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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812980/application-of-an-in-vitro-digestion-model-for-210po-bioaccessibility-assessment-in-seafood
#1
Carla Roselli, Donatella Desideri, Laura Feduzi, Lucia Ugolini, Maria Assunta Meli
This study aims to investigate the bioaccessibility of 210Po in seafood and the impact of food preparation on this radionuclide. Polonium bioaccessibility is the fraction of 210Po mobilized from food matrices into digestive extractants when applying an in vitro digestion model. The degree of bioaccessibility of 210Po in food has important implications for estimating ingestion doses from this radionuclide. The simulation of gastrointestinal digestion was divided into three stages through the use of synthetic saliva, gastric and bile-pancreas solutions...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802231/phytochemical-properties-and-pharmacological-effects-of-quercus-ilex-l-aqueous-extract-on-gastrointestinal-physiological-parameters-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#2
Kaïs Rtibi, Imen Hammami, Slimen Selmi, Dhekra Grami, Hichem Sebai, Mohamed Amri, Lamjed Marzouki
INTRODUCTION: Several research studies have reported on the pharmacological relevance of the medicinal plants used for treating various gastrointestinal disorders and controlling the dietary glucose uptake in the intestinal tract. METHODS: Male rats were used to investigate the pharmacological effects of green oak acorn aqueous extract (GOAE) on gastrointestinal physiological parameters in vivo and in vitro. In this respect, the gastro-intestinal motility and hypersecretion essays were evaluated using a simple test meal (10% charcoal in 5% gum arabic) and castor oil induced diarrhea...
August 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801782/common-pediatric-medical-emergencies-in-office-practice
#3
Bharat Mehra, Suresh Gupta
General Practitioners frequently see children with medical conditions that may evolve into an emergency if not promptly attended to. The most common emergencies encountered in pediatric office practice are respiratory distress, dehydration, anaphylaxis, seizures and trauma. Assessment of children is sometimes difficult as the signs and symptoms might be subtle and not markedly expressed. Also, normal value of vital signs vary with age, thus their interpretation requires discrete knowledge of age appropriate values...
August 12, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801248/clinical-value-of-ctdna-in-upper-gi-cancers-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
A Creemers, S Krausz, M Strijker, M J van der Wel, E C Soer, R J Reinten, M G Besselink, J W Wilmink, M J van de Vijver, C J M V Noesel, J Verheij, S L Meijer, F Dijk, M F Bijlsma, M G H van Oijen, H W M van Laarhoven
BACKGROUND: The recent expanding technical possibilities to detect tumor derived mutations in blood, so-called circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), has rapidly increased the interest in liquid biopsies. This review and meta-analysis explores the clinical value of ctDNA in malignancies of the upper gastro-intestinal tract. METHODS: PubMed, Cochrane and Embase databases were searched to identify studies reporting the diagnostic, prognostic or predictive value of ctDNA in patients with esophageal, gastric and pancreatic cancer, until January 2017...
August 8, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800409/cytotoxic-effects-of-the-proton-pump-inhibitor-omeprazole-on-the-non-target-marine-microalga-tetraselmis-suecica
#5
Marta Seoane, Marta Esperanza, Ángeles Cid
Omeprazole (OMP) is one of the most commonly used drugs for the treatment of gastro-intestinal disorders. Although it is daily consumed in high quantities and commonly detected in waters worldwide, relatively little is known about its ecotoxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential acute toxicity of increasing concentrations of OMP on the marine microalga Tetraselmis suecica analysing several cytotoxicity biomarkers by flow cytometry after 24h of exposure. Results showed that OMP caused a decrease in growth and autofluorescence, an increase in cellular volume and intracellular complexity, hyperpolarization of cytoplasmic and mitochondrial membranes and intracellular acidification...
August 2, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799088/metazoan-parasites-from-odontocetes-off-new-zealand-new-records
#6
Kristina Lehnert, Haseeb Randhawa, Robert Poulin
Information about the parasite fauna of spectacled porpoises and cetaceans from New Zealand waters in general is scarce. This study takes advantage of material archived in collections of the Otago Museum in Dunedin and Massey University in Auckland, sampled from cetacean species found stranded along the New Zealand coastline between 2007 and 2014. Parasites from seven species of cetaceans (spectacled porpoise, Phocoena dioptrica (n = 2 individuals examined); pygmy sperm whale (n = 1); long-finned pilot whale, Globicephala melas (n = 1); Risso's dolphin, Grampus griseus (n = 1); short-beaked common dolphin, Delphinus delphis (n = 7); striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba (n = 3) and dusky dolphin, Lagenorhynchus obscurus (n = 2)) from the respiratory and gastro-intestinal tract, cranial sinus, liver, urogenital and mammary tract, fascia and blubber were investigated...
