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Acid base physiology

Pedro Diaz-Parga, Joy J Goto, V V Krishnan
Beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) has been demonstrated to contribute to the onset of the ALS/Parkinsonism-dementia complex (ALS/PDC) and is implicated in the progression of other neurodegenerative diseases. While the role of BMAA in these diseases is still debated, one of the suggested mechanisms involves the activation of excitatory glutamate receptors. In particular, the excitatory effects of BMAA are shown to be dependent on the presence of bicarbonate ions, which in turn forms carbamate adducts in physiological conditions...
September 18, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
Dhiraj Kumar Chaudhary, Jaisoo Kim
A novel strain, DKC-1T, was isolated from reclaimed grassland soil and was characterized taxonomically by a polyphasic approach. Strain DKC-1T was a Gram-staining-negative, light-yellow-coloured and rod shaped bacterium, motile with polar flagellum. It was able to grow at 20-37 °C, at pH 4.5-9.0 and with 0-3 % (w/v) NaCl concentration. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain DKC-1T formed a clade within the members of the genus Dyella and showed highest sequence similarities to Dyella japonica XD53T (98...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Dahye Yang, Seho Cha, Jiwon Choi, Taegun Seo
A novel Gram-stain-negative bacterial strain, designated strain S10T, was isolated from soil collected in a rice field in Goyang, South Korea. Cells of strain S10T were strictly aerobic, motile and rod-shaped. Colonies were round, convex, smooth and white. The strain grew optimally at 37 °C, pH 7.0 and 0 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain S10T revealed that the bacterium belongs to the family Comamonadaceae and is related to members of the genus Hydrogenophaga, with Hydrogenophaga caeni EMB71T being its closest relative (97...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Fumio Sakane, Satoru Mizuno, Daisuke Takahashi, Hiromichi Sakai
Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) phosphorylates diacylglycerol (DG) to produce phosphatidic acid (PA). Mammalian DGK comprises ten isozymes (α-κ) and regulates a wide variety of physiological and pathological events, such as cancer, type II diabetes, neuronal disorders and immune responses. DG and PA consist of various molecular species that have different acyl chains at the sn-1 and sn-2 positions, and consequently, mammalian cells contain at least 50 structurally distinct DG/PA species. Because DGK is one of the components of phosphatidylinositol (PI) turnover, the generally accepted dogma is that all DGK isozymes utilize 18:0/20:4-DG derived from PI turnover...
September 9, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
Antonio Di Martino, Alena Pavelkova, Pavel S Postnikov, Vladimir Sedlarik
Polysaccharides based nanocomplexes have been developed for encapsulation, controlled delivery and to enhance the phototoxicity of the photosensitizer 5-aminolevulinic acid for application in photodynamic therapy. The nanocomplexes were prepared by coacervation in a solvent free environment using chitosan as polycation while alginic and polygalacturonic acid as polyanions. The complexes showed average dimension in the range 90-120nm, good stability in simulated physiological media and high drug encapsulation efficiency, up to 800μg per mg of carrier...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Hyun-Sook Kim, John J Bang, Sang-Seob Lee
A Gram-stain-negative bacterial strain designated Con4(T) was isolated from activated sludge in a seawater treatment system. The strain was rod-shaped, motile, aerobic, and formed yellow-colored colonies on agar medium. Cells contained carotenoid pigments, but flexirubin-type pigments were absent. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the strain was assigned to the genus Gelidibacter. Optimum growth occurred at 20 °C, pH 7.0, and 1-2% (w/v) NaCl. Prominent fatty acid types were iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0, and iso-C16:0 3OH...
September 14, 2017: Current Microbiology
Heidi J Einolf, Wen Lin, Christina S Won, Lai Wang, Helen Gu, Dung Yu Chun, Handan He, James B Mangold
Panobinostat (Farydak®) is an orally active hydroxamic acid derived histone deacetylase inhibitor for the treatment of relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma. Based upon recombinant cytochrome P450 (CYP) kinetic analyses in vitro, panobinostat oxidative metabolism in human liver microsomes was found to be primarily mediated by CYP3A4 with lower contributions by CYP2D6 and CYP2C19. Panobinostat was also shown to be an in vitro reversible and time-dependent inhibitor of CYP3A4/5, and a reversible inhibitor of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19...
