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Acid base physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353113/cadmium-immobilization-in-river-sediment-using-stabilized-nanoscale-zero-valent-iron-with-enhanced-transport-by-polysaccharide-coating
#1
Danlian Huang, Zhengxun Hu, Zhiwei Peng, Guangming Zeng, Guomin Chen, Chen Zhang, Min Cheng, Jia Wan, Xi Wang, Xiang Qin
Proper management of metal-contaminated sediment plays a key role in sediment recovery and reuse. This study synthesized two kinds of stabilized nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) with starch (S-nZVI) and carboxymethyl cellulose (C-nZVI) for the in situ immobilization of Cd(II) in river sediment and investigated their transport in porous media. Experimental data showed that when the sediment sample was treated with C-nZVI for 56 days at a dosage ranging from 5 to 10 mg/g-sediment as Fe0, the TCLP (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure) leachability of Cd(II) in the sediment decreased by 93...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351921/inhibitory-effects-of-endogenous-linoleic-acid-and-glutaric-acid-on-the-renal-glucuronidation-of-berberrubine-in-mice-and-on-recombinant-human-ugt1a7-1ab-and-1a9
#2
Na Yang, Sijia Li, Caixia Yan, Runbin Sun, Jun He, Yuan Xie, Ying Peng, Guangji Wang, Jiye Aa
Berberrubine (BRB) has a strong lipid-lowering effect and can be extensively metabolized into berberrubine-9-O-β-D-glucuronide (BRBG) in vivo. Recently, pharmacokinetics studies showed that the production of BRBG was significantly decreased in the urine of mice fed with a high fat diet (HFD), indicating a decreased glucuronidation capacity. Based on the UGT isoform identification, hepatic and renal microsomal incubation, glucuronidation was examined to suggest the metabolism of BRB in liver and kidneys. The results showed that the renal UGT activity for metabolizing BRB markedly decreased, which may be highly related to the decreased expression and activity of renal Ugt1a7c...
January 19, 2018: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350185/fluorescence-detection-of-glutathione-and-oxidized-glutathione-in-blood-with-a-nir-excitable-cyanine-probe
#3
Chang-Hui Liu, Feng-Pei Qi, Fu-Bin Wen, Li-Ping Long, Ai-Juan Liu, Rong-Hua Yang
Cyanine has been widely utilized as a near infrared (NIR) fluorophore for detection of glutathione (GSH). However, the excitation of most of the reported cyanine-based probes was less than 800 nm, which inevitably induce biological background absorption and lower the sensitivity, limiting their use for detection of GSH in blood samples. To address this issue, here, a heptamethine cyanine probe (DNIR), with a NIR excitation wavelength at 804 nm and a NIR emission wavelength at 832 nm, is employed for the detection of GSH and its oxidized form (GSSG) in blood...
January 19, 2018: Methods and Applications in Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346767/functional-principles-of-posterior-septal-inputs-to-the-medial-habenula
#4
Yo Otsu, Salvatore Lecca, Katarzyna Pietrajtis, Charly Vincent Rousseau, Païkan Marcaggi, Guillaume Pierre Dugué, Caroline Mailhes-Hamon, Manuel Mameli, Marco Alberto Diana
The medial habenula (MHb) is an epithalamic hub contributing to expression and extinction of aversive states by bridging forebrain areas and midbrain monoaminergic centers. Although contradictory information exists regarding their synaptic properties, the physiology of the excitatory inputs to the MHb from the posterior septum remains elusive. Here, combining optogenetics-based mapping with ex vivo and in vivo physiology, we examine the synaptic properties of posterior septal afferents to the MHb and how they influence behavior...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343185/exploring-protein-protein-intermolecular-recognition-between-meprin-%C3%AE-and-endogenous-protease-regulator-cystatinc-coupled-with-pharmacophore-elucidation
#5
Ankur Chaudhuri, Sampa Biswas, Sibani Chakraborty
Meprins are a group of zinc metalloproteases of the astacin family which play pivotal role in several physiological and pathologocal diseases. The inhibition of the meprins by various inhibitors; macromolecular and small molecules are crucial in the control of several diseases. Human cystatinC, an amyloidogenic protein is reported to be an endogenous inhibitor of meprin-α. In this computational study, we elucidate a rational model for meprinα-cystatinC complex by using protein-protein docking. The complex model as well as the unbound form was evaluated by molecular dynamics simulation...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342113/mitochondria-oxidative-stress-and-the-kynurenine-system-with-a-focus-on-ageing-and-neuroprotection
#6
REVIEW
Katalin Sas, Elza Szabó, László Vécsei
In this review, the potential causes of ageing are discussed. We seek to gain insight into the main physiological functions of mitochondria and discuss alterations in their function and the genome, which are supposed to be the central mechanisms in senescence. We conclude by presenting the potential modulating role of the kynurenine pathway in the ageing processes. Mitochondrial dynamics are supposed to have important physiological roles in maintaining cell homeostasis. During ageing, a decrease in mitochondrial dynamics was reported, potentially compromising the function of mitochondria...
