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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330827/profiling-online-poker-players-are-executive-functions-correlated-with-poker-ability-and-problem-gambling
#1
Mauro Schiavella, Matteo Pelagatti, Jerker Westin, Gabriele Lepore, Paolo Cherubini
Poker playing and responsible gambling both entail the use of the executive functions (EF), which are higher-level cognitive abilities. This study investigated if online poker players of different ability showed different performances in their EF and if so, which functions were the most discriminating for their playing ability. Furthermore, it assessed if the EF performance was correlated to the quality of gambling, according to self-reported questionnaires (PGSI, SOGS, GRCS). Three poker experts evaluated anonymized poker hand history files and, then, a trained professional administered an extensive neuropsychological test battery...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320447/parents-perspectives-on-family-sexuality-communication-from-middle-school-to-high-school
#2
Jennifer M Grossman, Lisa J Jenkins, Amanda M Richer
Parents' conversations with teens about sex and relationships can play a critical role in improving teenage reproductive health by reducing teens' risky sexual behavior. However, little is known about how teen-parent communication changes from early to middle adolescence and how parents can tailor their communication to address their teens' changing development and experiences during these periods. In this longitudinal qualitative study, U.S. parents (N = 23) participated in interviews when their teens were in early adolescence, then again when the teens were in middle adolescence...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314426/the-role-of-the-dorsal-anterior-insula-in-sexual-risk-evidence-from-an-erotic-go-nogo-task-and-real-world-risk-taking
#3
Feng Xue, Vita Droutman, Emily E Barkley-Levenson, Benjamin J Smith, Gui Xue, Lynn C Miller, Antoine Bechara, Zhong-Lin Lu, Stephen J Read
The insula plays an important role in response inhibition. Most relevant here, it has been proposed that the dorsal anterior insular cortex (dAIC) plays a central role in a salience network that is responsible for switching between the default mode network and the executive control network. However, the insula's role in sexually motivated response inhibition has not yet been studied. In this study, eighty-five 18- to 30-year-old sexually active men who have sex with men (MSM) performed an erotic Go/NoGo task while in an MRI scanner...
January 3, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294701/elevated-risky-sexual-behaviors-among-sexual-minority-girls-indirect-risk-pathways-through-peer-victimization-and-heavy-drinking
#4
Sarah S Dermody, Mark Friedman, Deena J Chisolm, Chad M Burton, Michael P Marshal
Sexual minority girls (SMGs), compared with heterosexual females, are more likely to report negative sexual outcomes including earlier age of sexual intercourse debut, more lifetime and recent sexual partners, pregnancy involvement, and sex while intoxicated. Data describing the mechanisms related to these health disparities are limited. The purpose of this study was therefore to longitudinally assess the roles of sexual minority-related peer victimization and heavy episodic drinking (HED) as mediators of the relation between sexual minority status and sexual outcomes...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290005/autonomy-competence-and-non-interference
#5
Joseph T F Roberts
In light of the variety of uses of the term autonomy in recent bioethics literature, in this paper, I suggest that competence, not being as contested, is better placed to play the anti-paternalistic role currently assigned to autonomy. The demonstration of competence, I will argue, can provide individuals with robust spheres of non-interference in which they can pursue their lives in accordance with their own values. This protection from paternalism is achieved by granting individuals rights to non-interference upon demonstration of competence...
December 30, 2017: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251282/dopamine-receptor-specific-contributions-to-the-computation-of-value
#6
Christopher J Burke, Alexander Soutschek, Susanna Weber, Anjali R Beharelle, Ernst Fehr, Helene Haker, Philippe N Tobler
Dopamine is thought to play a crucial role in value-based decision making. However, the specific contributions of different dopamine receptor subtypes to the computation of subjective value remain unknown. Here we demonstrate how the balance between D1 and D2 dopamine receptor subtypes shapes subjective value computation during risky decision-making. We administered the D2 receptor antagonist amisulpride or placebo before participants made choices between risky options. Compared to placebo, D2 receptor blockade resulted in more frequent choice of higher risk and higher expected value options...
December 18, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228378/neural-mechanisms-mediating-degrees-of-strategic-uncertainty
#7
Rosemarie Nagel, Andrea Brovelli, Frank Heinemann, Giorgio Coricelli
In social interactions, strategic uncertainty arises when the outcome of one's choice depends on the choices of others. An important question is whether strategic uncertainty can be resolved by assessing subjective probabilities to the counterparts' behavior, as if playing against nature, and thus transforming the strategic interaction into a risky (individual) situation. By means of fMRI with human participants we tested the hypothesis that choices under strategic uncertainty are supported by the neural circuits mediating choices under individual risk and deliberation in social settings (i...
