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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223922/gut-microbiota-a-potential-regulator-of-neurodevelopment
#1
REVIEW
Paola Tognini
During childhood, our brain is exposed to a variety of environmental inputs that can sculpt synaptic connections and neuronal circuits, with subsequent influence on behavior and learning processes. Critical periods of neurodevelopment are windows of opportunity in which the neuronal circuits are extremely plastic and can be easily subjected to remodeling in response to experience. However, the brain is also more susceptible to aberrant stimuli that might lead to altered developmental trajectories. Intriguingly, postnatal brain development is paralleled by the maturation of the gut microbiota: the ecosystem of symbionts populating our gastro-intestinal tract...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223233/unravelling-the-pharmacologic-opportunities-and-future-directions-for-targeted-therapies-in-gastro-intestinal-cancers-part-1-gi-carcinomas
#2
REVIEW
Cindy Neuzillet, Benoît Rousseau, Hemant Kocher, Philippe Bourget, Christophe Tournigand
Until the 1990s, cytotoxic chemotherapy has been the cornerstone of medical therapy for gastrointestinal (GI) cancers. Better understanding of the molecular biology of cancer cell has led to the therapeutic revolution of targeted therapies, i.e. monoclonal antibodies or small molecule inhibitors directed against proteins that are specifically overexpressed or mutated in cancer cells. These agents being more specific to cancer cells were expected to be less toxic than cytotoxic agents. Targeted agents have provided clinical benefit in many GI cancer types...
February 13, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215168/contributions-of-the-interaction-between-dietary-protein-and-gut-microbiota-to-intestinal-health
#3
Ning Ma, Yanan Tian, Yi Wu, Xi Ma
There is growing recognition that composition and metabolic activity of the gut microbiota can be modulated by the dietary proteins which in turn impact health. The amino acid composition and digestibility of proteins, which are influenced by its source and amount of intake, play a pivotal role in determining the microbiota. Reciprocally, it appears that the gut microbiota is also able to affect protein metabolism which give rise to the view that function between the microbiota and protein can proceed in both directions...
February 16, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214685/role-of-laxative-and-antioxidant-properties-of-malva-sylvestris-leaves-in-constipation-treatment
#4
Mohamed-Amine Jabri, Dalanda Wannes, Najla Hajji, Mohsen Sakly, Lamjed Marzouki, Hichem Sebai
INTRODUCTION: Mallaw (Malva sylvestris L.) is a medicinal plant who is traditionally being used as an antiulcer, laxative and anti-hemorrhoid, besides of its culinary use as a food in Tunisian cuisine. The present study was carried out to evaluate the protective effect of Malva sylvestris aqueous extract (MSAE) on constipation- induced by loperamide in male Wistar rats. METHODS: Rats were divided into six groups of six animals each: Control, Loperamide (LOP), LOP+ yohimbine (2mg/kg b...
February 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213760/endocrine-regulation-of-fueling-by-hyperphagia-in-migratory-birds
#5
Cas Eikenaar
To support migratory endurance flight, birds accumulate large amounts of fat by hyperphagia (fueling). Whereas the factors influencing migrants' motivation to fuel are well described, the physiological mechanism regulating fueling is largely unknown. Hormones are likely involved and arguably the best studied with respect to food intake and fueling is corticosterone. Corticosterone has a permissive effect, as blocking the hormone's actions prohibits efficient fueling. There are no indications, though that corticosterone stimulates fueling, and some studies even observed negative correlations between corticosterone level and food intake and speed of fueling...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209107/gastro-intestinal-manifestations-in-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#6
REVIEW
S Van Biervliet, C de Clercq, D Declercq, E Van Braeckel, S Van Daele, F De Baets, D De Looze
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-limiting disorder caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). This defective chloride channel, present in different organ systems such as respiratory system, gastrointestinal tract, reproductive system and sweat glands, disturbs the ion and water transport over the membranes leading to the well known CF symptoms. CF has outgrown paediatric care, as half of CF patients are currently adults. The CF gastrointestinal tract has its own particularities...
September 2016: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203684/crushed-sublingual-versus-oral-ticagrelor-administration-strategies-in-patients-with-unstable-angina-a-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-study
#7
Piotr Niezgoda, Joanna Sikora, Malwina Barańska, Adam Sikora, Katarzyna Buszko, Emilia Siemińska, Michał Piotr Marszałł, Jolanta M Siller-Matula, Bernd Jilma, Dimitrios Alexopoulos, Tomasz Fabiszak, Jacek Kubica
Oral administration of crushed ticagrelor tablets turned out to be an efficacious method that improves its pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. This strategy, however, is unlikely to eliminate the drug-drug interaction in patients receiving intravenous morphine, as the impairment of the P2Y12 inhibitor absorption related to decreased propulsive motility of the gastro-intestinal tract is the most likely mechanism of interaction. Thus, we designed a pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic study setting the feasibility of platelet inhibition with a loading dose of ticagrelor given as crushed tablets sublingually compared with two other ticagrelor loading dose administration strategies: integral tablet given orally and crushed tablet given orally in patients with unstable angina...
