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Acid base physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653084/bacillus-alcaliphilum-sp-nov-a-bacterium-isolated-from-a-soda-lake
#1
Vishnuvardhan Reddy Sultanpuram, Thirumala Mothe, Sasikala Chintalapati, Venkata Ramana Chintalapati
Two novel (14B(T) and 7B) Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, motile and endospore-forming bacterial strains were isolated from Lonar soda lake, India. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the strains 14B(T) and 7B were identified as belonging to the class Firmibacteria and were most closely related to Bacillus halodurans LMG 7121(T) (99.7 and 99.8%, respectively), Bacillus okuhidensis LMG 22468(T) (99.1 and 99.2%, respectively) and other members in the genus Bacillus (<97.0%). However, the DNA-DNA relatedness studies indicated that the strains 14B(T) and 7B were distantly related to B...
June 26, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652157/an-investigation-of-oral-exposure-variability-and-formulation-strategy-a-case-study-of-pi3k-%C3%AE-inhibitor-and-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-modeling-in-beagle-dogs
#2
Po-Chang Chiang, Jodie Pang, Jia Liu, Laurent Salphati
It is well acknowledged that drugs with poor aqueous solubility are often associated with poor oral absorption. Fortunately, drugs with a basic pKa can take advantage of solubilization in the stomach under the acidic environment to improve exposure. Consequently, high in vivo variability is often observed when stomach pH is altered. When issue encountered, enabling formulations are often used to solve the problem. However, each enabling formulation has its limitations and the situation can be further complicated by other ADME parameters...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651681/no-influence-of-supplemental-dietary-calcium-intake-on-the-bioavailability-of-spinach-carotenoids-in-humans
#3
Joana Corte-Real, Cédric Guignard, Manon Gantenbein, Bernard Weber, Kim Burgard, Lucien Hoffmann, Elke Richling, Torsten Bohn
Dietary carotenoid intake, especially from fruits and vegetables, has been associated with a reduced incidence of several chronic diseases. However, its bioavailability can vary, depending on the food matrix and host factors. Recently, it has been suggested that divalent minerals negatively impinge on carotenoid bioavailability by reducing bile-salt and non-esterified fatty-acid levels in the gut, which normally aid in emulsifying carotenoids. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether supplemental Ca would negatively influence carotenoid absorption in humans...
June 27, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650655/vibrational-relaxation-of-the-backbone-and-bases-modes-in-lacdna-complexes-by-uv-resonance-raman-spectroscopy
#4
Cristina M Muntean, Ioan Bratu, Antonio Hernanz
Vibrational band shape analysis through time correlation function concept is widely used to obtain experimental information on the molecular dynamics of medium size molecules in different environments. Interesting details are revealed by extending this technique to biomolecules such as functional groups of the nucleic acids in media approaching the physiological conditions. In this work a study into the UV resonance Raman (UVRR) vibrational half bandwidths of functional groups in LacDNA, upon lowering the pH (pH 6...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650621/novel-cdta-based-bifunctional-chelators-for-stable-and-inert-mn-ii-complexation-synthesis-and-physicochemical-characterization
#5
Christian Vanasschen, Enikő Molnár, Gyula Tircsó, Ferenc K Kálmán, Éva Tóth, Marie Brandt, Heinz H Coenen, Bernd Neumaier
In the search for Mn(II) MR and PET/MR imaging agents with optimal balance between thermodynamic stability, kinetic inertness, and relaxivity, two novel bifunctional Mn(II) chelators (BFMnCs) based on CDTA (trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid) were synthesized. A six-step synthesis, involving the buildup of a functionalized trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane core, provided CuAAC-reactive 6a and 6b bearing an alkyne or azide substituent on the cyclohexane ring, respectively (CuAAC = Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition)...
June 26, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648288/characterization-of-bacillus-megaterium-bacillus-pumilus-and-paenibacillus-polymyxa-isolated-from-a-pinot-noir-wine-from-western-washington-state
#6
Nicolas H von Cosmos, Bruce A Watson, J K Fellman, D S Mattinson, Charles G Edwards
This report provides the first confirmed evidence of Bacillus-like bacteria present in a wine from Washington State. These bacteria were isolated from a 2013 Pinot noir wine whose aroma was sensorially described as being 'dirty' or 'pond scum.' Based on physiological traits and genetic sequencing, three bacterial isolates were identified as Bacillus megaterium (strain NHO-1), Bacillus pumilus (strain NHO-2), and Paenibacillus polymyxa (strain NHO-3). These bacteria grew in synthetic media of low pH (pH 3.5) while some survived ethanol concentrations up to 15% v/v...
October 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647117/isolation-of-a-potential-biocontrol-agent-paenibacillus-polymyxa-nsy50-from-vinegar-waste-compost-and-its-induction-of-host-defense-responses-against-fusarium-wilt-of-cucumber
#7
Nanshan Du, Lu Shi, Yinghui Yuan, Jin Sun, Sheng Shu, Shirong Guo
Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC) is one of the major destructive soil-borne diseases infecting cucumber. In this study, we screened 60 target strains isolated from vinegar waste compost, from which 10 antagonistic strains were identified to have the disease suppression capacity of bio-control agents. The 16S rDNA gene demonstrated that the biocontrol agents were Paenibacillus polymyxa (P. polymyxa), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (B. amyloliquefaciens) and Bacillus licheniformis (B...