January 17, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341880/targetable-long-non-coding-rnas-in-cancer-treatments
#7
Liang Chen, Emmanuel Enoch Dzakah, Ge Shan
Aberrant expression of many long non-coding RNAs has been observed in various types of cancer, implicating their crucial roles in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. Emerging knowledge with regard to the critical physiological and pathological roles of long non-coding RNAs in cancers makes them potential targets in cancer treatments. In this review, we present a summary of the relatively well studied long non-coding RNAs that are involved in oncogenesis and outline their functions and functional mechanisms...
January 13, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340799/fully-automated-life-support-an-implementation-and-feasibility-pilot-study-in-healthy-pigs
#8
Wilfried Klingert, Jörg Peter, Christian Thiel, Karolin Thiel, Wolfgang Rosenstiel, Kathrin Klingert, Christian Grasshoff, Alfred Königsrainer, Martin Schenk
BACKGROUND: Automated systems are available in various application areas all over the world for the purpose of reducing workload and increasing safety. However, such support systems that would aid caregivers are still lacking in the medical sector. With respect to workload and safety, especially, the intensive care unit appears to be an important and challenging application field. Whereas many closed-loop subsystems for single applications already exist, no comprehensive system covering multiple therapeutic aspects and interactions is available yet...
January 16, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338184/design-of-ph-sensitive-nanovesicles-via-cholesterol-analogue-incorporation-for-improving-in-vivo-delivery-of-chemotherapeutics
#9
Lina Liang, Jun Fu, Liyan Qiu
pH-responsive polymersomes have emerged as promising nanocarriers for antitumor drugs to realize their fast release and action in weak acidic microenvironment of tumor cells. Herein, however, we designed a remarkably pH-responsive polymersome self-assembled from amphiphilic benzimidazole-based polyphosphazenes via the incorporation of cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CholHS), a type of cholesteric molecule, into the polymersome bilayers to inhibit the drug release during blood circulation. Actually, unwanted premature drug leakage before arriving at acidic tumor site has become a serious problem for polymersomes encapsulating water-soluble drugs, especially when the drug-loading is at a high level, thus limiting the therapeutic efficacy...
January 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337857/low-molecular-weight-chitosan-insulin-complexes-solubilized-in-a-mixture-of-self-assembled-labrosol-and-plurol-oleaque-and-their-glucose-reduction-activity-in-rats
#10
Amani M Elsayed, Aseel H Khaled, Mayyas M Al Remawi, Nidal A Qinna, Hussam Abu Farsakh, Adnan A Badwan
Oral insulin delivery that better mimics physiological pathways is a necessity as it ensures patient comfort and compliance. A system which is based on a vehicle of nano order where positively charged chitosan interacts with negatively charged insulin and forms a polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) solubilizate, which is then solubilized into an oily phase of oleic acid, labrasol, and plurol oleaque-protects insulin against enzymatic gastrointestinal reduction. The use of an anionic fatty acid in the oily phase, such as oleic acid, is thought to allow an interaction with cationic chitosan, hence reducing particle size...
