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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723414/omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-as-a-treatment-strategy-for-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#1
REVIEW
Donald B Jump, Kelli A Lytle, Christopher M Depner, Sasmita Tripathy
Obese and type 2 diabetic (T2DM) patients have a high prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD is a continuum of chronic liver diseases ranging from benign hepatosteatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and primary hepatocellular cancer (HCC). Because of its strong association with the obesity epidemic, NAFLD is rapidly becoming a major public health concern worldwide. Surprisingly, there are no FDA approved NAFLD therapies; and current therapies focus on the co-morbidities associated with NAFLD, namely, obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension...
July 16, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723108/oral-exposure-of-silver-nanoparticles-or-silver-ions-may-aggravate-fatty-liver-disease-in-overweight-mice
#2
Jianbo Jia, Feifei Li, Hongyu Zhou, Yuhong Bai, Sijin Liu, Yiguo Jiang, Guibin Jiang, Bing Yan
As the applications and environmental release of silver ions and nanoparticles are increasing, growing human exposures to these pollutants have become an emerging health concerns. The impeding effects of such pollutants on susceptible populations are severely under-studied. Here, we demonstrate that Ag NPs, at a dose that causes no general toxicity in normal mice, promote the progression of fatty liver disease from steatosis to steatohepatitis only in overweight mice. Exposure to Ag+ ions induces the same effects in overweight mice...
July 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723064/doxorubicin-intracellular-remote-release-from-biocompatible-oegma-based-magnetic-nanogels-triggered-by-magnetic-hyperthermia
#3
Esther Cazares-Cortes, Ana Espinosa, Jean-Michel Guigner, Aude Michel, Nébéwia Griffete, Claire Wilhelm, Christine Menager
Hybrid nanogels, composed of thermoresponsive polymers and superparamagnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are attractive nanocarriers for biomedical applications, being able - as polymer matrix - to uptake and release high quantities of chemotherapeutic agents and - as magnetic nanoparticles - to heat when exposed to an alternative magnetic field (AMF), better known as magnetic hyperthermia. Herein, biocompatible, pH-, magnetic- and thermo-responsive nanogels, based on oligo (ethylene glycol) methacrylate monomers (OEGMAs) and methacrylic acid co-monomer (MAA) were prepared by conventional precipitation radical co-polymerization in water, post-assembled by complexation with iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) of maghemite (-Fe2O3) and loaded with an anticancer drug (doxorubicin - DOX), for remotely controlled drug release by "hot-spot", as an athermal magnetic hyperthermia strategy against cancer...
July 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722443/quantum-dot-nanotoxicity-investigations-using-human-lung-cells-and-toxor-electrochemical-enzyme-assay-methodology
#4
Tony O'Hara, Brian Seddon, Andrew O'Connor, Siobhán McClean, Baljit Singh, Emmanuel Iwuoha, Xolile Fuku, Eithne Dempsey
Recent studies have suggested that certain nanomaterials can interfere with optically based cytotoxicity assays resulting in underestimations of nanomaterial toxicity. As a result there has been growing interest in the use of whole cell electrochemical biosensors for nanotoxicity applications. Herein we report application of an electrochemical cytotoxicity assay developed in house (TOXOR) in the evaluation of toxic effects of mercaptosuccinic acid capped cadmium telluride quantum dots (MSA capped CdTe QDs), toward mammalian cells...
