefore used to test competing models of the relationships between self-reported insomnia, negative affect, and paranoia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040776/self-reported-cognitive-biases-moderate-the-associations-between-social-stress-and-paranoid-ideation-in-a-virtual-reality-experimental-study
#4
Roos Pot-Kolder, Wim Veling, Jacqueline Counotte, Mark van der Gaag
Introduction: Cognitive biases are associated with psychosis liability and paranoid ideation. This study investigated the moderating relationship between pre-existing self-reported cognitive biases and the occurrence of paranoid ideation in response to different levels of social stress in a virtual reality environment. Methods: This study included 170 participants with different levels of psychosis liability (55 recent onset psychosis, 20 ultrahigh risk for psychosis, 42 siblings of psychotic patients, and 53 controls)...
October 10, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039293/conflict-and-cooperation-in-paranoia-a-large-scale-behavioural-experiment
#5
N J Raihani, V Bell
BACKGROUND: Paranoia involves thoughts and beliefs about the harmful intent of others but the social consequences have been much less studied. We investigated whether paranoia predicts maladaptive social behaviour in terms of cooperative and punitive behaviour using experimental game theory paradigms, and examined whether reduced cooperation is best explained in terms of distrust as previous studies have claimed. METHODS: We recruited a large population sample (N = 2132) online...
October 17, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036519/distress-impairment-and-the-extended-psychosis-phenotype-a-network-analysis-of-psychotic-experiences-in-an-us-general-population-sample
#6
Jamie Murphy, Orla McBride, Eiko Fried, Mark Shevlin
It has been proposed that subclinical psychotic experiences (PEs) may causally impact on each other over time and engage with one another in patterns of mutual reinforcement and feedback. This subclinical network of experiences in turn may facilitate the onset of psychotic disorder. PEs, however, are not inherently distressing, nor do they inevitably lead to impairment. The question arises therefore, whether nondistressing PEs, distressing PEs, or both, meaningfully inform an extended psychosis phenotype. The current study first aimed to exploit valuable ordinal data that captured the absence, occurrence and associated impairment of PEs in the general population to construct a general population based severity network of PEs...
September 23, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031378/-terrorism-youth-ideals-and-paranoia
#7
Ariane Bilheran
Adolescence is a period of initiation during which individuals learn to free themselves from the hold of their impulses. Fanaticism prevents this process: the subject regresses into a paranoid-type sectarian and murderous way of functioning. The fanaticism of the adolescent could thereby be related to a distorted spiritual search for his or her purpose.
October 2017: Soins; la Revue de Référence Infirmière
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020647/body-image-and-paranoia
#8
Felicity Waite, Daniel Freeman
Paranoia builds upon feelings of vulnerability. Our clinical experience indicates that negative body image, including concerns regarding weight, may be one source of feeling vulnerable and hence raise the risk of paranoia. There has been no empirical test of an association between body image and paranoia. Our aim was to provide the first test of this issue by examining in epidemiologically representative cohorts the cross-sectional associations between paranoia and a proxy measure of body image. This was an initial exploration of a potentially important but overlooked issue...
October 3, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990447/psychotic-like-experiences-in-help-seeking-adolescents-dimensional-exploration-and-association-with-different-forms-of-bullying-victimization-a-developmental-social-psychiatry-perspective
#9
Gennaro Catone, Roberta Marotta, Simone Pisano, Belinda Lennox, Marco Carotenuto, Antonella Gritti, Antonio Pascotto, Matthew R Broome
BACKGROUND: Psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) are common in the general population and increase the risk of psychotic disorders. Adolescents are a high-risk group of this condition. Stressful events, such as bullying, have a role in the onset of PLEs. This study has several aims: (1) to assess PLEs in adolescents seeking help from a Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service, (2) to assess the association of PLEs with specific bullying victimization and (3) to assess difference in PLEs and victimizations by sex and age...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988046/testing-the-trower-and-chadwick-model-of-paranoia-is-poor-me-and-bad-me-paranoia-acting-as-a-defence
#10
Charles Marley, Jason Jones, Christopher A Jones
The study tested the predicted differences in phenomenology (self-esteem and depression) and insecurity of the subgroups of paranoia proposed by the Trower and Chadwick (1995) model of paranoia. Thirty-two inpatients experiencing persecutory delusions were assigned to either the poor me or bad me paranoid group. Questionnaire assessment of depression and self-esteem were conducted. A Dot Probe task measured detection latency (reaction time) to poor me words, bad me words and neutral words. The poor me and bad me groups displayed the predicted phenomenological differences...