September 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646525/preliminary-characterization-of-putative-structural-cuticular-proteins-in-the-malaria-vector-anopheles-sinensis
#8
Dan Zhou, Baiyun Duan, Yan Sun, Lei Ma, Changliang Zhu, Bo Shen
BACKGROUND: The insect cuticle protects against environmental stresses such as insecticides, physical injury, dehydration and pathogenic microorganisms. Structural cuticular proteins (CPs) are the primary components, and are of interest for physiology-based pest management methods. Anopheles sinensis CPs are poorly characterised at present, therefore we performed whole genome sequence analysis and re-analysed available transcriptome data to identify potential insecticide resistance-associated CPs...
June 23, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645264/molecular-cloning-structure-phylogeny-and-expression-analysis-of-the-invertase-gene-family-in-sugarcane
#9
Liming Wang, Yuexia Zheng, Shihui Ding, Qing Zhang, Youqiang Chen, Jisen Zhang
BACKGROUND: Invertases (INVs) are key enzymes regulating sucrose metabolism and are here revealed to be involved in responses to environmental stress in plants. To date, individual members of the invertase gene family and their expression patterns are unknown in sugarcane due to its complex genome despite their significance in sucrose metabolism. RESULTS: In this study, based on comparative genomics, eleven cDNA and twelve DNA sequences belonging to 14 non-redundant members of the invertase gene family were successfully cloned from sugarcane...
June 23, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645179/system-wide-analysis-of-short-term-response-to-high-temperature-in-pinus-radiata
#10
Mónica Escandón, Luis Valledor, Jesús Pascual, Gloria Pinto, María Jesús Cañal, Mónica Meijón
Pinus radiata seedlings, the most widely planted pine species in the world, were exposed to temperatures within a range mimicking future scenarios based on current models of heat increase. The short-term heat response in P. radiata was studied in detail by exploring the metabolome, proteome and targeted transcriptome. The use of complementary mass spectrometry techniques, GC-MS and LC-Orbitrap-MS, together with novel bioinformatics tools allowed the reliable quantification of 2,075 metabolites and 901 protein groups...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644992/surface-coating-modulated-toxic-responses-to-silver-nanoparticles-in-wolffia-globosa
#11
Xiaoyan Zou, Penghui Li, Jie Lou, Hongwu Zhang
With the omnipresence of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in our daily consumer products, their release has raised serious concerns. However, the biochemical mechanisms by which plants counteract the toxicity of nanoparticles are largely unknown. This study investigated the exposure of aquatic Wolffia globosa to ATP-nAg (AgNPs coated with adenosine triphosphate), cit-nAg (AgNPs coated with citrate), and Ag(+). Hill reaction activity was basically lost in W. globosa treated with 10mg/L ATP-nAg and Ag(+), while the activity was still maintained at 38...
June 15, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643224/establishment-of-a-3d-cell-culture-model-of-primary-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cells-extracted-from-fresh-milk
#12
Maria Hillreiner, Nadine I Müller, Heiner M Koch, Christiane Schmautz, Bernhard Küster, Michael W Pfaffl, Heike Kliem
For the investigation of molecular processes underlying diseases of the bovine mammary gland, primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (pbMEC) are used. They are known to contribute to the innate immune system of the bovine mammary gland. The functionality of pbMEC depends on the maintenance of in vivo characteristics. So far, the optimization of pbMEC culture conditions was intended in a variety of experiments. For this purpose, most of the studies used stable cell lines or primary cells obtained from udder biopsies of slaughtered animals...
June 22, 2017: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638469/dual-ph-sensitive-charge-reversal-nanocomplex-for-tumor-targeted-drug-delivery-with-enhanced-anticancer-activity
#13
Qing Zhou, Yilin Hou, Li Zhang, Jianlin Wang, Youbei Qiao, Songyan Guo, Li Fan, Tiehong Yang, Lin Zhu, Hong Wu
Poly(β-L-malic acid) (PMLA), a natural aliphatic polyester, has been proven to be a promising carrier for anti-cancer drugs. In spite of excellent bio-compatibility, the application of PMLA as the drug carrier for cancer therapy is limited by its low cellular uptake efficiency. The strong negative charge of PMLA impedes its uptake by cancer cells because of the electrostatic repulsion. In this study, a dual pH-sensitive charge-reversal PMLA-based nanocomplex (PMLA-PEI-DOX-TAT@PEG-DMMA) was developed for effective tumor-targeted drug delivery, enhanced cellular uptake, and intracellular drug release...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637825/we-know-more-than-we-can-tell-about-diabetes-and-vascular-disease-the-2016-edwin-bierman-award-lecture
#14
Clay F Semenkovich
The Edwin Bierman Award Lecture is presented in honor of the memory of Edwin L. Bierman, MD, an exemplary scientist, mentor, and leader in the field of diabetes, obesity, hyperlipidemia, and atherosclerosis. The award and lecture recognizes a leading scientist in the field of macrovascular complications and contributing risk factors in diabetes. Clay F. Semenkovich, MD, the Irene E. and Michael M. Karl Professor and Chief of the Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Lipid Research at Washington University School of Medicine in St...
