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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806218/hypoxemic-patients-with-bilateral-infiltrates-treated-with-high-flow-nasal-cannula-present-a-similar-pattern-of-biomarkers-of-inflammation-and-injury-to-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-patients
#1
Marina García-de-Acilu, Judith Marin-Corral, Antonia Vázquez, Laura Ruano, Mònica Magret, Ricard Ferrer, Joan R Masclans, Oriol Roca
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether patients with acute hypoxemia and bilateral opacities treated with high-flow nasal cannula and acute respiratory distress syndrome patients who were directly mechanically ventilated are similar in terms of lung epithelial, endothelial, and inflammatory biomarkers. DESIGN: Prospective, multicenter study. SETTING: ICUs at three university tertiary hospitals. PATIENTS: Intubated and nonintubated patients admitted to the ICU with acute hypoxemia (PaO2/FIO2 ≤ 300) and bilateral opacities...
August 10, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805649/aging-resistant-nanofluids-containing-covalent-functionalized-boron-nitride-nanosheets
#2
Dongju Lee, Jin-Ju Park, Min-Ku Lee, Gyoung-Ja Lee
Developing a thermally stable nanofluid that can maintain good thermo-conductive and flow performance at moderate or elevated temperatures for prolonged periods of time is a great challenge in heat transfer applications. Here, the thermal conductivity and rheological properties as well as their thermal stability characteristics of a nanofluid containing two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets (h-BNNSs) in ethylene glycol (EG) are presented, in comparison with those for a graphene oxide (GO) nanofluid as a counterpart...
August 14, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805277/two-dimensional-physical-gels-can-exist-even-at-zero-surface-pressure-at-the-air-water-interface-rheology-of-self-assembled-domains-of-small-molecules
#3
Mariam Veschgini, Taichi Habe, Salomé Mielke, Shigeto Inoue, Xianhe Liu, Marie Pierre Krafft, Motomu Tanaka
Films of mesoscopic domains self-assembled from fluorocarbon/hydrocarbon diblocks (FnHm) at the air/water interface were found to display highly elastic behavior. We determined the interfacial viscoelasticity of domain-patterned FnHm Langmuir monolayers by applying periodic shear stresses. Remarkably, we found the formation of two-dimensional gels even at zero surface pressure. These monolayers are predominantly elastic, which is unprecedented for surfactants, exhibiting gelation only at high surface pressures...
August 14, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805228/highly-dispersed-tio2-nanoparticles-with-abundant-active-sites-induced-by-surfactants-as-a-prominent-substrate-for-sers-charge-transfer-contribution
#4
Libin Yang, Di Yin, Yu Shen, Ming Yang, Xiuling Li, Xiaoxia Han, Xin Jiang, Bing Zhao
In this study, highly-dispersed TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) with abundant active sites were synthesized by a simple sol-hydrothermal method with the assistance of surfactant polyethylene glycol (PEG) which served as an effective SERS-active substrate for the first time. The observed considerable SERS enhancement of 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA) probe molecules on TiO2 NPs is attributed to the contribution of the charge transfer mechanism from the substrate to the probe molecule. It is suggested that PEG can act as a protective agent in the reductive calcination of the surfactant-coated nanocrystallite and consequently brings about abundant surface oxygen vacancies for TiO2 NPs, which provide more effective sites for the adsorption of probe molecules and promote the charge transfer effect and its consequent SERS enhancement...
August 14, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805217/mixed-emulsion-of-liquid-crystal-microresonators-towards-white-laser-systems
#5
Gia Petriashvili, Maria Penelope De Santo, Raul Josue Hernandez, Riccardo Barberi, Gabriella Cipparrone
Microdroplet systems have attracted great interest because of their wide range of applications, easiness in processing and handling, feasibility in developing miniaturized devices with high performances and large flexibility. In this study, a stable emulsion based on different dye-doped chiral liquid crystal droplets has been engineered in order to achieve simultaneous omnidirectional lasing at different wavelengths. To obtain the mixed emulsion of dye doped Bragg onion-type microresonators the twofold action, as a surfactant and a droplet stabilizer, of the polyvinyl alcohol dissolved in water has been exploited...
