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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721199/evidence-informed-capacity-building-for-setting-health-priorities-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-framework-and-recommendations-for-further-research
#1
Ryan Li, Francis Ruiz, Anthony J Culyer, Kalipso Chalkidou, Karen J Hofman
Priority-setting in health is risky and challenging, particularly in resource-constrained settings. It is not simply a narrow technical exercise, and involves the mobilisation of a wide range of capacities among stakeholders - not only the technical capacity to "do" research in economic evaluations. Using the Individuals, Nodes, Networks and Environment (INNE) framework, we identify those stakeholders, whose capacity needs will vary along the evidence-to-policy continuum. Policymakers and healthcare managers require the capacity to commission and use relevant evidence (including evidence of clinical and cost-effectiveness, and of social values); academics need to understand and respond to decision-makers' needs to produce relevant research...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720106/caretaker-adolescent-communication-on-sexual-and-reproductive-health-a-cross-sectional-study-in-unguja-tanzania-zanzibar
#2
Saada A Seif, Thecla W Kohi, Candida S Moshiro
BACKGROUND: Caretakers/parents/caregivers/guardians play important roles in improving Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) of adolescents. Caretaker-adolescent sexual communication suggested to influence young people's sexual behaviours. Despite this significance, the communication is believed to be low in Unguja due to the increase of risky sexual behaviours among adolescents. This study assessed the pattern of such communication using IMB model as a framework. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study targeted caretakers of adolescents aged 15-19...
July 18, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703897/media-representations-of-breech-birth-a-prospective-analysis-of-web-based-news-reports
#3
Karolina Petrovska, Athena Sheehan, Caroline S E Homer
INTRODUCTION: Recent research has demonstrated that the media presentation of childbirth is highly medicalized, often portraying birth as risky and dramatic. Media representation of breech presentation and birth is unexplored in this context. This study aimed to explore the content and tone of news media reports relating to breech presentation and breech birth. METHODS: Google alerts were created using the terms breech and breech birth in online English-language news sites over a 3-year period from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2015...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695835/the-concept-of-travel-medicine-and-the-actual-situation-of-travel-related-illnesses
#4
Varol Tunalı, Nevin Turgay
Travel medicine defines all diseases and medical situations that are related to travel. Travel medicine comprises infectious diseases, traumas, altitude sickness, sun burns, embolisms, jet lag, and many more travel-related situations. With the increasing possibility and ease of travel, the number of people who have travelled internationally has exceeded 1.13 billion in 2014, and the revenues of international travel have exceeded 1.25 trillion dollars. With every passing day, international travels are shifting toward the developing countries and to more exotic regions of the world, and travelers tend to be more adventurous and daring, thereby increasing risky behaviors during travels...
June 2017: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694710/modeling-ecodevelopmental-context-of-sexually-transmitted-disease-hiv-risk-and-protective-behaviors-among-african-american-adolescents
#5
Ya-Huei Li, Osaro Mgbere, Susan Abughosh, Hua Chen, Paula Cuccaro, Ekere James Essien
Risk and protective processes are integrated developmental processes that directly or indirectly affect behavioral outcomes. A better understanding of these processes is needed, in order to gauge their contribution to sexual risk behaviors. This retrospective cross-sectional study modeled the ecodevelopmental chain of relationships to examine the social contexts of African-American (AA) adolescents associated with sexually transmitted disease (STD)- and HIV-risk behaviors. We used data from 1,619 AA adolescents with an average age of 16±1...
2017: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694338/no-effect-of-commercial-cognitive-training-on-neural-activity-during-decision-making
#6
Joseph W Kable, M Kathleen Caulfield, Mary Falcone, Mairead McConnell, Leah Bernardo, Trishala Parthasarathi, Nicole Cooper, Rebecca Ashare, Janet Audrain-McGovern, Robert Hornik, Paul Diefenbach, Frank J Lee, Caryn Lerman
Increased preference for immediate over delayed and for risky over certain rewards has been associated with unhealthy behavioral choices. Motivated by evidence that enhanced cognitive control can shift choice behavior away from immediate and risky rewards, we tested whether training executive cognitive function could influence choice behavior and brain responses. In this randomized controlled trial, 128 young adults (71 male, 57 female) participated in 10 weeks of training with either a commercial web-based cognitive training program or web-based video games that do not specifically target executive function or adapt the level of difficulty throughout training...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691176/attitudes-norms-and-the-effect-of-social-connectedness-on-adolescent-sexual-risk-intention
#7
Julie A Cederbaum, Aubrey J Rodriguez, Kathrine Sullivan, Kandice Gray
BACKGROUND: Risky sexual behaviors put adolescents at increased risk of adverse outcomes. Parents, school-based adults, and peers play important roles in influencing these sex intentions. METHODS: This work explored the influence of parent-child sex communication on adolescent attitudes, perceived norms, and intentions to have sex, including the moderating role of social support from school-based adults, in a sample of 21,731 adolescents in California. RESULTS: Although increased parent-child sex communication was associated with intentions to have sex, it also exhibited protective effects, increasing abstinence attitudes among youth that led to decreased intention directly and via support from school-based adults...
