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Vascular calcifications

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915968/magnesium-to-counteract-elastin-degradation-and-vascular-calcification-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#1
Rob Janssen
Accelerated elastin degradation is an important pathogenic mechanism in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) leading to irreversible lung function loss and cardiovascular comorbidities. The rate of elastin breakdown is a predictor of mortality in patients with COPD. Decelerating elastinolysis might be an attractive therapeutic target in this debilitating condition. Vascular calcification starts in the elastin network of the arterial wall and is enhanced in patients with COPD. Elastin calcification is accompanied by an upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase gene expression and consequently a shift in the elastase/anti-elastase balance towards degradation...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915881/high-density-lipoprotein-modulates-osteocalcin-expression-in-circulating-monocytes-a-potential-protective-mechanism-for-cardiovascular-disease-in-type-1-diabetes
#2
Ernesto Maddaloni, Yu Xia, Kyoungmin Park, Stephanie D'Eon, Liane J Tinsley, Ronald St-Louis, Mogher Khamaisi, Qian Li, George L King, Hillary A Keenan
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of mortality in type 1 diabetes (T1D). A pro-calcific drift of circulating monocytes has been linked to vascular calcification and is marked by the surface expression of osteocalcin (OCN). We studied OCN+ monocytes in a unique population with ≥50 years of T1D, the 50-Year Joslin Medalists (J50M). METHODS: CD45 bright/CD14+/OCN+ cells in the circulating mononuclear blood cell fraction were quantified by flow cytometry and reported as percentage of CD45 bright cells...
September 16, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912780/inflammatory-markers-for-arterial-stiffness-in-cardiovascular-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Ioana Mozos, Clemens Malainer, Jarosław Horbańczuk, Cristina Gug, Dana Stoian, Constantin Tudor Luca, Atanas G Atanasov
Arterial stiffness predicts an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Inflammation plays a major role in large arteries stiffening, related to atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, smooth muscle cell migration, vascular calcification, increased activity of metalloproteinases, extracellular matrix degradation, oxidative stress, elastolysis, and degradation of collagen. The present paper reviews main mechanisms explaining the crosstalk between inflammation and arterial stiffness and the most common inflammatory markers associated with increased arterial stiffness, considering the most recent clinical and experimental studies...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910802/effects-of-expanded-hemodialysis-therapy-on-clinical-outcomes
#4
Sandip Mitra, Kunaal Kharbanda
The invention of dialysis has been a phenomenal advance in the treatment of kidney failure. The introduction of artificial kidneys in clinical care remains one of the most successful lifesaving interventions in modern medicine. Its glory, however, has been tempered by poor long-term outcomes and a negative qualitative impact on the lives of patients who suffer from an extremely complex, burdensome, and restricted life on dialysis. There remains a huge gap in patient well-being and outcomes between artificial kidney treatments and kidney transplantation...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910789/end-stage-renal-disease-inflammation-and-cardiovascular-outcomes
#5
Lu Dai, Edyta Golembiewska, Bengt Lindholm, Peter Stenvinkel
Despite marked improvements in renal replacement therapy during the last 30 years, the age-adjusted mortality rate in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients is still unacceptably high and comparable to that of many malignancies. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the major cause of morbidity and mortality in ESRD patients. However, traditional risk factors can only partially explain the high premature cardiovascular burden in this population. Nontraditional risk factors, including persistent low-grade inflammation, are critical in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, vascular calcification, and other causes of CVD and may also contribute to protein-energy wasting and other complications in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902664/comparison-of-the-inhibitory-mechanisms-of-diethyl-citrate-sodium-citrate-and-phosphonoformic-acid-on-calcification-induced-by-high-inorganic-phosphate-contents-in-mouse-aortic-smooth-muscle-cells
#6
Jian-Ming Ouyang, Chao-Yang Duan, Chong-Yu Zhang, Xin-Yuan Sun, Bao-Song Gui, Da Guo
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the differences and inhibitory effects of diethyl citrate (Et2Cit), sodium citrate (Na3Cit), and phosphonoformic acid (PFA) on calcification induced by high inorganic phosphate (Pi) contents in mouse aortic smooth muscle cells (MOVAS) and to develop drugs that can induce anticoagulation and inhibit vascular calcification (VC). METHODS: Alive and fixed MOVAS were assessed for 14 days in the presence of high Pi with increasing Et2Cit, Na3Cit, and PFA concentrations...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902232/advanced-glycation-end-products-ages-accumulation-in-skin-relations-with-chronic-kidney-disease-mineral-and-bone-disorder
#7
Renata de Almeida França, André de Barros Albuquerque Esteves, Cynthia de Moura Borges, Kélcia Rosana da Silva Quadros, Luiz Carlos Nogueira Falcão, Jacqueline Costa Teixeira Caramori, Rodrigo Bueno de Oliveira
Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates, main causes related with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and bone mineral disorder (CKD-BMD). Uremic toxins, as advanced glycation end products (AGEs), are non-traditional cardiovascular risk factor and play a role on development of CKD-BMD in CKD. The measurement of skin autofluorescence (sAF) is a noninvasive method to assess the level of AGEs in tissue, validated in CKD patients. Objective: The aim of this study is analyze AGEs measured by sAF levels (AGEs-sAF) and its relations with CVD and BMD parameters in HD patients...
