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Management of acid base

Dunsfort N Malejane, Peter Tinyani, Puffy Soundy, Yasmina Sultanbawa, Dharini Sivakumar
This study investigated the effect of deficit irrigation at three management allowable depletion levels (MAD) 25%, 50%, and 75% on phytochemicals, ascorbic acid, antioxidant activity, glucose, fructose, and fresh and dry mass in two green leafy lettuce cultivars (Lollo Bionda and Vera) at harvest. Genotype response was observed during deficit irrigation on fresh and dry mass at harvest. Vera revealed similar fresh mass at MAD levels 25% and 50%. Chicoric acid, caftaric acid, and chlorogenic and caffeic acid tended to increase at 50% MAD, while kaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin increased at 75% MAD in both cultivars indicating increasing antioxidant properties...
March 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Ana Rita Lima, Ana Margarida Araújo, Joana Pinto, Carmen Jerónimo, Rui Henrique, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Márcia Carvalho, Paula Guedes de Pinho
Prostate cancer (PCa) is an important health problem worldwide. Diagnosis and management of PCa is very complex because the detection of serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) has several drawbacks. Metabolomics brings promise for cancer biomarker discovery and for better understanding PCa biochemistry. In this study, a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based metabolomic profiling of PCa cell lines was performed. The cell lines include 22RV1 and LNCaP from PCa with androgen receptor (AR) expression, DU145 and PC3 (which lack AR expression), and one normal prostate cell line (PNT2)...
March 19, 2018: Metabolites
Richard Mbundu Ilunga, Céline Helbling, Lucie Favre, Tinh-Hai Collet
Obesity is associated with elevated levels of triglycerides, sometimes LDL-cholesterol, and lower levels of HDL-cholesterol. Management should first focus on dietary advices and increased physical activity, while lipid-lowering drugs are indicated only in patients at intermediate or high cardiovascular risk. We summarize nutritional recommendations from scientific societies: although they do not always overlap, they agree on lowering consumption of dietary fat (20-35 % of total energy intake) and favoring non-saturated fatty acids...
March 21, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
M Ruggeri, M Basile, C Drago, F R Rolli, A Cicchetti
BACKGROUND: Until very recently the only therapeutic alternative for the management of patients affected by gout/hyperuricemia that did not respond to a first-line treatment based on allopurinol alone or who cannot tolerate allopurinol was febuxostat, a xanthine oxidase non-purine-selective inhibitor. Lately, however, a new therapeutic alternative has become available for the management of this pathology: lesinurad, a urate transporter inhibitor. OBJECTIVE: To objective of this study was to evaluate the cost effectiveness of lesinurad/allopurinol in comparison with febuxostat as a second-line therapeutic strategy for the management of patients affected by gout and hyperuricemia that did not respond to a first-line therapy based on allopurinol alone...
March 19, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
Qi Wang, Qian Wang, Yan-Le Zhou, Shuang Shan, Huan-Huan Cui, Yong Xiao, Kun Dong, Adel Khashaveh, Liang Sun, Yong-Jun Zhang
The phytophagous mirid bugs of Apolygus lucorum, Lygus pratensis as well as three Adelphocoris spp., including Adelphocoris lineolatus, A. suturalis , and A. fasciaticollis are major pests of multiple agricultural crops in China, which have distinct geographical distribution and occurrence ranges. Like many insect species, these bugs heavily rely on olfactory cues to search preferred host plants, thereby investigation on functional co-evolution and divergence of olfactory genes seems to be necessary and is of great interest...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Joseph B DeShields, Rachel A Bomberger, James W Woodhall, David L Wheeler, Natalia Moroz, Dennis A Johnson, Kiwamu Tanaka
On-site diagnosis of plant diseases can be a useful tool for growers for timely decisions enabling the earlier implementation of disease management strategies that reduce the impact of the disease. Presently in many diagnostic laboratories, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), particularly real-time PCR, is considered the most sensitive and accurate method for plant pathogen detection. However, laboratory-based PCRs typically require expensive laboratory equipment and skilled personnel. In this study, soil-borne pathogens of potato are used to demonstrate the potential for on-site molecular detection...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Jasmine C Hollinger, Kunal Angra, Rebat M Halder
BACKGROUND: Hyperpigmentation disorders are commonly encountered in dermatology clinics. Botanical and natural ingredients have gained popularity as alternative depigmenting products. OBJECTIVE: We sought to review clinical studies evaluating the use of different natural products in treating hyperpigmentation so clinicians are better equipped to educate their patients. Specific ingredients reviewed include azelaic acid, aloesin, mulberry, licorice extracts, lignin peroxidase, kojic acid, niacinamide, ellagic acid, arbutin, green tea, turmeric, soy, and ascorbic acid...