August 2017: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690557/security-under-uncertainty-adaptive-attackers-are-more-challenging-to-human-defenders-than-random-attackers
#8
Frédéric Moisan, Cleotilde Gonzalez
Game Theory is a common approach used to understand attacker and defender motives, strategies, and allocation of limited security resources. For example, many defense algorithms are based on game-theoretic solutions that conclude that randomization of defense actions assures unpredictability, creating difficulties for a human attacker. However, many game-theoretic solutions often rely on idealized assumptions of decision making that underplay the role of human cognition and information uncertainty. The consequence is that we know little about how effective these algorithms are against human players...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585155/latino-sexual-beliefs-scale-an-exploratory-factor-analysis-of-latino-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#9
Robert J Zeglin, Kenneth C Hergenrather, Paul J Poppen, Jaehwa Choi, Carol Reisen, Maria Cecilia Zea
The catalyzing forces behind risky sexual behavior are a rich area of interest for public health researchers concerned with reducing HIV risk. Social cognitive theory would suggest that sexual beliefs are a viable example of one such influential agent. Recognizing that culture plays an important role in forming such sexual beliefs, and seeking to understand the unique HIV risks present for Latino men who have sex with men (MSM), this article presents an exploratory factor analysis of the 13-item Latino Sexual Beliefs Scale (LSBS) created as part of a larger study to investigate predictors of condom use among a sample of 482 MSM born in Brazil, Colombia, and the Dominican Republic and living in the U...
June 5, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569521/how-dispositional-social-risk-seeking-promotes-trusting-strangers-evidence-based-on-brain-potentials-and-neural-oscillations
#10
Yiwen Wang, Yiming Jing, Zhen Zhang, Chongde Lin, Emilio A Valadez
Trust is a risky social decision because betrayal may occur. It's not clear how individual differences in social risk-seeking propensity modulate brain processes of trusting strangers. We examined event-related potentials and time-frequency power to investigate this question while 40 participants played the one-shot trust game. Twenty high social risk-seekers (HSR) and 20 low social risk-seekers (LSR) made trusting or distrusting decisions regarding unknown trustees while their electroencephalogram activity was recorded...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544093/adolescents-exposure-to-paid-alcohol-advertising-on-television-and-their-alcohol-use-exploring-associations-over-a-13-year-period
#11
V White, D Azar, A Faulkner, K Coomber, S Durkin, M Livingston, T Chikritzhs, R Room, M Wakefield
AIMS: To determine i) whether Australian adolescents' exposure to television alcohol advertisements changed between 1999 and 2011 and ii) examine the association between television alcohol advertising and adolescent drinking behaviours. DESIGN: Cross-sectional surveys conducted every three years between 1999 and 2011. Analyses examined associations between advertising exposures and reported drinking. SETTING: Five Australian major cities. PARTICIPANTS: Students aged 12-17 years participating in a triennial nationally representative school-based survey residing in the television advertising markets associated with the major cities (sample size range per survey: 12644 to 16004)...
May 20, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516320/how-does-the-presence-of-a-conspecific-individual-change-the-behavioral-game-that-a-predator-plays-with-its-prey
#12
Reut Vardi, Zvika Abramsky, Burt P Kotler, Ofir Altstein, Michael L Rosenzweig
Behavioral games predators play among themselves may have profound effects on behavioral games predators play with their prey. We studied the behavioral game between predators and prey within the framework of social foraging among predators. We tested how conspecific interactions among predators (little egret) change the predator-prey behavioral game and foraging success. To do so, we examined foraging behavior of egrets alone and in pairs (male and female) in a specially designed aviary consisting of three equally spaced pools with identical initial prey (comet goldfish) densities...
July 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453197/peers-increase-late-adolescents-exploratory-behavior-and-sensitivity-to-positive-and-negative-feedback
#13
Karol Silva, Elizabeth P Shulman, Jason Chein, Laurence Steinberg
Adolescents take more risks with peers than when alone. It is not clear how peer presence affects adolescents' risky decision making, however. We used the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT)-a game used to assess decision making involving risk and reward-to examine how peers affect late adolescents' exploration of relevant environmental cues, ability to learn from the outcomes (positive and negative) of that exploration, and ability to integrate feedback to adjust behavior toward optimal long-term outcomes. One hundred and one 18- to 22-year old males (M = 19...