January 27, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722356/hansen-solubility-parameters-for-assay-method-optimization-of-simvastatin-ramipril-atenolol-hydrochlorothiazide-and-aspirin-in-human-plasma-using-liquid-chromatography-with-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#5
Murali Mohan Reddy Devalapalli, Hanumanth Srikanth Cheruvu, Thejaswi Yertha, Vijaya Bhaskar Veeravalli, Sunitha Sampathi, Savithri Shivakumar
A simple, specific, sensitive validated method was developed using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization of human plasma for the simultaneous estimation of drugs (simvastatin, ramipril, atenolol, hydrochlorothiazide and aspirin) of Polycap(TM) capsule used in cardiovascular therapy. The interaction of these actives including internal standards between the stationary and mobile phase were investigated using Hansen solubility parameters. Chromatographic separation was performed on Phenomenex Synergi Polar-RP (30 × 2 mm, 4 μm) column with a gradient mobile phase composition of acetonitrile and 5 mM ammonium formate for positive mode and 0...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722238/the-preparation-of-microfluidic-architecture-with-monolithic-materials-using-a-dual-porous-silica-structure
#6
Christopher Birch, Mohammad Mehdi Nasr Esfahani, Kirsty J Shaw, Cordula Kemp, Stephen James Haswell, Charlotte Dyer
A microfluidic device (MD) has been developed which features a porous silica (PS) monolithic disk synthesized from tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS), incorporated into the device post-fabrication and sealed in place with a second PS monolithic layer, synthesized from potassium silicate. This dual porous silica (DPS) structure provides a pathway for sample introduction to the microfluidic device and offers an ideal platform for solid phase extraction (SPE) methodologies which can be rapidly and efficiently integrated into a chip-based format...
July 19, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722154/application-of-headspace-solid-phase-microextraction-followed-by-gas-chromatography-coupled-with-mass-spectrometry-spme-gc-ms-to-determine-esters-of-carboxylic-acids-and-other-volatile-compounds-in-d-maculatus-and-d-ater-lipids
#7
Magdalena Cerkowniak, Mieczysława I Boguś, Emilia Włóka, Piotr Stepnowski, Marek Gołębiowski
A constant problem in veterinary medicine, human healthcare, agriculture, forestry or horticulture is the large number of pests, and the lack of effective methods to combat them which cause no harm to the rest of the environment. It is recommended and desired to reduce the use of chemicals and increase the use of agents based on the knowledge acquired in the field of biology, chemistry, and agrochemicals. To learn the defense mechanisms of insects we should consider not only the site of their physiological ability to protect against external factors (cuticle), but also check the possibility of chemical protection, formed by all compounds on the surface and in the body of insects...
July 19, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720346/pharmacokinetic-data-reduce-uncertainty-in-the-acceptable-daily-intake-for-benzoic-acid-and-its-salts
#8
K Zu, D M Pizzurro, T A Lewandowski, J E Goodman
The current acceptable daily intake (ADI) for benzoic acid and its salts as food additives is 0-5 mg/kg bw-day. This accounts for a total uncertainty factor (UF) of 100, which includes a default factor of 10 for interspecies differences. Based on pharmacokinetic data in rodents and humans, we derived a chemical-specific adjustment factor (CSAF) of 2 for the pharmacokinetic component of the interspecies UF. Additional analyses indicate that this CSAF is conservative and interspecies differences between rats and humans are likely closer to unity...
July 15, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720150/metabotyping-and-its-application-in-targeted-nutrition-an-overview
#9
Anna Riedl, Christian Gieger, Hans Hauner, Hannelore Daniel, Jakob Linseisen
Metabolic diversity leads to differences in nutrient requirements and responses to diet and medication between individuals. Using the concept of metabotyping - that is, grouping metabolically similar individuals - tailored and more efficient recommendations may be achieved. The aim of this study was to review the current literature on metabotyping and to explore its potential for better targeted dietary intervention in subjects with and without metabolic diseases. A comprehensive literature search was performed in PubMed, Google and Google Scholar to find relevant articles on metabotyping in humans including healthy individuals, population-based samples and patients with chronic metabolic diseases...