February 2018: Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology
Matthew T Drake, Jennifer S Fenske, Frank A Blocki, Claudia Zierold, Natasha Appelman-Dijkstra, Socrates Papapoulos, Sundeep Khosla
Sclerostin is a 190 amino acid protein secreted primarily by osteocytes. It was initially identified due to mutations in the SOST gene associated with high bone mass phenotypes. Much recent work has sought to determine the importance of sclerostin across an array of conditions which affect the human skeleton. However, accurate measurement of sclerostin from serum and plasma sources remains a significant impediment, with currently available commercial assays showing marked differences in measured sclerostin values...
March 14, 2018: Bone
S van Gastelen, E C Antunes-Fernandes, K A Hettinga, J Dijkstra
Several in vivo CH4 measurement techniques have been developed but are not suitable for precise and accurate large-scale measurements; hence, proxies for CH4 emissions in dairy cattle have been proposed, including the milk fatty acid (MFA) profile. The aim of the present study was to determine whether recently developed MFA-based prediction equations for CH4 emission are applicable to dairy cows with different diacylglycerol o-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) K232A polymorphism and fed diets with and without linseed oil...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Mery Munoz-Persy, Alfredo J Lucendo
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a unique form of non-IgE-mediated food allergy characterized by esophageal eosinophilic infiltration that commonly causes dysphagia and food impaction in children and adolescents. Assessing the efficacy of dietary restrictions or drug therapies to achieve clinical and histologic resolution of EoE through randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses has resulted in new evidence-based guidelines. Avoiding food triggers is the only therapy targeting the cause of the disease...
March 17, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
Bin Hua, John Yang, Fengjing Liu, Guocheng Zhu, Baolin Deng, Jingdong Mao
Characterization of dissolved organic matter/nitrogen (DOM/DON) is critical in water quality assessment and nutrient management in watershed or ecosystem. This study was to investigate the link between DOM/DON and its source using fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). Water samples were collected from various aquatic systems in a watershed located in central Missouri, including rural watershed with various land use and land cover (LULC), landfill, and constructed wetland...
March 6, 2018: Chemosphere
Benjamin D Jaffe, Peter J Landolt
Male and female codling moths, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were shown to be attracted to a three-chemical kairomonal lure consisting of pear ester, acetic acid, and n-butyl sulfide. A controlled-release device based on sachets was developed in the laboratory and field tested to optimize the attractiveness of C. pomonella to this combination of attractants, and to decrease material costs associated with the controlled-release of these chemicals. The lure was most effective when pear ester was released from a separate dispenser than when combined acetic acid and n-butyl sulfide...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Guillermo de Anda-Jáuregui, Kai Guo, Brett A McGregor, Junguk Hur
The quintessential biological response to disease is inflammation. It is a driver and an important element in a wide range of pathological states. Pharmacological management of inflammation is therefore central in the clinical setting. Anti-inflammatory drugs modulate specific molecules involved in the inflammatory response; these drugs are traditionally classified as steroidal and non-steroidal drugs. However, the effects of these drugs are rarely limited to their canonical targets, affecting other molecules and altering biological functions with system-wide effects that can lead to the emergence of secondary therapeutic applications or adverse drug reactions (ADRs)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
A Kane Dia, O Kalsom Guèye, E Amadou Niang, S Mocote Diédhiou, M Demba Sy, Abdoulaye Konaté, Badara Samb, Abdoulaye Diop, Lassana Konaté, Ousmane Faye
BACKGROUND: Urban malaria is an increasing concern in most of the sub-Saharan Africa countries. In Dakar, the capital city of Senegal, the malaria epidemiology has been complicated by recurrent flooding since 2005. The main vector control measure for malaria prevention in Dakar is the community use of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets. However, the increase of insecticide resistance reported in this area needs to be better understood for suitable resistance management. This study reports the situation of insecticide resistance and underlying mechanisms in Anopheles arabiensis populations from Dakar and its suburbs...