September 14, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Ying Ge, Ya-Jun Zhou, Ke-Wu Yang, Yi-Lin Zhang, Yang Xiang, Yue-Juan Zhang
The emergence of antibiotic resistance caused by β-lactamases, including serine β-lactamases (SβLs) and metallo-β-lactamases (MβLs), is a global public health threat. L1, a B3 subclass MβL, hydrolyzes almost all of known β-lactam antibiotics. We report a simple and straightforward UV-Vis approach for real-time activity assays of β-lactamases inside living bacterial cells, and this method has been exemplified by choosing antibiotics, L1 enzyme, Escherichia coli expressing L1 (L1 E. coli), Escherichia coli expressing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL-E...
September 14, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
Hayato Baba, Makoto Kurano, Takeshi Nishida, Hideki Hatta, Ryoji Hokao, Koichi Tsuneyama
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the effect of insulin treatment on the incidence and/or severity of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a mouse model of HCC based on diabetes. METHODS: We recently reported that neonatal streptozotocin (STZ) treatment causes type 1 diabetes and subsequent HCC in ddY, Institute for Animal Reproduction (DIAR) mice. Newborn male DIAR mice were divided into three groups based on STZ and insulin (INS) treatment. STZ was subcutaneously injected (60 mg/g) into the STZ-treated group (DIAR-nSTZ mice, N = 13) and the STZ/insulin-treated group (DIAR-nSTZ/INS mice, N = 20)...
September 13, 2017: BMC Research Notes
Yuichi Kaji, Toshihiro Akiyama, Hiroki Segawa, Tetsuro Oshika, Hideaki Kano
PURPOSE: In vivo and in situ visualization of biomolecules without pretreatment will be important for diagnosis and treatment of ocular disorders in the future. Recently, multiphoton microscopy, based on the nonlinear interactions between molecules and photons, has been applied to reveal the localizations of various molecules in tissues. We aimed to use multimodal multiphoton microscopy to visualize the localizations of specific biomolecules in rat corneas. METHODS: Multiphoton images of the corneas were obtained from nonlinear signals of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, third-order sum frequency generation, and second-harmonic generation...
September 7, 2017: Cornea
Chaeyun Baek, Eunji Kim, Su-Kyoung Shin, Sungmi Choi, Hana Yi
A Gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped, and aerobic bacterial strain, designated LPB0072T, was isolated from a Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas). Autotrophic growth with hydrogen gas was not observed. Cells oxidized thiosulfate to sulfate and reduced nitrate to nitrite. The complete genome sequence of strain LPB0072T (CP017476) is 4.94 Mb in length and contains 4459 protein-coding genes, with a G+C content of 61.3 mol%. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain LPB0072T belongs to the genus Hydrogenophaga, with greatest sequence similarity to the type strain of Hydrogenophaga taeniospiralis (97...
September 13, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Pei Lin, Zheng-Fei Yan, Chang-Tian Li, MooChang Kook, Qi-Jun Wang, Tae-Hoo Yi
A Gram-stain positive, aerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium (THG-T1.18T) was isolated from desert soil. Growth occurred at 20-35 °C (optimum 28-30 °C), at pH 5-7 (optimum 7) and at 0-4 % NaCl (optimum 0-1 %). Based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis, the nearest phylogenetic neighbours of strain THG-T1.18T were identified as Chryseomicrobium amylolyticum DSM 23442T (96.6 %), Chryseomicrobium imtechense JCM 16573T (96.3 %) and Chryseomicrobium aureum KACC 17219T (96.1 %). The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, two unidentified aminolipids and one unidentified glycolipid...
September 13, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Xiao-Yun Yu, Jing-Yu Zhai, Ge-Yi Fu, Xia Shen, Zhe Zhao, Min Wu, Xin-Qi Zhang
A gram-stain-negative, aerobic, ovoid or short rod-shaped, and non-motile strain, designed G7(T) was isolated from a tidal flat sample collected from the coast of East Sea in Zhoushan, China. Strain G7(T) grew at 4-40 °C and pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum, 28 °C and pH 7.5) and with 0-7% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 1%). The predominant respiratory quinone was Q-10 and the major fatty acids (>10%) identified were C18:1 ω7c, C16:0 and summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c and/or C16:1 ω6c). The polar lipids of strain G7(T) consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, and four unidentified lipids...
September 12, 2017: Current Microbiology
Rena Yadlapati, Michael Tye, Laurie Keefer, Peter J Kahrilas, John E Pandolfino
OBJECTIVES: Up to 50% of patients with reflux symptoms do not manifest a satisfactory symptom response to proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy. Our primary aim in this study was to identify factors associated with symptom perception among PPI non-responder phenotypes. METHODS: This prospective observational cohort study was performed from September 2014 to January 2017 at a single academic medical center and included PPI non-responders who underwent 24-h impedance-pH monitoring and completed a questionnaire set measuring patient-reported symptom severity, quality of life (QOL), and psychosocial distress...