July 19, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719613/visual-detection-of-brucella-in-bovine-biological-samples-using-dna-activated-gold-nanoparticles
#10
Dheeraj Pal, Nongthombam Boby, Satish Kumar, Gurpreet Kaur, Syed Atif Ali, Julien Reboud, Sameer Shrivastava, Praveen K Gupta, Jonathan M Cooper, Pallab Chaudhuri
Brucellosis is a bacterial disease, which, although affecting cattle primarily, has been associated with human infections, making its detection an important challenge. The existing gold standard diagnosis relies on the culture of bacteria which is a lengthy and costly process, taking up to 45 days. New technologies based on molecular diagnosis have been proposed, either through dip-stick, immunological assays, which have limited specificity, or using nucleic acid tests, which enable to identify the pathogen, but are impractical for use in the field, where most of the reservoir cases are located...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719350/characterization-of-candidate-probionts-isolated-from-human-breast-milk
#11
S Khalkhali, N Mojgani
This study was designed to isolate and identify the potential probionts present in 32 healthy mothers' breast milk. Microbial culture media and 16SrRNA sequencing were used to isolate and identify the bacteria and all isolates were analyzed for their antagonistic potential, resistance to acidic pH, bile salts and survival under simulated gastric and intestinal conditions. The colonization potential was further assessed based on adherence to human enterocyte-like Caco-2 cell lines. The breast milk samples harbored significant numbers of Gram positive and catalase negative (85%) bacteria...
May 20, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719319/phosphoproteome-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infected-host-cells-reveals-specific-cellular-processes-predominating-in-different-phases-of-infection
#12
Cheng He, Ai-Yuan Chen, Hai-Xia Wei, Xiao-Shuang Feng, Hong-Juan Peng
The invasion of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites into the host cell results in extensive host cell signaling activation/deactivation that is usually regulated by the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation. To elucidate how T. gondii regulates host cell signal transduction, the comparative phosphoproteome of stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture-labeled human foreskin fibroblast cells was analyzed. The cells were grouped (Light [L], Medium [M], and Heavy [H] groups) based on the labeling isotope weight and were infected with T...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719146/natural-compounds-in-cancer-prevention-effects-of-coffee-extracts-and-their-main-polyphenolic-component-5-cqa-on-oncogenic-ras-proteins
#13
Alessandro Palmioli, Carlotta Cairamelli, Renata Tisi, Michela Spinelli, Gaia De Sanctis, Elena Sacco, Cristina Airoldi
Recent epidemiological studies demonstrate that consumption of healthy foods, especially rich in polyphenols content, might reduce the incidence of cancer and degenerative diseases. In particular, chlorogenic acids (CGAs) occur ubiquitously in food, representing the most abundant polyphenols in the human diet. A number of CGA beneficial biological effects, including anti-inflammatory activity, anti-carcinogenic activity and protection against neurodegenerative diseases have been reported. However, the molecular mechanisms at the basis of these biological activities have not yet been investigated in depth...
July 18, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719098/a-pyridoindole-based-multifunctional-bioprobe-ph-induced-fluorescence-switching-and-specific-targeting-of-lipid-droplets
#14
Bahadur Sk, Pilendra Thakre, Raghuvir Singh Tomar, Abhijit Patra
A versatile fluorescent probe, PITE, based on alkyl substituted pyridoindole (PI) and tetraphenylethylene (TE) exhibiting facile pH-induced fluorescence switching in solution, nanoparticles and solid state is presented. Strong fluorescence in the solid state besides solution and aggregated state allow sensing of toxic acid vapor. Fluorescence "off-on" switching of PITE by exposing to trifluoracetic acid and triethylamine vapor is visualized through naked eyes. A unified picture of switchable fluorescence of PITE is obtained by comprehensive spectroscopic investigations coupled with quantum mechanical calculations...
July 18, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718805/emerging-fusarium-and-alternaria-mycotoxins-occurrence-toxicity-and-toxicokinetics
#15
REVIEW
Sophie Fraeyman, Siska Croubels, Mathias Devreese, Gunther Antonissen
Emerging Fusarium and Alternaria mycotoxins gain more and more interest due to their frequent contamination of food and feed, although in vivo toxicity and toxicokinetic data are limited. Whereas the Fusarium mycotoxins beauvericin, moniliformin and enniatins particularly contaminate grain and grain-based products, Alternaria mycotoxins are also detected in fruits, vegetables and wines. Although contamination levels are usually low (µg/kg range), higher contamination levels of enniatins and tenuazonic acid may occasionally occur...