August 10, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797791/the-use-of-nemabiome-metabarcoding-to-explore-gastro-intestinal-nematode-species-diversity-and-anthelmintic-treatment-effectiveness-in-beef-calves
#7
Russell W Avramenko, Elizabeth M Redman, Roy Lewis, Murilo A Bichuette, Bruna M Palmeira, Thomas A Yazwinski, John S Gilleard
Next-generation deep amplicon sequencing, or metabarcoding, has revolutionized the study of microbial communities in humans, animals and the environment. However, such approaches have yet to be applied to parasitic helminth communities. We recently described the first example of such a method - nemabiome sequencing - based on deep-amplicon sequencing of internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2) rDNA, and validated its ability to quantitatively assess the species composition of cattle gastro-intestinal nematode (GIN) communities...
August 7, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783111/nutritional-guidelines-and-fermented-food-frameworks
#8
Victoria Bell, Jorge Ferrão, Tito Fernandes
This review examines different nutritional guidelines, some case studies, and provides insights and discrepancies, in the regulatory framework of Food Safety Management of some of the world's economies. There are thousands of fermented foods and beverages, although the intention was not to review them but check their traditional and cultural value, and if they are still lacking to be classed as a category on different national food guides. For understanding the inconsistencies in claims of concerning fermented foods among various regulatory systems, each legal system should be considered unique...
August 7, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765989/eco-health-linkages-assessing-the-role-of-ecosystem-goods-and-services-on-human-health-using-causal-criteria-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Rebeca de Jesus Crespo, Richard Fulford
OBJECTIVES: In the last decade, we saw an upsurge of studies evaluating the role of ecosystem goods and services (EGS) on human health (Eco-Health). Most of this work consists of observational research of intermediate processes and few address the full pathways from ecosystem to EGS to human health, limiting our ability to assess causality. METHODS: We conducted a causal criteria analysis of Eco-Health literature using Eco-Evidence, a software tool that helps evaluate evidence of cause-effect relationships...
August 1, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764205/prevalence-and-patterns-of-multimorbidity-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-positive-people-in-odisha-india-an-exploratory-study
#10
Sanghamitra Pati, Shreeporna Bhattacharya, Subhashisa Swain
INTRODUCTION: Improved and efficient Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) has turned HIV positive into a chronic disorder. The increase in life expectancy and quality of life comes with an increased risk of multimorbidity from the traditional risk factors. AIM: To explore the prevalence of multimorbidity among People Living with HIV (PLHIV). MATERIALS AND METHODS: An exploratory cross-sectional study was carried out in an ART center of Odisha, India, from November 2013 to December 2013...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763517/higher-risk-of-gastrointestinal-parasite-infection-at-lower-elevation-suggests-possible-constraints-in-the-distributional-niche-of-alpine-marmots
#11
Stefania Zanet, Giacomo Miglio, Caterina Ferrari, Bruno Bassano, Ezio Ferroglio, Achaz von Hardenberg
Alpine marmots Marmota marmota occupy a narrow altitudinal niche within high elevation alpine environments. For animals living at such high elevations where resources are limited, parasitism represents a potential major cost in life history. Using occupancy models, we tested if marmots living at higher elevation have a reduced risk of being infected with gastro-intestinal helminths, possibly compensating the lower availability of resources (shorter feeding season, longer snow cover and lower temperature) than marmots inhabiting lower elevations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763499/risk-factors-for-adverse-drug-reactions-in-pediatric-inpatients-a-cohort-study
#12
Paulo Henrique Santos Andrade, Iza Maria Fraga Lobo, Wellington Barros da Silva
PURPOSE: The present study aims to identify the risk factors for adverse drug reactions (ADR) in pediatric inpatients. METHODS: A prospective cohort study in one general pediatric ward in a hospital in Northeast Brazil was conducted in two stages: the first stage was conducted between August 17th and November 6th, 2015, and the second one between March 1st and August 25th, 2016. We included children aged 0-14 years 11 months hospitalized with a minimum stay of 48 hours...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761392/assessment-of-performance-indicators-of-a-radiotherapy-department-using-an-electronic-medical-record-system
#13
Yasir A Bahadur, Camelia Constantinescu, Ammar Y Bahadur, Ruba Y Bahadur
AIM: To retrospectively assess the performance indicators of our radiotherapy department and their temporal trends, using a commercially available electronic-medical-record (EMR) system. BACKGROUND: A recent trend in healthcare quality is to define and evaluate performance indicators of the service provided. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patient and external-beam-radiotherapy-treatments data were retrieved using the Mosaiq EMR system from 1-January-2012 till 31-December-2015...
September 2017: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761209/extranodal-non-hodgkin-s-lymphoma-of-the-oral-cavity-a-case-report
#14
Babyamma Raghavan Varun, Nettiyat Oommen Varghese, Trivandrum Thanappan Sivakumar, Anna Palliath Joseph
Lymphomas are solid malignant tumors having a wide spectrum of clinical and pathological features. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is a subtype of lymphoma with two-thirds of the cases presenting as lymph node enlargement. The remaining one third of NHL cases has been reported in the extranodal sites, including the gastro intestinal tract, Waldeyer's ring, bone, skin, and brain. Intraoral non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is uncommon and may affect either the jaw bones or occur within the soft tissues of the oral cavity...