September 12, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Jun Liu, Fei Li, Cheng-Hai Gao, Yu Han, Huili Hao, Xiang-Xi Yi, Ri-Ming Huang
A Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, non-spore-forming, atrichous and short rod-shaped endophytic actinomycete, designated strain BGMRC 2075T, was isolated from the leaves of Kandelia candel, and was subjected to polyphasic characterization to unravel its taxonomic position. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain BGMRC 2075T belongs to the genus Nocardioides,showing the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Nocardioides aestuarii JC2056T (96.1 %), Nocardioides agariphilus MSL-28T (95...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Y Shivani, Y Subhash, Ch Sasikala, Ch V Ramana
Metagenome analysis of coastal marine habitats of Gujarat, India indicated the presence of twelve novel putative lineages of spirochaetes. Out of which a strain designated JC444T representing a novel putative lineage seven was isolated and characterized based on a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Strain JC444T was helical, Gram-stain-negative, obligate anaerobe, catalase and oxidase negative. Strain JC444T was able to grow at 15-45 °C (optimum at 30-35 °C), pH 6.5-8.6 (optimum at 7.5-8.0) and 0.6-5 % (optimum at 1...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Paul M Macey, Manoj K Sarma, Janani P Prasad, Jennifer A Ogren, Ravi Aysola, Ronald M Harper, M Albert Thomas
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is accompanied by altered structure and function in cortical, limbic, brainstem, and cerebellar regions. The midbrain is relatively unexamined, but contains many integrative nuclei which mediate physiological functions that are disrupted in OSA. We therefore assessed the chemistry of the midbrain in OSA in this exploratory study. We used a recently-developed accelerated 2D magnetic resonance spectroscopy (2D-MRS) technique, compressed sensing-based 4D echo-planar J-resolved spectroscopic imaging (4D-EP-JRESI), to measure metabolites in the midbrain of 14 OSA (mean age±SD:54...
September 8, 2017: Neuroscience
Ji-Ru Han, Hui Zhang, Wei-Shuang Zheng, Guan-Jun Chen, Zong-Jun Du
A Gram-stain-negative, non-gliding, aerobic and rod-shaped bacterium, designated XJNYT, was isolated from Sayram Lake (44° 30' 30.41″ N 81° 12' 39.55″ E), Xinjiang Province, north-west China, and was characterized taxonomically by a polyphasic study. Strain XJNYT grew at salinities of 0-4 % (w/v) and temperatures of 4-37 °C. The pH range for growth was 6.5-8.5. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain XJNYT belonged to the genus Confluentibacter and was closely related to the type strain of Confluentibacter lentus with 97...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Fangjie Qi, Dane Lamb, Ravi Naidu, Nanthi S Bolan, Yubo Yan, Yong Sik Ok, Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman, Girish Choppala
This study was designed to investigate the effects of acidic and neutral biochars on solubility and bioavailability of cadmium (Cd) in soils with contrasting properties. Four Cd contaminated (50mg/kg) soils (EN: Entisol, AL: Andisol, VE: Vertisol, IN: Inceptisol) were amended with 5% acidic wood shaving biochar (WS, pH=3.25) and neutral chicken litter biochar (CL, pH=7.00). Following a 140-day incubation, the solubility and bioavailability/bioaccessibility of cadmium (Cd) were assessed. Results showed that both biochars had no effect on reducing soluble (pore water) and bioavailable (CaCl2 extractable) Cd for higher sorption capacity soils (AL, IN) while CL biochar reduced those in lower sorption capacity soils (EN, VE) by around 50%...
September 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Hima Bindu Ruttala, Natarajan Chitrapriya, Kaliappan Kaliraj, Thiruganesh Ramasamy, Woo Hyun Shin, Jee-Heon Jeong, Jae Ryong Kim, Sae Kwang Ku, Han-Gon Choi, Chul Soon Yong, Jong Oh Kim
In this study, we developed pH and redox-responsive crosslinked polypeptide-based combination micelles for enhanced chemotherapeutic efficacy and minimized side effects. The stability and drug release properties of the polypeptide micelles were efficiency balanced by the corona-crosslinking of the triblock copolymer, poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(aspartic acid)-b-poly(tyrosine) (PEG-b-pAsp-b-pTyr) with coordinated redox and pH dual-sensitivity by introducing disulfide crosslinkages. Because of the crosslinking of the middle shell of the triblock polypeptide micelles, their robust structure was maintained in strong destabilization conditions and exhibited excellent stability...
September 7, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
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