September 28, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988044/adversity-and-persecutory-ideation-a-moderated-mediational-model
#11
Carmen Valiente, Regina Espinosa, Patricia Villavicencio, Dolores Cantero, Filiberto Fuentenebro
Adversity has been identified as an important factor in models of psychopathology and can help in understanding persecutory ideation, although potential moderators and mediators for adult psychopathology have not been sufficiently examined. Experiential avoidance (EA) and Self-esteem (SE) are relevant factors to understand how adversity leads to persecutory ideation. This study hypothesized that adversity would be associated with persecutory ideation through heightened EA, and that this association would be strengthened in individuals with a discrepant high SE...
September 24, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981888/social-identity-and-psychosis-associations-and-psychological-mechanisms
#12
Jason C McIntyre, Sophie Wickham, Ben Barr, Richard P Bentall
Humans possess a basic need to belong and will join groups even when they provide no practical benefit. Paranoid symptoms imply a disruption of the processes involved in belonging and social trust. Past research suggests that joining social groups and incorporating those groups into one's identity (social identification) promotes positive self-views and better physical and mental health. However, no research has investigated whether social identity is associated with paranoia, nor the mechanisms by which this effect may emerge...
August 26, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981834/disrupting-sleep-the-effects-of-sleep-loss-on-psychotic-experiences-tested-in-an-experimental-study-with-mediation-analysis
#13
Sarah Reeve, Richard Emsley, Bryony Sheaves, Daniel Freeman
Our view is that insomnia may be a causal factor in the occurrence of psychotic experiences such as paranoia and hallucinations. However, the causal relationship is not established. The aim of the study was to investigate the causal role of insomnia in psychotic experiences via a sleep restriction manipulation. The study was a within-subjects crossover design that included a planned mediation analysis. Sixty-eight nonclinical volunteers underwent a sleep loss condition (restricted to 4 h sleep for 3 nights) and a control condition (standard sleep) in randomized order in 2 consecutive weeks, with a weekend washout period...
August 4, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980830/interpersonal-subtypes-within-social-anxiety-the-identification-of-distinct-social-features
#14
Danielle Cooper, Timothy Anderson
Although social anxiety disorder is defined by anxiety-related symptoms, little research has focused on the interpersonal features of social anxiety. Prior studies (Cain, Pincus, & Grosse Holtforth, 2010; Kachin, Newman, & Pincus, 2001) identified distinct subgroups of socially anxious individuals' interpersonal circumplex problems that were blends of agency and communion, and yet inconsistencies remain. We predicted 2 distinct interpersonal subtypes would exist for individuals with high social anxiety, and that these social anxiety subtypes would differ on empathetic concern, paranoia, received peer victimization, perspective taking, and emotional suppression...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Personality Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980765/the-role-of-cognitive-and-metacognitive-factors-in-non-clinical-paranoia-and-negative-affect
#15
Rachel Sellers, Richard Emsley, Adrian Wells, Anthony P Morrison
OBJECTIVES: It is increasingly accepted that paranoia lies on a continuum of severity that can be observed in the general population. Several psychological factors have been implicated in the development of more distressing persecutory ideas including negative affect (i.e., anxiety and depression), beliefs about oneself and other people (i.e., schemas), and metacognitive beliefs. This study aimed to explore the combined role of cognition and metacognition in paranoia. Specifically, unhelpful metacognitive beliefs and schematic beliefs were tested as potential moderators of the relationship between non-clinical paranoid ideation and negative affect...