January 16, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336997/modulation-of-nonessential-amino-acid-biosynthetic-pathways-in-virulent-hessian-fly-larvae-mayetiola-destructor-feeding-on-susceptible-host-wheat-triticum-aestivum
#11
Subhashree Subramanyam, Jacob T Shreve, Jill A Nemacheck, Alisha J Johnson, Brandi Schemerhorn, Richard H Shukle, Christie E Williams
Compatible interactions between wheat (Triticum aestivum), and its dipteran pest Hessian fly (Hf, Mayetiola destructor) result in successful establishment of larval feeding sites rendering the host plant susceptible. Virulent larvae employ an effector-based feeding strategy to reprogram the host physiology resulting in formation of a protein- and sugar-rich nutritive tissue beneficial to developing larvae. Previous studies documented increased levels of nonessential amino acids (NAA; that need not be received through insect diet) in the susceptible wheat in response to larval feeding, suggesting importance of plant-derived NAA in larval nutrition...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334186/natural-humic-acid-based-phototheranostic-agent
#12
Zhao-Hua Miao, Kai Li, Pei-Ying Liu, Zhenglin Li, Huanjie Yang, Qingliang Zhao, Manli Chang, Qingzhu Yang, Liang Zhen, Cheng-Yan Xu
Humic acids, a major constituent of natural organic carbon resources, are naturally formed through the microbial biodegradation of animal and plant residues. Due to numerous physiologically active groups (phenol, carboxyl, and quinone), the biomedical applications of humic acid have been already investigated across different cultures for several centuries or even longer. In this work, sodium humate, the sodium salt of humic acid, is explored as phototheranostic agent for light-induced photoacoustic imaging and photothermal therapy based on intrinsic absorption in the near-infrared region...
January 15, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332833/a-combination-of-thiol-ene-click-chemistry-and-surface-initiated-atom-transfer-radical-polymerization-fabrication-of-boronic-acid-functionalized-magnetic-graphene-oxide-composite-for-enrichment-of-glycoproteins
#13
Jie Su, Xiwen He, Langxing Chen, Yukui Zhang
An efficient glycoproteins enrichment platform is one of vital preprocessing steps in biomarker research and in particular glycoproteomics. In this work, a well-defined boronic acid functionalized magnetic graphene oxide nanocomposite (Fe3O4-GO@PAAPBA) was synthesized for the selective enrichment of glycoproteins from complex biological samples via a novel strategy based on the "thiol-ene" click chemistry and surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). The initiator of ATRP was anchored to the surface of substrate through "thiol-ene" click reaction...
April 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332257/kynurenic-acid-and-its-derivatives-are-able-to-modulate-the-adhesion-and-locomotion-of-brain-endothelial-cells
#14
Eszter Lajkó, Bernadett Tuka, Ferenc Fülöp, István Krizbai, József Toldi, Kálmán Magyar, László Vécsei, László Kőhidai
The neuroprotective actions of kynurenic acid (KYNA) and its derivatives in several neurodegenerative disorders [characterized by damage to the cerebral endothelium and to the blood-brain barrier (BBB)] are well established. Cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion is supposedly involved in recovery of impaired cerebral endothelium integrity (endothelial repair). The present work aimed to investigate the effects of KYNA and its synthetic derivatives on cellular behaviour (e.g. adhesion and locomotion) and on morphology of the GP8 rat brain endothelial cell line, modeling the BBB endothelium...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329489/mycophenolic-acid-and-its-metabolites-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-a-semimechanistic-enterohepatic-circulation-model-to-improve-estimating-exposure
#15
Malek Okour, Pamala A Jacobson, Mariam A Ahmed, Ajay K Israni, Richard C Brundage
Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is an approved immunosuppressive agent widely prescribed to prevent rejection after kidney transplantation. Wide between-subject variability (BSV) in MPA exposure exists which in part may be due to variability in enterohepatic recirculation (EHC). Several modeling strategies were developed to evaluate EHC as part of MPA pharmacokinetics, however mechanistic representation of EHC is limited. These models have not provided a satisfactory representation of the physiology of EHC in their modeling assumptions...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329072/development-of-potent-and-proteolytically-stable-human-neuromedin-u-receptor-agonists
#16
An De Prins, Charlotte Martin, Yannick Van Wanseele, Louise Julie Skov, Csaba Tömböly, Dirk Tourwé, Vicky Caveliers, Ann Van Eeckhaut, Birgitte Holst, Mette Marie Rosenkilde, Ilse Smolders, Steven Ballet
Neuromedin U (NMU) is a highly conserved endogenous peptide that is involved in a wide range of physiological processes such as regulation of feeding behavior, the stress response and nociception. The major limitation to use NMU as a therapeutic is its short half-life. Here, we describe the development of a set of novel NMU-analogs based on NMU-8, by introducing unnatural amino acids into the native sequence. This approach shows that it is possible to generate molecules with increased potency and improved plasma stability without major changes of the peptidic nature or the introduction of large conjugates...
