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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516320/how-does-the-presence-of-a-conspecific-individual-change-the-behavioral-game-that-a-predator-plays-with-its-prey
#1
Reut Vardi, Zvika Abramsky, Burt P Kotler, Ofir Altstein, Michael L Rosenzweig
Behavioral games predators play among themselves may have profound effects on behavioral games predators play with their prey. We studied the behavioral game between predators and prey within the framework of social foraging among predators. We tested how conspecific interactions among predators (little egret) change the predator-prey behavioral game and foraging success. To do so, we examined foraging behavior of egrets alone and in pairs (male and female) in a specially designed aviary consisting of three equally spaced pools with identical initial prey (comet goldfish) densities...
May 17, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453197/peers-increase-late-adolescents-exploratory-behavior-and-sensitivity-to-positive-and-negative-feedback
#2
Karol Silva, Elizabeth P Shulman, Jason Chein, Laurence Steinberg
Adolescents take more risks with peers than when alone. It is not clear how peer presence affects adolescents' risky decision making, however. We used the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT)-a game used to assess decision making involving risk and reward-to examine how peers affect late adolescents' exploration of relevant environmental cues, ability to learn from the outcomes (positive and negative) of that exploration, and ability to integrate feedback to adjust behavior toward optimal long-term outcomes. One hundred and one 18- to 22-year old males (M = 19...
December 2016: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450078/frontostriatal-development-and-probabilistic-reinforcement-learning-during-adolescence
#3
Samantha DePasque, Adriana Galván
Adolescence has traditionally been viewed as a period of vulnerability to increased risk-taking and adverse outcomes, which have been linked to neurobiological maturation of the frontostriatal reward system. However, growing research on the role of developmental changes in the adolescent frontostriatal system in facilitating learning will provide a more nuanced view of adolescence . In this review, we discuss extant research on this topic, its implications for learning during adolescence and suggest that the very neural changes that render adolescents vulnerable to social pressure and risky decision making may also stand to play a role in scaffolding the ability to learn from rewards and from performance-related feedback...
April 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442732/human-bipedal-instability-in-tree-canopy-environments-is-reduced-by-light-touch-fingertip-support
#4
L Johannsen, S R L Coward, G R Martin, A M Wing, A van Casteren, W I Sellers, A R Ennos, R H Crompton, S K S Thorpe
Whether tree canopy habitats played a sustained role in the ecology of ancestral bipedal hominins is unresolved. Some argue that arboreal bipedalism was prohibitively risky for hominins whose increasingly modern anatomy prevented them from gripping branches with their feet. Balancing on two legs is indeed challenging for humans under optimal conditions let alone in forest canopy, which is physically and visually highly dynamic. Here we quantify the impact of forest canopy characteristics on postural stability in humans...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436735/risk-and-safety-perception-on-urban-and-rural-roads-effects-of-environmental-features-driver-age-and-risk-sensitivity
#5
Jolene A Cox, Vanessa Beanland, Ashleigh J Filtness
OBJECTIVE: The ability to detect changing visual information is a vital component of safe driving. In addition to detecting changing visual information, drivers must also interpret its relevance to safety. Environmental changes considered to have high safety relevance will likely demand greater attention and more timely responses than those considered to have lower safety relevance. The aim of this study was to explore factors that are likely to influence perceptions of risk and safety regarding changing visual information in the driving environment...
February 21, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398126/a-multifactorial-and-integrative-approach-to-impulsivity-in-neuropsychology-insights-from-the-upps-model-of-impulsivity
#6
Lucien Rochat, Joël Billieux, Jean Gagnon, Martial Van der Linden
Risky and excessive behaviors, such as aggressive and compulsive behaviors, are frequently described in patients with brain damage and have dramatic psychosocial consequences. Although there is strong evidence that impulsivity constitutes a key factor at play in these behaviors, the literature about impulsivity in neuropsychology is to date scarce. In addition, examining and understanding these problematic behaviors requires the assumption that impulsivity is a multidimensional construct. Consequently, this article aims at shedding light on frequent risky and excessive behaviors in patients with brain damage by focusing on a unified, comprehensive, and well-validated model, namely, the UPPS model of impulsivity...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379109/substance-use-in-young-swiss-men-the-interplay-of-perceived-social-support-and-dispositional-characteristics
#7
Joseph Studer, Stéphanie Baggio, Marc Dupuis, Meichun Mohler-Kuo, Jean-Bernard Daeppen, Gerhard Gmel
BACKGROUND: Social environment plays a central role in substance use behaviors. However, it is not clear whether its role varies as a function of individual dispositional characteristics. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the interaction between dispositional characteristics (i.e. sensation seeking, anxiety/neuroticism) and social environment (i.e. perceived social support [PSS]) in association with substance use. METHODS: A representative sample of 5,377 young Swiss males completed a questionnaire assessing substance use, sensation seeking, anxiety/neuroticism, and PSS from friends and from a significant other...