October 5, 2017: Psychology and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966601/the-lacanian-concept-of-paranoia-an-historical-perspective
#16
Thomas Lepoutre, Manoel L Madeira, Nicolas Guerin
This article seeks to reopen a major question raised by the Lacanian nosology of the psychoses, by looking closely at Lacan's formulations of what he never ceased referring to as "paranoia". While almost all classification systems of modern psychiatry, such as the ICD-10 and the DSM-5, have abandoned the specific category of paranoia, Lacan always viewed paranoia as a major category of "functional psychosis". He held that paranoia was a qualitatively different disorder than schizophrenia, and considered it to be the principal or exemplary form of psychosis...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964775/influence-of-physical-activity-on-addiction-parameters-of-rats-exposed-to-amphetamine-which-were-previously-supplemented-with-hydrogenated-vegetable-fat
#17
H J Segat, R C S Barcelos, V G Metz, H Z Rosa, Kr Roversi, C T D Antoniazzi, L T Vey, M Kronbauer, J C Veit, J C Piccolo, T Emanuelli, M E Burger
Amphetamine (AMPH) and its derivatives are addictive drugs used to promote and enhance alertness, motivation, willingness, courage and wellbeing. However, their chronic use is related to memory loss, emotional instability, insomnia, psychosis and paranoia. In the last decades, modern society has included processed foods, rich in trans fatty acids (TFA), in their diet, what has been related to several health problems including increased AMPH preference and self-administration. In this scenario, physical activity appears to be useful to attenuate rewarding symptoms related to addictive drugs mainly by affecting brain neuroplasticity and neurotransmission...
September 28, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959434/naltrexone-efficacy-in-treating-alcohol-use-disorder-in-individuals-with-comorbid-psychosis-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Martyna Sawicka, Derek K Tracy
BACKGROUND: Psychotic illnesses, such as schizophrenia, are typically enduring and disabling conditions, impacting individual, family, and societal outcomes. Individuals with these face greater vulnerabilities in developing alcohol-use disorder (AUD). Furthermore, the nature of psychoses, often manifesting with paranoia, cognitive impairment, a lack of insight, sub-optimal treatment adherence, and stigma from others, means that they can pose unique treatment challenges when these two conditions comorbidly occur...
September 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953785/personality-disorders-features-in-a-sample-of-women-with-perinatal-depression-in-perugia-italy
#19
Emanuela Lucarini, Luigi Attademo, Patrizia Moretti, Giulio Spollon, Sandro Elisei, Roberto Quartesan, Alfonso Tortorella
BACKGROUND: Antepartum depression (APD) and postpartum depression (PPD) are a significant public health problem. Aim of the study was to determine which personality disorders features could be found in women with APD and PPD compared to women without perinatal depression. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) were administered during peripartum to a sample of 54 women recruited at the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Unit, Perugia (Italy)...
September 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936010/dextromethorphan-in-cough-syrup-the-poor-man-s-psychosis
#20
Bridgette Martinak, Ramy A Bolis, Jeffrey Ryne Black, Rachel E Fargason, Badari Birur
Dextromethorphan (3-methoxy-N-methylmorphinan), also known as "DXM" and "the poor man's PCP," is a synthetically produced drug that is available in more than 140 over-the-counter cough and cold preparations. Dextromethorphan (DXM) has overtaken codeine as the most widely used cough suppressant due to its availability, efficacy, and safety profile at directed doses. However, DXM is subject to abuse. When consumed at inappropriately high doses (over 1500 mg/day), DXM can induce a state of psychosis characterized by Phencyclidine (PCP)-like psychological symptoms, including delusions, hallucinations, and paranoia...
September 15, 2017: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
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