February 16, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198489/negative-effects-of-divalent-mineral-cations-on-the-bioaccessibility-of-carotenoids-from-plant-food-matrices-and-related-physical-properties-of-gastro-intestinal-fluids
#8
Joana Corte-Real, Marie Bertucci, Christos Soukoulis, Charles Desmarchelier, Patrick Borel, Elke Richling, Lucien Hoffmann, Torsten Bohn
Carotenoid intake and tissue levels have been frequently associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases. However, their bioavailability is low and influenced by many dietary related parameters. Divalent mineral cations have been suggested to interfere with carotenoid digestion and to hamper micellarization, a prerequisite for their uptake, via complexation of bile salts and precipitation of fatty acids. In the present investigation, we have evaluated the effects of increasing concentrations of magnesium (0-300 mg L(-1)), calcium (0-1500 mg L(-1)), zinc (0-200 mg L(-1)), and sodium (0-1500 mg L(-1); control monovalent cation), on carotenoid bioaccessibility from frequently consumed food items rich in carotenoids (tomato juice, carrot juice, apricot nectar, spinach and field salad), following simulated gastro-intestinal digestion...
February 15, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197046/outcome-of-noncardiac-surgical-patients-admitted-to-a-multidisciplinary-intensive-care-unit
#9
Pradeep Kumar, M K Renuka, M S Kalaiselvan, A S Arunkumar
CONTEXT: Surgical procedures carry significant morbidity and mortality depending on the type of surgery and patients. There is a dearth of evidence from India on the outcome of surgical patients admitted to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU). AIMS: We aimed to describe the incidence and risk factors of postoperative complications and mortality in noncardiac surgical patients admitted to the ICU. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This was a prospective observational study on all perioperative patients admitted to a multidisciplinary ICU for 18 months...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192466/descriptive-study-of-plant-resources-in-the-context-of-the-ethnomedicinal-relevance-of-indigenous-flora-a-case-study-from-toli-peer-national-park-azad-jammu-and-kashmir-pakistan
#10
Muhammad Shoaib Amjad, Mirza Faisal Qaeem, Israr Ahmad, Sami Ullah Khan, Sunbal Khalil Chaudhari, Nafeesa Zahid Malik, Humaira Shaheen, Arshad Mehmood Khan
BACKGROUND: This paper presents the first quantitative ethnobotanical study of the flora in Toli Peer National Park of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Being a remote area, there is a strong dependence by local people on ethnobotanical practices. Thus, we attempted to record the folk uses of the native plants of the area with a view to acknowledging and documenting the ethnobotanical knowledge. The aims of the study were to compile an inventory of the medicinal plants in the study area and to record the methods by which herbal drugs were prepared and administered...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191810/gist-institutional-experience-at-srms-ims-india
#11
Shubhanshu Gupta, Keshri Amit, Ashish Gupta, Tanu Argawal
Gastro-Intestinal Stromal Tumors (GIST) is a malignant, non-epithelial, mesenchymal tumor of the digestive tract that is not uncommon in clinical practice nowadays; diagnosis being based upon immuno-histo-chemical analysis of the resected or biopsied (FNAC) specimen. Abdominal lump with or without intra-luminal bleed is a common mode of presentation. Early diagnosis and appropriate management with surgery and/or Imatinib therapy improves recurrence free survival and may impact overall survival. We present here our institutional experience of four patients, admitted in Onco-Surgery Dept...
September 2016: Gulf Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179979/flexible-gastro-intestinal-endoscopy-clinical-challenges-and-technical-achievements
#12
REVIEW
Niehls Kurniawan, Martin Keuchel
Flexible gastro-intestinal (GI) endoscopy is an integral diagnostic and therapeutic tool in clinical gastroenterology. High quality standards for safety, patients' comfort, and efficiency have already been achieved. Clinical challenges and technical approaches are discussed in this short review. Image enhanced endoscopy for further characterization of mucosal and vascular patterns includes dye-spray or virtual chromoendoscopy. For confocal laser endoscopy, endocytoscopy, and autofluorescence clinical value has not yet been finally evaluated...
2017: Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176664/role-of-lactic-acid-probiotic-bacteria-in-ibd
#13
Ravichandra Vemuri, Rohit Gundamaraju, Rajaraman Eri
BACKGROUND: IBD is considered as one of the major public health concerns worldwide. The pathophysiology and gut microbial alteration during inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are still not completely understood. Gut microbiota is implicated in most of the gastro-intestinal (GI) diseases including IBD. From the time of gut microbiota establishment and through aging, it undergoes a lot of changes in the composition. METHODS: In a healthy state, the composition of beneficial microbes in the gut is comparatively higher and due to factors such as malnutrition, use of antibiotics and any underlying diseases allow the colonization and invasion of pathogens...