August 14, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805053/heterogeneous-photochemistry-of-agrochemicals-at-leaf-surface-a-case-study-of-plant-activator-acibenzolar-s-methyl
#6
Mohamad Sleiman, Pascal de Sainte Claire, Claire Richard
The photoreactivity of plant activator benzo-(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester (BTH) commonly named acibenzolar-S-methyl was studied on surfaces of glass, paraffinic wax films and apple leaves. Experiments were carried out in a solar simulator using pure and formulated BTH (BION®). Surface photoproducts were identified using liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization and high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometer, while volatile photoproducts were characterized using an online thermal desorption system coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803456/evaluation-of-prenatal-corticosteroid-use-in-spontaneous-preterm-labor-in-the-brazilian-multicenter-study-on-preterm-birth-emip
#7
Tabata Z Dias, Renato Passini, Ricardo P Tedesco, Giuliane J Lajos, Patricia M Rehder, Marcelo L Nomura, Maria L Costa, Paulo F Oliveira, Maria H Sousa, Jose G Cecatti
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate prenatal corticosteroid use in women experiencing spontaneous preterm labor and preterm delivery. METHODS: The present cross-sectional multicenter study analyzed interview data from patients attending 20 hospitals in Brazil owing to preterm delivery between April 1, 2011, and September 30, 2012. Patients were stratified based on preterm labor occurring before 34 weeks or at 34-36(+6) weeks of pregnancy, and the frequency of prenatal corticosteroid use at admission was compared...
August 13, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803336/transgenic-mice-overexpressing-vitamin-d-receptor-vdr-show-anti-inflammatory-effects-in-lung-tissues
#8
Masaki Ishii, Yasuhiro Yamaguchi, Kyoko Isumi, Sumito Ogawa, Masahiro Akishita
Vitamin D insufficiency is increasingly recognized as a prevalent problem worldwide, especially in patients with a chronic lung disease. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of chronic inflammatory lung disease. Previous clinical studies have shown that COPD leads to low vitamin D levels, which further increase the severity of COPD. Vitamin D homeostasis represents one of the most important factors that potentially determine the severity of COPD. Nonetheless, the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of vitamin D receptor (VDR) in lung tissues are still unclear...
August 12, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802794/a-novel-and-organic-solvent-free-preparation-of-solid-lipid-nanoparticles-using-natural-biopolymers-as-natural-emulsifier-and-stabilizer
#9
Jingyi Xue, Taoran Wang, Qiaobin Hu, Mingyong Zhou, Yangchao Luo
In this work, a new and novel organic solvent-free and synthetic surfactant-free method was reported to fabricate stable solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) from stearic acid, sodium caseinate (NaCas) and pectin, as well as water. Melted stearic acid was directly emulsified into an aqueous phase containing NaCas and pectin, followed by pH adjustment and thermal treatment to induce the formation of a compact and dense polymeric coating which stabilized SLNs. The preparation procedures and formulations were comprehensively optimized...
August 9, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802793/pickering-emulsions-stabilized-by-biodegradable-block-copolymer-micelles-for-controlled-topical-drug-delivery
#10
Faiza Laredj-Bourezg, Marie-Alexandrine Bolzinger, Jocelyne Pelletier, Yves Chevalier
Surfactant-free biocompatible and biodegradable Pickering emulsions were investigated as vehicles for skin delivery of hydrophobic drugs. O/w emulsions of medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) oil droplets loaded with all-trans retinol as a model hydrophobic drug were stabilized by block copolymer nanoparticles: either poly(lactide)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLA-b-PEG) or poly(caprolactone)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PCL-b-PEG). Those innovative emulsions were prepared using two different processes allowing drug loading either inside oil droplets or inside both oil droplets and non-adsorbed block copolymer nanoparticles...