July 2017: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758244/lung-transplantation-delays-gastric-motility-in-patients-without-prior-gastro-intestinal-surgery-a-single-center-experience-of-412-consecutive-patients
#15
Sameer A Hirji, Brian C Gulack, Brian R Englum, Paul J Speicher, Asvin M Ganapathi, Asishana A Osho, Rahul A Shimpi, Alexander Perez, Matthew G Hartwig
PURPOSE: To examine the impact of lung transplantation on gastric motility. METHODS: Adult recipients at a large, single center, who were retrospectively evaluated with solid gastric emptying (SGE) study post lung transplantation, but had no history of gastrointestinal intervention (i.e. pyloroplasty or fundoplication), were selected between June 2005 and August 2013. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to determine risk factors associated with delayed gastric emptying (DGE) after transplantation...
July 31, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756907/universal-screening-for-alcohol-misuse-in-acute-medical-admissions-is-feasible-and-identifies-patients-at-high-risk-of-liver-disease
#16
Greta Westwood, Paul Meredith, Susan Atkins, Peter Greengross, Paul E Schmidt, Richard J Aspinall
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Many people who die from alcohol related liver disease (ARLD) have a history of recurrent admissions to hospital, representing potential missed opportunities for intervention. Universal screening for alcohol misuse has been advocated but it is not known if this is achievable or effective at detecting individuals at high risk of ARLD. METHODS: We systematically screened all admissions to the Acute Medical Unit (AMU) of a large acute hospital using an electronic data capture system in real time...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751201/the-role-of-mucus-in-cell-based-models-used-to-screen-mucosal-drug-delivery
#17
REVIEW
Anna Lechanteur, José das Neves, Bruno Sarmento
The increasing interest in developing tools to predict drug absorption through mucosal surfaces is fostering the establishment of epithelial cell-based models. Cell-based in vitro techniques for drug permeability assessment are less laborious, cheaper and address the concerns of using laboratory animals. Simultaneously, in vitro barrier models that thoroughly simulate human epithelia or mucosae may provide useful data to speed up the entrance of new drugs and new drug products into the clinics. Nevertheless, standard cell-based in vitro models that intend to reproduce epithelial surfaces often discard the role of mucus in influencing drug permeation/absorption...
July 24, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732987/fish-oil-based-vitamin-d-nanoencapsulation-by-ultrasonication-and-bioaccessibility-analysis-in-simulated-gastro-intestinal-tract
#18
Niharika Walia, Nandita Dasgupta, Shivendu Ranjan, Lingyun Chen, Chidambaram Ramalingam
Recently, nanoemulsions have been employed for different applications including food and drug industries for efficient nutrient delivery system. In this study, vitamin D (a lipophilic molecule) was encapsulated in fish oil for higher oral bioavailability. The oil-in-water nanoemulsion was formulated by ultrasonication technique with a droplet size range of 300-450nm and a shelf life of more than 90days. The influence of oil, water and surfactant concentration was investigated by phase diagram. The formulated nanoemulsion had encapsulation efficiency in the range of 95...
November 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732571/examining-the-gut-bacteriome-virome-and-mycobiome-in-glucose-metabolism-disorders-are-we-on-the-right-track
#19
REVIEW
Charikleia Stefanaki, Melpomeni Peppa, George Mastorakos, George P Chrousos
Human gut microbiome is defined as the gene complement of the gut microbial community, measured via laboratory metagenomic techniques. It includes bacteriome, virome and mycobiome, which represent, respectively, the assemblages of bacteria, viruses and fungi, living in the human gut. Gut microbiota function as a living "organ" that interacts with the gastro-intestinal environment, provides nutrients and vitamins to the organism and transduces hormonal messages, essentially influencing the main metabolic pathways, including drug metabolism...
August 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723416/unravelling-the-pharmacologic-opportunities-and-future-directions-for-targeted-therapies-in-gastro-intestinal-cancers-part-2-neuroendocrine-tumours-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-gastro-intestinal-stromal-tumours
#20
REVIEW
Cindy Neuzillet, Louis de Mestier, Benoît Rousseau, Olivier Mir, Mohamed Hebbar, Hemant M Kocher, Philippe Ruszniewski, Christophe Tournigand
Until the 1990s, cytotoxic chemotherapy has been the cornerstone of medical therapy for gastrointestinal (GI) cancers. Better understanding of the cancer cell molecular biology has led to the therapeutic revolution of targeted therapies, i.e. monoclonal antibodies or small molecule inhibitors directed against proteins that are specifically overexpressed or mutated in cancer cells. These agents, being more specific to cancer cells, were expected to be less toxic than conventional cytotoxic agents. However, their effects have sometimes been disappointing, due to intrinsic or acquired resistance mechanisms, or to an activity restricted to some tumour settings, illustrating the importance of patient selection and early identification of predictive biomarkers of response to these therapies...
July 16, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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