July 18, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717982/characterization-of-zinc-amino-acid-complexes-for-zinc-delivery-in-vitro-using-caco-2-cells-and-enterocytes-from-hipsc
#16
Ann Katrin Sauer, Stefanie Pfaender, Simone Hagmeyer, Laura Tarana, Ann-Kathrin Mattes, Franziska Briel, Sébastien Küry, Tobias M Boeckers, Andreas M Grabrucker
Zn is essential for growth and development. The bioavailability of Zn is affected by several factors such as other food components. It is therefore of interest, to understand uptake mechanisms of Zn delivering compounds to identify ways to bypass the inhibitory effects of these factors. Here, we studied the effect of Zn amino acid conjugates (ZnAAs) on the bioavailabilty of Zn. We used Caco-2 cells and enterocytes differentiated from human induced pluripotent stem cells from a control and Acrodermatitis enteropathica (AE) patient, and performed fluorescence based assays, protein biochemistry and atomic absorption spectrometry to characterize cellular uptake and absorption of ZnAAs...
July 17, 2017: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717897/development-of-a-fast-and-cost-effective-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-method-for-the-quantification-of-short-chain-and-medium-chain-fatty-acids-in-human-biofluids
#17
Cesare Lotti, Josep Rubert, Francesca Fava, Kieran Tuohy, Fulvio Mattivi, Urska Vrhovsek
The quantification of short-chain and medium-chain fatty acids is becoming more and more relevant in fecal and plasma samples due to their biological impact, which has been associated with colon rectal cancer and fiber consumption. For these reasons, a fast, cost-effective, and reproducible analytical method is highly required. In this research, a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method based on full scan and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) acquisition modes were optimized and validated for the analysis of short-chain and medium-chain fatty acids in three biological samples: human fecal water, fecal fermentation supernatants, and human plasma...
July 17, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717606/combined-supplementation-of-ascorbic-acid-and-thyroid-hormone-t3-affects-tenocyte-proliferation-the-effect-of-ascorbic-acid-in-the-production-of-nitric-oxide
#18
Viviana di Giacomo, Martina Berardocco, Marialucia Gallorini, Francesco Oliva, Alessia Colosimo, Amelia Cataldi, Nicola Maffulli, Anna C Berardi
BACKGROUND: Tissue engineering is now increasingly focusing on cell-based treatments as promising tools to improve tendon repair. However, many crucial aspects of tendon biology remain to be understood before adopting the best experimental approach for cell-tissue engineering. METHODS: The role played by Ascorbic Acid (AA) alone and in combination with thyroid hormone T3 in the viability and proliferation of primary human tendon-derived cells was investigated. Human tenocyte viability was detected by Trypan blue exclusion test and cellular proliferation rate was evaluated by CFSE CellTrace™...
January 2017: Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717506/injectable-scaffold-materials-differ-in-their-cell-instructive-effects-on-primary-human-myoblasts
#19
Eva Kildall Hejbøl, Jeeva Sellathurai, Prabha Damodaran Nair, Henrik Daa Schrøder
Scaffolds are materials used for delivery of cells for regeneration of tissues. They support three-dimensional organization and improve cell survival. For the repair of small skeletal muscles, injections of small volumes of cells are attractive, and injectable scaffolds for delivery of cells offer a minimally invasive technique. In this study, we examined in vitro the cell instructive effects of three types of injectable scaffolds, fibrin, alginate, and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-based microparticles on primary human myoblasts...
January 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717061/apobec-mediated-genomic-alterations-link-immunity-and-viral-infection-during-human-papillomavirus-driven-cervical-carcinogenesis
#20
Lanting Chen, Xuemin Qiu, Na Zhang, Yan Wang, Mingyan Wang, Dajin Li, Ling Wang, Yan Du
Cervical cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers and is a major cause of death from gynecologic cancers worldwide; the cancer burden from cervical cancer is especially heavy in less developed countries. Most cases of cervical cancer are caused by persistent infection with carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes 16 and 18. Non-resolving inflammation caused by HPV infection provides a microenvironment that facilitates cancer development. Molecular alterations during the process of HPV-induced carcinogenesis are characterized by DNA methylation within the HPV genome, promoter hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes in the host genome, as well as genomic instability caused by viral DNA integrating into the host genome...
July 17, 2017: Bioscience Trends
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