December 2016: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450078/frontostriatal-development-and-probabilistic-reinforcement-learning-during-adolescence
#14
Samantha DePasque, Adriana Galván
Adolescence has traditionally been viewed as a period of vulnerability to increased risk-taking and adverse outcomes, which have been linked to neurobiological maturation of the frontostriatal reward system. However, growing research on the role of developmental changes in the adolescent frontostriatal system in facilitating learning will provide a more nuanced view of adolescence . In this review, we discuss extant research on this topic, its implications for learning during adolescence and suggest that the very neural changes that render adolescents vulnerable to social pressure and risky decision making may also stand to play a role in scaffolding the ability to learn from rewards and from performance-related feedback...
April 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442732/human-bipedal-instability-in-tree-canopy-environments-is-reduced-by-light-touch-fingertip-support
#15
L Johannsen, S R L Coward, G R Martin, A M Wing, A van Casteren, W I Sellers, A R Ennos, R H Crompton, S K S Thorpe
Whether tree canopy habitats played a sustained role in the ecology of ancestral bipedal hominins is unresolved. Some argue that arboreal bipedalism was prohibitively risky for hominins whose increasingly modern anatomy prevented them from gripping branches with their feet. Balancing on two legs is indeed challenging for humans under optimal conditions let alone in forest canopy, which is physically and visually highly dynamic. Here we quantify the impact of forest canopy characteristics on postural stability in humans...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436735/risk-and-safety-perception-on-urban-and-rural-roads-effects-of-environmental-features-driver-age-and-risk-sensitivity
#16
Jolene A Cox, Vanessa Beanland, Ashleigh J Filtness
OBJECTIVE: The ability to detect changing visual information is a vital component of safe driving. In addition to detecting changing visual information, drivers must also interpret its relevance to safety. Environmental changes considered to have high safety relevance will likely demand greater attention and more timely responses than those considered to have lower safety relevance. The aim of this study was to explore factors that are likely to influence perceptions of risk and safety regarding changing visual information in the driving environment...
February 21, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398126/a-multifactorial-and-integrative-approach-to-impulsivity-in-neuropsychology-insights-from-the-upps-model-of-impulsivity
#17
Lucien Rochat, Joël Billieux, Jean Gagnon, Martial Van der Linden
Risky and excessive behaviors, such as aggressive and compulsive behaviors, are frequently described in patients with brain damage and have dramatic psychosocial consequences. Although there is strong evidence that impulsivity constitutes a key factor at play in these behaviors, the literature about impulsivity in neuropsychology is to date scarce. In addition, examining and understanding these problematic behaviors requires the assumption that impulsivity is a multidimensional construct. Consequently, this article aims at shedding light on frequent risky and excessive behaviors in patients with brain damage by focusing on a unified, comprehensive, and well-validated model, namely, the UPPS model of impulsivity...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379109/substance-use-in-young-swiss-men-the-interplay-of-perceived-social-support-and-dispositional-characteristics
#18
Joseph Studer, Stéphanie Baggio, Marc Dupuis, Meichun Mohler-Kuo, Jean-Bernard Daeppen, Gerhard Gmel
BACKGROUND: Social environment plays a central role in substance use behaviors. However, it is not clear whether its role varies as a function of individual dispositional characteristics. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the interaction between dispositional characteristics (i.e. sensation seeking, anxiety/neuroticism) and social environment (i.e. perceived social support [PSS]) in association with substance use. METHODS: A representative sample of 5,377 young Swiss males completed a questionnaire assessing substance use, sensation seeking, anxiety/neuroticism, and PSS from friends and from a significant other...
May 12, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330803/relationship-between-religion-and-school-students-road-behavior-in-southern-iran
#19
Reza Tabrizi, Maryam Akbari, Kamran B Lankarani, Seyed Taghi Heydari, Alireza Masoudi, Amir Hossein Shams, Armin Akbarzadeh, Saba Moalemi, Maryam Mahmoodi Mehr, Ahmad Kalateh Sadati, Payam Peymani
PURPOSE: Unsafe behaviors are an important cause of accidents in adolescent age groups. This study was designed to examine the behaviors of adolescent pedestrians in southern Iran. METHODS: This is a descriptive analytical cross-sectional study. The study population consisted of high school students in Shiraz, capital city of Fars Province, Iran. Five hundred and sixteen students were selected by multi-stage sampling. Data were collected by the use of three questionnaires, which included Persian copies of adolescent road user behavior questionnaire (ARBQ), Duke University Religious Index (DUREL), as well as the context and independent variables questionnaire...
February 24, 2017: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315547/how-can-i-change-my-patients-treatment-decision-making-by-becoming-a-nurse-scientist-%C3%A2
#20
Tamryn F Gray
"What would you do?" I have heard this question numerous times throughout my nursing career by patients and families affected by cancer. As a pediatric blood and marrow transplantation nurse, I have often seen patients and their families wrestle with difficult treatment decisions. I have witnessed parents struggle between beginning end-of-life care for their child, or pursuing a risky but potentially life-saving clinical trial. With science driving advances in cancer treatments and patients playing more active roles in their care, uncertainty around cancer treatment decisions will only become more complicated...
April 1, 2017: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
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