August 28, 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898243/neoatherosclerosis-development-following-bioresorbable-vascular-scaffold-implantation-in-diabetic-and-non-diabetic-swine
#8
Nienke S van Ditzhuijzen, Mie Kurata, Mieke van den Heuvel, Oana Sorop, Richard W B van Duin, Ilona Krabbendam-Peters, Jurgen Ligthart, Karen Witberg, Magdalena Murawska, Brett Bouma, Martin Villiger, Hector M Garcia-Garcia, Patrick W Serruys, Felix Zijlstra, Gijs van Soest, Dirk-Jan Duncker, Evelyn Regar, Heleen M M van Beusekom
BACKGROUND: DM remains a risk factor for poor outcome after stent-implantation, but little is known if and how DM affects the vascular response to BVS. AIM: The aim of our study was to examine coronary responses to bioresorbable vascular scaffolds (BVS) in swine with and without diabetes mellitus fed a 'fast-food' diet (FF-DM and FF-NDM, respectively) by sequential optical coherence tomography (OCT)-imaging and histology. METHODS: Fifteen male swine were evaluated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894330/metastatic-pulmonary-calcification-high-resolution-computed-tomography-findings-in-23-cases
#9
Luciana Camara Belém, Carolina A Souza, Arthur Soares Souza, Dante Luiz Escuissato, Bruno Hochhegger, Luiz Felipe Nobre, Rosana Souza Rodrigues, Antônio Carlos Portugal Gomes, Claudio S Silva, Marcos Duarte Guimarães, Gláucia Zanetti, Edson Marchiori
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in patients diagnosed with metastatic pulmonary calcification (MPC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the HRCT findings from 23 cases of MPC [14 men, 9 women; mean age, 54.3 (range, 26-89) years]. The patients were examined between 2000 and 2014 in nine tertiary hospitals in Brazil, Chile, and Canada. Diagnoses were established by histopathologic study in 18 patients and clinical-radiological correlation in 5 patients...
July 2017: Radiologia Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893701/impact-of-vascular-calcifications-on-long-femoropopliteal-stenting-outcomes
#10
Adrien Kaladji, Pierre-Alexandre Vent, Aurore Danvin, Philippe Chaillou, Alain Costargent, Béatrice Guyomarch, Thibaut Quillard, Yann Gouëffic
OBJECTIVE: Vascular calcifications (VCs) may be a prognostic factor for outcome after endovascular treatment of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Semi-quantitative analysis with X-ray imaging is the main limiting factor for assessing VCs. The aim of the present study was to find a correlation between the amount of VC with a CT scan quantification and mid-term results of endovascular treatment of TASC C/D femoropopliteal (FP) lesions. METHODS: Patients belonging to two previously published registries (STELLA and STELLA PTX) and who underwent a preoperative CT scan were retrospectively included in the study...
September 8, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891161/comparison-of-acute-expansion-of-bioresorbable-vascular-scaffolds-versus-metallic-drug-eluting-stents-in-different-degrees-of-calcification-an-optical-coherence-tomography-study-doi-10-1002-ccd-26676
#11
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891150/endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-cardiovascular-diseases-developmental-signalling-pathways-gone-awry
#12
REVIEW
Gonzalo Sánchez-Duffhues, Amaya García de Vinuesa, Peter Ten Dijke
The process named endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) was observed for the first time during the development of the chicken embryo several decades ago. Interestingly, accumulating evidence suggests that EndMT plays a critical role in the onset and progression of a multiple postnatal cardiovascular diseases. EndMT is controlled by a set of developmental signalling pathways, very similar to the process of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which determine the activity of a number of EndMT transcriptional effectors...
September 11, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874210/ultrastructural-elemental-and-mineralogical-analysis-of-vascular-calcification-in-atherosclerosis
#13
Ida Perrotta, Edoardo Perri
Over the past few decades, remarkable progress has been achieved in terms of understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms of atherosclerotic vascular calcification and the important role of matrix vesicles in initiating and propagating pathologic tissue mineralization has been widely recognized. Despite these recent advances, however, no definitive data are currently available regarding the texture and composition of the minerals that grow in the vessel wall during the course of the disease. Using different electron microscopy imaging and analysis, we demonstrate that vascular cells can produce and secrete more than one type of matrix vesicles which act as sites for initial mineral deposition independently of their structural features...