August 9, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802573/cytotoxicity-and-cyp1a-inhibition-in-rainbow-trout-liver-rtl-w1-cell-lines-exposed-to-dispersant-corexit-9500-and-its-major-surfactant-components
#11
Subham Dasgupta, Anne E McElroy
As part of a large study examining the toxicity of the Corexit® family of oil spill dispersants on aquatic vertebrates, we examined effects on the liver using an in vitro study using a rainbow trout liver cell line. We exposed RTL-W1 cells to the dispersant Corexit 9500 and its major surfactant components and measured their cytotoxic effects as well as modulation of activity of CYP1A, one of the major enzymes responsible for organic contaminant metabolism. The anionic surfactant DOSS was found to be most cytotoxic with a 24h EC50 of 10mg/L, as compared to 45 to 91mg/L for the non-ionic surfactants, Tween 80 and 85 and Span 80...
August 9, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802197/enhanced-electrochemical-performance-of-nickel-cobalt-oxide-reduced-graphene-oxide-activated-carbon-asymmetric-supercapacitors-by-the-addition-of-a-redox-active-electrolyte
#12
Charmaine Lamiel, Yong Rok Lee, Moo Hwan Cho, Dirk Tuma, Jae-Jin Shim
Supercapacitors are an emerging energy-storage system with a wide range of potential applications. In this study, highly porous nickel-cobalt-oxide@reduced graphene oxide (Ni-Co-O@RGO-s) nanosheets were synthesized as an active material for supercapacitors using a surfactant-assisted microwave irradiation technique. The RGO-modified nanocomposite showed a larger specific area, better conductivity, and lower resistivity than the unmodified nanocomposite because the RGO facilitated faster ion diffusion/transport for improved redox activity...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802137/development-of-novel-polysulfone-membranes-with-embedded-zirconium-sulfate-surfactant-micelle-mesostructure-for-phosphate-recovery-from-water-through-membrane-filtration
#13
Kenji Furuya, Akira Hafuka, Miho Kuroiwa, Hisashi Satoh, Yoshimasa Watanabe, Hiroshi Yamamura
We prepared novel membranes that could adsorb phosphate from water through membrane filtration for use in a phosphate recovery system. Zirconium sulfate surfactant micelle mesostructure (ZS), which was the phosphate adsorbent, was embedded in a polysulfone matrix and flat sheet ultrafiltration membranes were made by nonsolvent induced phase separation. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the ZS particles existed on both the top surface and in the internal surface of the membrane. Increases in ZS content led to greater pure water flux because of increases in the surface porosity ratio...
August 5, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801176/caffeine-use-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#14
REVIEW
Jalal M Abu-Shaweesh, Richard J Martin
Caffeine is the most frequently used medication in the neonatal intensive care unit. It is used for the prevention and treatment of apnea, although this has been associated with lower incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and patent ductus arteriosus as well as intact survival at 18-21 months of life. Although neurodevelopmental advantage was no longer statistically significant at age 5 years, caffeine was associated with sustained improvement in co-ordination and less gross motor impairment than placebo...
August 8, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801046/con4ei-short-time-exposure-ste-test-method-for-hazard-identification-and-labelling-of-eye-irritating-chemicals
#15
E Adriaens, J A Willoughby, B R Meyer, L C Blakeman, N Alépée, P Fochtman, R Guest, H Kandarova, S Verstraelen, A R Van Rompay
Assessment of ocular irritancy is an international regulatory requirement in the safety evaluation of industrial and consumer products. Although many in vitro ocular irritation assays exist, alone they are incapable of fully categorizing chemicals. Therefore, the CEFIC-LRI-AIMT6-VITO CON4EI consortium was developed to assess the reliability of eight in vitro test methods and establish an optimal tiered-testing strategy. One assay selected was the Short Time Exposure (STE) assay. This assay measures the viability of SIRC rabbit corneal cells after 5min exposure to 5% and 0...