July 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637716/modulation-of-plasma-metabolite-biomarkers-of-mapk-pathway-with-the-mek-inhibitor-ro4987655-pharmacodynamic-and-predictive-potential-in-metastatic-melanoma
#15
Joo Ern Ang, Akos Pal, Yasmin J Asad, Alan T Henley, Melanie Valenti, Gary Box, Alexis de Haven Brandon, Victoria Revell, Debra J Skene, Miro Venturi, Ruediger Rueger, Valerie Meresse, Suzanne A Eccles, Johann S de Bono, Stanley B Kaye, Paul Workman, Udai Banerji, Florence I Raynaud
<p>MAPK pathway activation is frequently observed in human malignancies, including melanoma, and is associated with sensitivity to MEK inhibition and changes in cellular metabolism. Using quantitative mass spectrometry-based metabolomics, we identified in preclinical models 21 plasma metabolites including amino acids, propionylcarnitine, phosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelins that were significantly altered in two B-RAF mutant melanoma xenografts and that were reversed following a single dose of the potent and selective MEK inhibitor RO4987655...
June 21, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637399/biomineralized-recombinant-collagen-based-scaffold-mimicking-native-bone-enhances-mesenchymal-stem-cell-interaction-and-differentiation
#16
Gloria Belén Ramirez-Rodríguez, Monica Montesi, Silvia Panseri, Simone Sprio, Anna Tampieri, Monica Sandri
The need of synthetic bone grafts that recreate from macro to nanoscale level the biochemical and biophysical cues of bone extracellular matrix (ECM) has been a major driving force for the development of new generation of biomaterials. In this study, synthetic bone substitutes have been synthesized via biomimetic mineralization of a recombinant collagen type I derived peptide (RCP), enriched in tri-amino acid sequence arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD). 3D isotropic porous scaffolds of three different compositions are developed by freeze-drying: non-mineralized (RCP, as a control), mineralized (Ap/RCP) and mineralized scaffolds in presence of magnesium (MgAp/RCP) that closely imitate bone composition...
June 22, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635619/on-the-importance-of-accurate-quantification-of-individual-volatile-metabolites-in-exhaled-breath
#17
David Smith, Patrik Spanel
It is argued that shortcomings of certain approaches to breath analysis research based on superficial interpretation of non-quantitative data are inadvertently inhibiting the progression of non-invasive breath analysis into clinical practice. The objective of this perspective is to suggest more clinically profitable approaches to breath research. Thus, following a discourse on the challenges and expectations in breath research, a brief indication is given of the analytical techniques currently used for the analysis of very humid exhaled breath...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632177/the-intersection-of-ngf-trka-signaling-and-amyloid-precursor-protein-processing-in-alzheimer-s-disease-neuropathology
#18
REVIEW
Nadia Canu, Giuseppina Amadoro, Viviana Triaca, Valentina Latina, Valentina Sposato, Veronica Corsetti, Cinzia Severini, Maria Teresa Ciotti, Pietro Calissano
Dysfunction of nerve growth factor (NGF) and its high-affinity Tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA) receptor has been suggested to contribute to the selective degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCN) associated with the progressive cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of this review is to describe our progress in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the dynamic interplay between NGF/TrkA signaling and amyloid precursor protein (APP) metabolism within the context of AD neuropathology...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630692/liver-fat-a-relevant-target-for-dietary-intervention-summary-of-a-unilever-workshop
#19
REVIEW
Harry P F Peters, Patrick Schrauwen, Petra Verhoef, Christopher D Byrne, David J Mela, Andreas F H Pfeiffer, Ulf Risérus, Frits R Rosendaal, Vera Schrauwen-Hinderling
Currently it is estimated that about 1 billion people globally have non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a condition in which liver fat exceeds 5 % of liver weight in the absence of significant alcohol intake. Due to the central role of the liver in metabolism, the prevalence of NAFLD is increasing in parallel with the prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance and other risk factors of metabolic diseases. However, the contribution of liver fat to the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and CVD, relative to other ectopic fat depots and to other risk markers, is unclear...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629509/actinomyces-vulturis-sp-nov-isolated-from-gyps-himalayensis
#20
Xiangli Meng, Shan Lu, Yiting Wang, Xin-He Lai, Yumeng Wen, Dong Jin, Jing Yang, Xiangning Bai, Gui Zhang, Ji Pu, Riuting Lan, Jianguo Xu
Two strains of Gram-stain-positive, facultatively anaerobic, non-spore-forming short rods (VUL7T and VUL8) were isolated from rectal swabs of Old World vultures, namely Gyps himalayensis, in Tibet-Qinghai Plateau, China. Optimal growth occurred at 37 °C, pH 6-7, with 1 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences classified the two strains to the genus Actinomyces, with highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (95 %) to type strains of Actinomyces haliotis, Actinomyces radicidentis and Actinomyces urogenitalis...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
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