March 15, 2018: Malaria Journal
Thomas C Sauter, Balthasar Eberle, Walter A Wuillemin, Thomas Thiele, Anne Angelillo-Scherrer, Aristomenis K Exadaktylos, Gabor Erdös, Adam Cuker, Michael Nagler
Antithrombotic treatment puts patients at risk of major bleeding. Fast and adequate response to anticoagulant-associated bleeding may not only stop the bleeding but prevent severe complications. However, practical treatment algorithms to guide physicians in emergency situations are lacking. Important principles that arise from management of bleeding in general are (a) implementation of an in-house algorithm, (b) rapid identification and treatment of the bleeding source, (c) adequate fluid resuscitation, (d) consideration of the application of tranexamic acid and (e) appropriate coagulation testing...
March 14, 2018: Swiss Medical Weekly
Imran Siddiqui, Lena Jafri, Qalab Abbas, Ahmed Raheem, Anwar Ul Haque
Objective: To evaluate the clinical and prognostic utility of procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), and lactic acid in children admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) of a university teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: Medical records of children (1 month-16 years) tested for serum PCT at the time of admission in the PICU of our hospital from July 1, 2013, to January 15, 2015, were reviewed. Within 24 h of admission, the Pediatric Risk of Mortality Score, blood cultures, white blood cell count, neutrophil counts, serum CRP, plasma lactic acid, and PCT were noted...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Victoria M Pak, Feng Dai, Brendan T Keenan, Nalaka S Gooneratne, Allan I Pack
Sleepiness and cardiovascular disease share common molecular pathways; thus, metabolic risk factors for sleepiness may also predict cardiovascular disease risk. Daytime sleepiness predicts mortality and cardiovascular disease, although the mechanism is unidentified. This study explored the associations between subjective sleepiness and metabolite concentrations in human blood plasma within the oxidative and inflammatory pathways, in order to identify mechanisms that may contribute to sleepiness and cardiovascular disease risk...
April 2018: Sleep Medicine
Jan Klett
Lochmann-Schlosser superbases are formed by mixing alkyllithium with potassium alkoxides. These reagents could prove their synthetic usefulness and reliability in many reactions over five decades. However, despite many efforts the real source of the exceptional reactivity remained a secret. The seemingly manageable system of four components (lithium, potassium atoms, alkyl groups, and alkoxy groups) and their interaction is obscured by poor solubility and fierce reactivity. Recent progress was achieved by using neopentyllithium, leading to alkane soluble-aggregates with varying lithium/potassium content and a flexible alkyl/alkoxy ratio...
March 12, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Michael Malone, Abdul Waheed, Samiullah Samiullah
Functional upper gastrointestinal disorders are common and cause significant patient distress and health care cost. These disorders typically are classified as either esophageal or gastroduodenal. Functional esophageal disorders include functional heartburn, reflux hypersensitivity, and functional dysphagia. Functional gastroduodenal disorders include functional dyspepsia and cyclic vomiting syndrome. Cyclic vomiting syndrome should be suspected in any patient with multiple episodes of vomiting with no apparent cause that completely resolve between episodes...
March 2018: FP Essentials
Justin Shih, Ato Fanyin-Martin, Edris Taher, Kartik Chandran
Background.  In Ghana, faecal sludge (FS) from on-site sanitation facilities is often discharged untreated into the environment, leading to significant insults to environmental and human health. Anaerobic digestion offers an attractive pathway for FS treatment with the concomitant production of energy in the form of methane. Another innovative option includes separating digestion into acidogenesis (production of volatile fatty acids (VFA)) and methanogenesis (production of methane), which could ultimately facilitate the production of an array of biofuels and biochemicals from the VFA...
November 6, 2017: Gates Open Res
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