February 6, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162051/henoch-schonlein-purpura-post-streptococcal-glomerulonephritis-and-acute-rheumatic-carditis-after-group-a-%C3%AE-haemolytic-streptococcal-infection
#14
Seçil Arslansoyu Çamlar, Alper Soylu, İpek Akil, Mehtat Ünlü, Şenol Coşkun, Pelin Ertan, Salih Kavukçu
Besides association with acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and acute glomerulonephritis (APSGN), in up to 40% of cases, Group A β-haemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infections are also implicated as a trigger for Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP). A 7-year-old girl with GABHS throat infection who developed HSP, APSGN and rheumatic carditis is reported. She presented with palpable purpura and arthritis in both ankles and later developed carditis characterised by mitral/aortic regurgitation and glomerulonephritis characterised by mixed nephritic/nephrotic syndrome...
February 6, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156587/palliative-outpatient-hot-clinic-rapid-access-for-oncology-patients-visiting-emergency-department-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-singapore-a-1-year-experience
#15
Mervyn Yong Hwang Koh, Jia Fang Lee
: 137 Background: Oncology patients often present with symptoms at Emergency Department (ED). While most patients require admission for further management, some patients can be discharged from ED with outpatient follow-up. However, most patients were given 4 to 6 week appointment. In the light of this service gap, our department collaborated with ED to facilitate rapid access to Palliative Outpatient Hot Clinic (POHC) within 3 working days from ED visit in 2015. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of all patients seen in the ED who satisfied the referral criteria to POHC...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155020/risks-factors-and-outcomes-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-patients-with-cancer-a-matched-case-control-study
#16
Andrew I T Hebbard, Monica A Slavin, Caroline Reed, Jason A Trubiano, Benjamin W Teh, Gabrielle M Haeusler, Karin A Thursky, Leon J Worth
PURPOSE: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause of diarrhoea in hospitalised patients. Cancer populations are at high-risk for infection, but comprehensive evaluation in the current era of cancer care has not been performed. The objective of this study was to describe characteristics, risk factors, and outcomes of CDI in cancer patients. METHODS: Fifty consecutive patients with CDI at a large Australian cancer centre (2013-2015) were identified from the hospital pathology database...
February 2, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152903/refining-the-use-of-an-electronic-medical-record-emr-to-define-and-implement-psychosocial-distress-screening-and-treatment
#17
(no author information available yet)
: 144 Background: All cancer patients experience some level of distress associated with cancer and its treatment at all stages of the disease. Psychological and social problems created or exacerbated by cancer cause additional suffering, weaken adherence to prescribed treatments and threaten patients' return to health." Health care providers often tend to under estimate psychological distress. Screening and early identification of distress promote improved management of symptoms, which facilitates medical care...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152396/insulin-resistance-atherogenicity-and-iron-metabolism-in-multiple-sclerosis-with-and-without-depression-associations-with-inflammatory-and-oxidative-stress-biomarkers-and-uric-acid
#18
Sayonara Rangel Oliveira, Ana Paula Kallaur, Josiane Lopes, Andrea Name Colado Simão, Edna Maria Vissoci Reiche, Elaine Regina Delicato de Almeida, Helena Kaminami Morimoto, Wildea Lice de Carvalho Jennings de Pereira, Daniela Frizon Alfieri, Tamires Flauzino, Caio de Meleck Proença, Anna Maria Gomes, Damacio Ramón Kaimen-Maciel, Michael Maes
Depression is accompanied by metabolic disorders in iron metabolism, lipoproteins, and insulin resistance. We measured plasma levels of ferritin, iron, lipids, insulin, and glucose and computed the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA2IR) and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) in MS patients with and without depression and healthy controls. Explanatory variables were serum uric acid, interleukin (IL)-6, lipid hydroperoxides (CL-LOOH), albumin, and C-reactive protein (CRP). Depression was assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), neurological disability using the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), and disease progression using ∆EDSS over five years earlier...
December 27, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149023/status-of-serum-calcium-vitamin-d-and-parathyroid-hormone-and-hematological-indices-among-lead-exposed-jewelry-workers-in-dhaka-bangladesh
#19
I Mazumdar, K Goswami, Md Suhrab Ali
Jewelry utilizes lead either directly or as a base metal. Costume jewelry requires lead before molding and plating the product with valuable metals. Therefore, such ornaments have a great potential to release heavy metals having health hazards. Also, jewelry makers engaged in preparing German silver, an alloy, apply lead in smelting, alloying, rolling and milling silver wires and pieces. The metal is taken up by blood, soft tissues and bone. The biological effects of lead are dependent upon the level and duration of exposure...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133217/-right-hemi-colectomy-for-a-metastatic-transverse-colon-tumor-from-breast-cancer-following-bilateral-breast-cancer-resection-a-case-report
#20
Shu Okamura, Tetsu Yanagisawa, Kazuhito Ohishi, Kohei Murata, Yoichiro Nushijima, Rie Hamano, Nariaki Fukuchi, Chikara Ebisui, Hideoki Yokouchi, Masakatsu Kinuta
We herein report the case of a 75-year-old female patient who underwent 4 surgeries for bilateral breast cancer and its recurrence. When she presented at a clinic with an irritable colon, a fist-sized tumor was palpated in the right upper abdomen at her first medical examination. Abdominal CT scan at the clinic revealed a tumor with a maximum diameter of 10 cm on the right side of the transverse colon and multiple swollen mesenteric lymph nodes. Therefore, the patient was referred to our hospital for surgery...
November 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
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