December 7, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209695/cosmetic-surgery-for-children-and-adolescents-deontological-and-bioethical-remarks
#8
A Del Rio, R Rinaldi, S Napoletano, N M di Luca
The only interventions deemed ethically acceptable are those that serve the "objective interest" of the minors involved from the standpoint of and conducive to sound mental health and balance in a patient's teenage years; by the same token, disproportionate interventions (e.g. overly invasive or pointlessly risky), or all those deemed unsuitable with regards to a poor cost-benefit ratio are viewed as unacceptable. In the process of considering the best interest of the minors involved, a wide array of factors come into play, such as: age, maturity, psychological and emotional conditions, motivations put forth by the underage patient, the opportunity to procrastinate the operation: parents, who are naturally entitled to give consent to the surgical procedures, and physicians are primarily liable to safeguard and act in the minor's best interest...
November 2017: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179657/psychosocial-factors-predicting-risky-sexual-behaviour-among-long-distance-truck-drivers-in-lagos-nigeria
#9
Abiodun Musbau Lawal, Benjamin Oladapo Olley
Long distance truck drivers (LDTDs) have been identified as one of the groups at higher risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Understanding how certain social and psychological variables that have a strong theoretical basis contribute to sexual risk behaviour will guide in the implementation process of HIV risk-reduction intervention in the trucking population. In line with the conceptualisation of Information, Motivation and Behavioural skills model, we examined the extent that HIV knowledge, attitude towards condom use, peer support to condom use, perceived vulnerability to HIV/AIDS, and condom use self-efficacy will independently and jointly explain sexual risk behaviours of LDTDs in a haulage company in Lagos, Nigeria...
December 2017: SAHARA J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169160/the-use-of-peritoneal-dialysis-in-phenobarbitone-toxicity-in-a-critically-unwell-neonate
#10
Amelia K Le Page, Alice E Stewart, Charles C Roehr, Lilian M Johnstone, Andis Graudins
BACKGROUND: Phenobarbitone (PB) is the first-line anti-convulsant for neonatal seizures. The use of peritoneal dialysis (PD) to enhance drug elimination in cases of neonatal PB overdose has not been reported. OBJECTIVE: To report a case of neonatal severe PB toxicity and review the elimination of PB by PD. METHODS: Assessment of PD drug clearance. RESULTS: A neonate with prolonged seizures was administered PB. Encephalopathy and myocardial failure developed, which were initially suspected to be secondary to hypoxia...
November 24, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158794/association-between-sumoylation-related-gene-rs77447679-polymorphism-and-risk-of-gastric-cancer-gc-in-a-chinese-population
#11
Ying Luo, Sihong You, Jirong Wang, Shuling Fan, Jie Shi, Ai Peng, Tingting Yu
Purpose: Sumoylation plays a critical role in gene regulation and tumorigenesis, and is hypothesized to correlate with the development of various cancers. So far, there has been no reported association between sumoylation-related genes and the risk of gastric cancer (GC). Methods: A total of 17 tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tag-SNPs) in 5 sumoylation-related genes were selected and genotyped by SNaPshot in a case-control study, including 1021 GC patients and 1304 controls. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidential interval (CI) were computed to evaluate the genetic association of the onset of GC...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149326/virtually-in-the-heat-of-the-moment-insula-activation-in-safe-sex-negotiation-among-risky-men
#12
Benjamin J Smith, Feng Xue, Vita Droutman, Emily Barkley-Levenson, A James Melrose, Lynn C Miller, John R Monterosso, Antoine Bechara, Paul Robert Appleby, John L Christensen, Carlos G Godoy, Stephen J Read
HIV is most prevalent among men who have sex with men (MSM), and although most MSM use condoms consistently during casual sex, some take risks. To better understand the psychology of those risky decisions, we examined neural correlates of playing a virtual sexual "hook up" game in an fMRI scanner in MSM who had, in the past 90 days, been sexually risky (N = 76) or safe (N = 31). We found that during potentially risky sexual choices, previously risky MSM had more right insula activity than previously safe MSM...
November 15, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143762/executive-function-capacities-negative-driving-behavior-and-crashes-in-young-drivers
#13
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Walshe, Chelsea Ward McIntosh, Daniel Romer, Flaura K Winston
Motor vehicle crashes remain a leading cause of injury and death in adolescents, with teen drivers three times more likely to be in a fatal crash when compared to adults. One potential contributing risk factor is the ongoing development of executive functioning with maturation of the frontal lobe through adolescence and into early adulthood. Atypical development resulting in poor or impaired executive functioning (as in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder) has been associated with risky driving and crash outcomes...