August 8, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801044/cationic-ionic-liquid-surfactant-polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoresis-for-enhanced-separation-of-acidic-and-basic-proteins-with-single-step-ribonuclease-b-glycoforms-separation
#16
Punprabhashi Vidanapathirana, Farhana Hasan, Kaitlyn Mussio, Anuja Pande, Michael Brands, Noureen Siraj, Anne Grove, Isiah M Warner
Cationic ionic liquids-based surfactants (ILS), such as 4-methyl pyridinium bromide (CnPBr, where n=4,6,8), were used in preparation of polyacrylamide gels, sample buffer, and running buffer for cationic ILS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (ILS-PAGE). These ILS are liquids in the pure state and were selected for improved separation of ribonuclease b (Rib b) glycoforms in a single step and a protein mixture containing bovine serum albumin (BSA, pI-4.8, 66.5kDa), ovalbumin (Ova, pI-4.6, 44.3kDa), α-chymotrypsinogen (α-Chy, pI-8...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800974/advances-in-the-synthesis-molecular-architectures-and-potential-applications-of-gemini-surfactants
#17
REVIEW
Renu Sharma, Ajar Kamal, Maryam Abdinejad, Rakesh Kumar Mahajan, Heinz-Bernhard Kraatz
Gemini surfactants have been the subject of intensive scrutiny by virtue of their unique combination of physical and chemical properties and being used in ordinary household objects to multifarious industrial processes. In this review, we summarize the recent developments of gemini surfactants, highlighting the classification of gemini surfactants based on the variation in headgroup polarity, flexibility/rigidity of spacer, hydrophobic alkyl chain and counterion along with potential applications of gemini surfactants, depicting the truly remarkable journey of gemini surfactants that has just come of age...
July 29, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800686/functionality-of-surfactants-in-waste-activated-sludge-treatment-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Renpeng Guan, Xingzhong Yuan, Zhibin Wu, Hou Wang, Longbo Jiang, Yifu Li, Guangming Zeng
Proper treatment of waste-activated sludge (WAS) involves three pivotal processes, dewatering, anaerobic digestion, and pollutants removal, which need to be re-assessed urgently. Although many traditional sludge treatments have been developed, it is prudent to enhance the efficiency of sludge treatment using multifunctional, flexible, and environmentally friendly surfactants. With regard to sludge dewatering, surfactants can weaken the binding interaction between sludge flocs and promote the dissolution of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs), resulting in the release of bound water...
August 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800519/emerging-poly-and-perfluoroalkyl-substances-in-the-aquatic-environment-a-review-of-current-literature
#19
REVIEW
Feng Xiao
Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) comprise a group of synthetic organic surfactants with a wide range of industrial and commercial applications. A few PFASs such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are now known to be ubiquitously present in the aquatic environment. They have become a global concern because of the toxicity and bioaccumulative properties. With the increasing availability of high-resolution mass spectrometers, many novel PFASs have been identified. Studies published between 2009 and 2017 have discovered 455 new PFASs (including nine fully and 446 partially fluorinated compounds), 45%, 29%, 17%, and 8% of which are anions, zwitterions, cations, and neutrals, respectively...
July 15, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800095/influence-of-polymer-clay-interfacial-interactions-on-the-ignition-time-of-polymer-clay-nanocomposites
#20
Indraneel S Zope, Aravind Dasari, Zhong-Zhen Yu
Metal ions present on smectite clay (montmorillonite) platelets have preferential reactivity towards peroxy/alkoxy groups during polyamide 6 (PA6) thermal decomposition. This changes the decomposition pathway and negatively affects the ignition response of PA6. To restrict these interfacial interactions, high-temperature-resistant polymers such as polyetherimide (PEI) and polyimide (PI) were used to coat clay layers. PEI was deposited on clay by solution-precipitation, whereas PI was deposited through a solution-imidization-precipitation technique before melt blending with PA6...
August 11, 2017: Materials
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