September 6, 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870151/progression-of-arterial-stiffness-is-associated-with-changes-in-bone-mineral-markers-in-advanced-ckd
#14
Rathika Krishnasamy, Sven-Jean Tan, Carmel M Hawley, David W Johnson, Tony Stanton, Kevin Lee, David W Mudge, Scott Campbell, Grahame J Elder, Nigel D Toussaint, Nicole M Isbel
BACKGROUND: Arterial stiffness is an independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). There are limited prospective data however on progression of arterial stiffness in CKD, including evaluating associations with bone mineral markers such as fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and soluble α-klotho (sKl). METHODS: In this prospective, single-center, observational study, arterial stiffness [measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV)] and hormones influencing mineral homeostasis, including serum FGF23 and sKl, were compared between non-dialysis CKD stages 4/5 and healthy controls at baseline and 12 months (12 m)...
September 4, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869940/severe-secondary-hyperparathyroidism-in-a-hemodialysis-patient-a-case-report-from-mongolia
#15
Saruultuvshin Adiya, Khurtsbayar Damdinsuren, Chuluuntsetseg Dorj
Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) occurs in patients with chronic renal failure complicated with renal bone disease and soft tissue/vascular calcification. In dialysis patients with severe SHPT, medical treatment may fail and parathyroidectomy (PTX) is indicated for definitive treatment. Severe hypocalcemia from hungry bone disease or postoperative hypoparathyroidism may occur during the postoperative period. We report here a case of severe SHPT in a hemodialysis patient treated with phosphate binders, calcitriol, and calcimimetics but who still required PTX...
2017: Blood Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869660/pseudoxanthoma-elasticum-like-changes-in-non-uremic-calciphylaxis-case-series-and-brief-review-of-a-helpful-diagnostic-clue
#16
Rajiv Kiran Nathoo, Jennifer Nicole Harb, Jena Auerbach, Ruifeng Guo, Vladimir Vincek, Kiran Motaparthi
Calciphylaxis is a rare syndrome of vascular calcification with thrombosis that occurs most often in patients with end stage renal disease, and it frequently portends a guarded prognosis. Rarely, non-uremic calciphylaxis may occur; in this context, a strongly supportive histology is crucial in establishing the diagnosis. Herein, we describe two cases of non-uremic calciphylaxis associated with pseudoxanthoma elasticum-like changes, identified in both initial non-diagnostic and subsequent diagnostic biopsy specimens...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869295/the-clinical-potential-of-senolytic-drugs
#17
James L Kirkland, Tamara Tchkonia, Yi Zhu, Laura J Niedernhofer, Paul D Robbins
Senolytic drugs are agents that selectively induce apoptosis of senescent cells. These cells accumulate in many tissues with aging and at sites of pathology in multiple chronic diseases. In studies in animals, targeting senescent cells using genetic or pharmacological approaches delays, prevents, or alleviates multiple age-related phenotypes, chronic diseases, geriatric syndromes, and loss of physiological resilience. Among the chronic conditions successfully treated by depleting senescent cells in preclinical studies are frailty, cardiac dysfunction, vascular hyporeactivity and calcification, diabetes mellitus, liver steatosis, osteoporosis, vertebral disk degeneration, pulmonary fibrosis, and radiation-induced damage...
September 4, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867452/the-role-of-osteoprotegerin-in-the-crosstalk-between-vessels-and-bone-its-potential-utility-as-a-marker-of-cardiometabolic-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Luc Rochette, Alexandre Meloux, Eve Rigal, Marianne Zeller, Yves Cottin, Catherine Vergely
Among the numerous molecules that are being studied for their potential utility as biomarkers of cardiovascular diseases, much interest has been shown in the superfamily of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptors. Members of this family include osteoprotegerin (OPG) and its ligands, which are receptor activators of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). These signals may be expressed and regulated, and their functions could be involved in several physiological and pathological processes...
September 1, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867263/effects-of-hyperthyroidism-on-coronary-artery-disease-a%C3%A2-computed-tomography-angiography-study
#19
Christoph Beyer, Fabian Plank, Guy Friedrich, Matthias Wildauer, Gudrun Feuchtner
BACKGROUND: Changes in thyroid hormone concentration can negatively affect the cardiovascular system. Subclinical hyperthyroidism has been linked to an increase of cardiovascular heart disease, however, clinical effects and significance are still uncertain. Therefore, we analyzed coronary computed tomography angiographies of patients with overt and subclinical hyperthyroidism for quantitative parameters and plaque morphology. METHODS: Seven hundred forty-four (47...
July 17, 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865326/hydrogen-sulfide-attenuates-calcification-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-via-keap1-nrf2-nqo1-activation
#20
Parisa Aghagolzadeh, Ramin Radpour, Matthias Bachtler, Harry van Goor, Edward R Smith, Adam Lister, Alex Odermatt, Martin Feelisch, Andreas Pasch
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Vascular calcification is a common health problem related to oxidative stress, inflammation, and circulating calciprotein particles (CPP). Hydrogen sulfide is an endogenous signaling molecule with antioxidant properties and potential for drug development targeting redox signaling. Yet, its molecular mechanisms of action in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification have not been delineated. We therefore sought to identify key pathways involved in the calcification-inhibitory properties of sulfide employing our recently developed CPP-induced VSMC calcification model...
August 19, 2017: Atherosclerosis
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