October 28, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143134/reduced-population-size-does-not-affect-the-mating-strategy-of-a-vulnerable-and-endemic-seabird
#14
Cristina Nava, Verónica C Neves, Malvina Andris, Marie-Pierre Dubois, Philippe Jarne, Mark Bolton, Joël Bried
Bottleneck episodes may occur in small and isolated animal populations, which may result in decreased genetic diversity and increased inbreeding, but also in mating strategy adjustment. This was evaluated in the vulnerable and socially monogamous Monteiro's Storm-petrel Hydrobates monteiroi, a seabird endemic to the Azores archipelago which has suffered a dramatic population decline since the XVth century. To do this, we conducted a genetic study (18 microsatellite markers) in the population from Praia islet, which has been monitored over 16 years...
November 15, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120202/collaboration-confidentiality-and-care
#15
Latoya S Moss
There is an increasing call to attend to the needs of students in distress (Reynolds, 2013). Furthermore, research has begun to highlight links between distress, risky, or dangerous behaviors as well as issues in mental health in the higher education population (Deasy, Coughlan, Pironom, Jourdan, & Mannix-McNamara, 2014). The National Alliance on Mental Health and the Jed Foundation (National Alliance on Mental Illness & the Jed Foundation, 2016) estimate that about 20% of enrolled college students will face some type of mental illness...
November 2017: Psychological Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071546/associations-between-croatian-adolescents-use-of-sexually-explicit-material-and-sexual-behavior-does-parental-monitoring-play-a-role
#16
Ivan Tomić, Jakov Burić, Aleksandar Štulhofer
The use of sexually explicit material (SEM) has become a part of adolescent sexual socialization, at least in the Western world. Adolescent and young people's SEM use has been associated with risky sexual behaviors, which has recently resulted in policy debates about restricting access to SEM. Such development seems to suggest a crisis of the preventive role of parental oversight. Based on the Differential Susceptibility to Media Effects Model, this study assessed the role of parental monitoring in the context of adolescent vulnerability to SEM-associated risky or potentially adverse outcomes (sexual activity, sexual aggressiveness, and sexting)...
October 25, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065713/evaluating-teach-one-reach-one-an-sti-hiv-risk-reduction-intervention-to-enhance-adult-youth-communication-about-sex-and-reduce-the-burden-of-hiv-sti
#17
Gaurav Dave, Tiarney Ritchwood, Tiffany L Young, Malika Roman Isler, Adina Black, Aletha Y Akers, Ziya Gizlice, Connie Blumenthal, Leslie Atley, Mysha Wynn, Doris Stith, Crystal Cene, Danny Ellis, Giselle Corbie-Smith
PURPOSE: Parents and caregivers play an important role in sexual socialization of youth, often serving as the primary source of information about sex. For African American rural youth who experience disparate rates of HIV/sexually transmitted infection, improving caregiver-youth communication about sexual topics may help to reduce risky behaviors. This study assessed the impact of an intervention to improve sexual topic communication. DESIGN: A Preintervention-postintervention, quasi-experimental, controlled, and community-based trial...
November 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989498/two-vignettes-of-adolescent-sexual-disclosure-guidance-for-hiv-clinical-practice
#18
Bronwen Lichtenstein, Cynthia Rodgers, Lauren Eb Marefka, Marla D Hinson, Dayna Cook-Heard, Stephen D Rygiel, Marsha S Sturdevant
HIV-positive adolescents are required by law to notify sexual partners, but can find it difficult to achieve this goal. This article offers practice guidance for counselling HIV-positive adolescents about sexual disclosure in clinical settings and for building confidence in managing sexual lives with HIV. We use two vignettes to illustrate key differences between perinatally and sexually infected adolescents in terms of readiness to disclose, and include a set of strategies for both groups that can be tailored to individual circumstances and contexts...
January 2017: Journal of Infection Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975678/family-conflict-shapes-how-adolescents-take-risks-when-their-family-is-affected
#19
João F Guassi Moreira, Eva H Telzer
Numerous studies have established that the social context greatly affects adolescent risk taking. However, it remains unexplored whether adolescents' decision-making behaviors change when they take risks that affect other individuals such as a parent. In the current study, we sought to investigate how the social context influences risky decisions when adolescents' behavior affects their family using a formalized risk-taking model. Sixty-three early adolescents (Mage = 13.3 years; 51% female) played a risk-taking task twice, once during which they could make risky choices that only affected themselves and another during which their risky choices only affected their parent...
October 4, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975142/data-on-german-farmers-risk-preference-perception-and-management-strategies
#20
Manuela Meraner, Robert Finger
The extent to which people are willing to take on risk, i.e. their risk preferences as well as subjective risk perception plays a major role in explaining their behavior. This is of particular relevance in agricultural production, which is inherently risky. The data presented here was collected amongst a total of 64 German farmers in 2015. It includes results of three different risk preference elicitation methods (multiple price list, business statements in four relevant domains and general self-assessment) as well as risk perception...
December 2017: Data in Brief
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