December 14, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325202/interfacial-mineral-fusion-and-tubule-entanglement-as-a-means-to-harden-a-bone-augmentation-material
#17
Erik A B Hughes, Sophie C Cox, Megan E Cooke, Owen G Davies, Richard L Williams, Thomas J Hall, Liam M Grover
A new bone augmenting material is reported, which is formed from calcium-loaded hydrogel-based spheres. On immersion of these spheres in a physiological medium, they become surrounded with a sheath of precipitate, which ruptures due to a build-up in osmotic pressure. This results in the formation of mineral tubes that protrude from the sphere surface. When brought into close contact with one another, these spheres become fused through the entanglement and subsequent interstitial mineralization of the mineral tubules...
January 11, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321952/fasciculation-and-elongation-zeta-1-protein-fez1-interacts-with-the-retinoic-acid-receptor-and-participates-in-transcriptional-regulation-of-the-hoxb4-gene
#18
Mariana Bertini Teixeira, Ana Carolina M Figueira, Ariane S Furlan, Bruno Aquino, Marcos R Alborghetti, Adriana F Paes Leme, Li-Na Wei, Jörg Kobarg
Fasciculation and elongation zeta-1 (FEZ1) protein is involved in axon outgrowth and is highly expressed in the brain. It has multiple interaction partners, with functions varying from the regulation of neuronal development and intracellular transport mechanisms to transcription regulation. One of its interactors is retinoic acid receptor (RAR), which is activated by retinoic acid and controls many target genes and physiological process. Based on previous evidence suggesting a possible nuclear role for FEZ1, we wanted to deepen our understanding of this function by addressing the FEZ1-RAR interaction...
January 2018: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320678/effect-of-ceramide-tail-length-on-the-structure-of-model-stratum-corneum-lipid-bilayers
#19
Timothy C Moore, Remco Hartkamp, Christopher R Iacovella, Annette L Bunge, Clare McCabe
Lipid bilayers composed of non-hydroxy sphingosine ceramide (CER NS), cholesterol (CHOL), and free fatty acids (FFAs), which are components of the human skin barrier, are studied via molecular dynamics simulations. Since mixtures of these lipids exist in dense gel phases with little molecular mobility at physiological conditions, care must be taken to ensure that the simulations become decorrelated from the initial conditions. Thus, we propose and validate an equilibration protocol based on simulated tempering, in which the simulation takes a random walk through temperature space, allowing the system to break out of metastable configurations and hence become decorrelated from its initial configuration...
January 9, 2018: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320537/correlation-of-a-new-index-reflecting-the-fluctuation-of-parasympathetic-tone-and-fetal-acidosis-in-an-experimental-study-in-a-sheep-model
#20
C Garabedian, Y Clermont-Hama, D Sharma, E Aubry, L Butruille, P Deruelle, L Storme, J De Jonckheere, V Houfflin-Debarge
The autonomic nervous system plays a leading role in the control of fetal homeostasis. Fetal heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is a reflection of its activity. We developed a new index (the Fetal Stress Index, FSI) reflecting parasympathetic tone. The objective of this study was to evaluate this index as a predictor of fetal acid-base status. This was an experimental study on chronically instrumented fetal lambs (n = 11, surgery at 128 +/- 2 days gestational age, term = 145 days). The model was based on 75% occlusion of the umbilical cord for a maximum of 120 minutes or until an arterial pH ≤ 7...
2018: PloS One
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