May 12, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330803/relationship-between-religion-and-school-students-road-behavior-in-southern-iran
#8
Reza Tabrizi, Maryam Akbari, Kamran B Lankarani, Seyed Taghi Heydari, Alireza Masoudi, Amir Hossein Shams, Armin Akbarzadeh, Saba Moalemi, Maryam Mahmoodi Mehr, Ahmad Kalateh Sadati, Payam Peymani
PURPOSE: Unsafe behaviors are an important cause of accidents in adolescent age groups. This study was designed to examine the behaviors of adolescent pedestrians in southern Iran. METHODS: This is a descriptive analytical cross-sectional study. The study population consisted of high school students in Shiraz, capital city of Fars Province, Iran. Five hundred and sixteen students were selected by multi-stage sampling. Data were collected by the use of three questionnaires, which included Persian copies of adolescent road user behavior questionnaire (ARBQ), Duke University Religious Index (DUREL), as well as the context and independent variables questionnaire...
February 24, 2017: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315547/how-can-i-change-my-patients-treatment-decision-making-by-becoming-a-nurse-scientist-%C3%A2
#9
Tamryn F Gray
"What would you do?" I have heard this question numerous times throughout my nursing career by patients and families affected by cancer. As a pediatric blood and marrow transplantation nurse, I have often seen patients and their families wrestle with difficult treatment decisions. I have witnessed parents struggle between beginning end-of-life care for their child, or pursuing a risky but potentially life-saving clinical trial. With science driving advances in cancer treatments and patients playing more active roles in their care, uncertainty around cancer treatment decisions will only become more complicated...
April 1, 2017: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288371/gender-and-other-risk-factors-associated-with-risky-behaviours-among-nigerian-adolescents
#10
Oluyemi O Akanni, Olaide N Koleoso, Anthony A Olashore, Ehigiator O Adayonfo, Adeagbo F Osundina, Olaniyi O Ayilara
Risky behaviours in adolescents, apart from substance use, and their associate factors, have not been thoroughly investigated in Nigeria. Hence, there is a need to study the prevalence of risky behaviours and their relationship with gender and other potential risk factors. Data comprising socio-demographic, risky behaviours, personality traits, religious orientation and substance use were obtained from 300 randomly selected secondary school students. Two risk groups (low and high) based on the number of risky behaviours were determined...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286411/peer-effects-on-risk-behaviour-the-importance-of-group-identity
#11
Francesca Gioia
This paper investigates whether and to what extent group identity plays a role in peer effects on risk behaviour. We run a laboratory experiment in which different levels of group identity are induced through different matching protocols (random or based on individual painting preferences) and the possibility to interact with group members via an online chat in a group task. Risk behaviour is measured by using the Bomb Risk Elicitation Task and peer influence is introduced by giving subjects feedback regarding group members' previous decisions...
2017: Experimental Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283138/knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-related-to-schistosomiasis-among-children-in-northern-senegal
#12
Simona Frigerio, Fabrizio Bert, Marco Clari, Giovanni Di Fine, Susanna Riva, Ilaria Bergese, Samba Gueye Diouf, Rosaria Alvaro, Ersilia Buonomo
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a highly prevalent parasitic disease in Senegal. The early symptoms are hematuria and dysuria. Children's comprehension of the disease is fundamental to preventing the infection. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge attitudes, and practices related to schistosomiasis among schoolchildren in 2 rural villages in Northern Senegal and to evaluate their impact on the disease. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted...
September 2016: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278745/-ballroom-itself-can-either-make-you-or-break-you-black-gbt-youths-psychosocial-development-in-the-house-ball-community
#13
Kyle Telander, Sybil G Hosek, Diana Lemos, Gihane Jeremie-Brink
Social context plays a significant role in adolescent identity development, particularly for youth lacking traditional systems of support. Using ecological and symbolic interactionism perspectives, this study qualitatively explored the psychosocial identity development of Black gay, bisexual, or transgendered youth participating in the House Ball Community (HBC). The HBC is a diverse network of family-like structures called 'houses', as well as a glamorous social outlet via pageant-like 'balls' in which participants compete...
March 3, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274386/willingness-to-pay-for-other-individuals-healthcare-expenditures
#14
A P Borges, A Reis, J Anjos
OBJECTIVES: The need to improve the sustainability of public health expenditure, in a climate of growing pressure on national budgets, inevitably leads to a discussion about resource rationing, and the extent of society's responsibility for those expenditures. To contribute to this discussion empirically, this study evaluated the willingness of Portuguese respondents to pay for other individuals' healthcare expenditures through out-of-pocket payments. STUDY DESIGN: A questionnaire addressed to the general public was developed, with 296 respondents...
March 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231161/food-leftover-practices-among-consumers-in-selected-countries-in-europe-south-and-north-america
#15
Kadri Koppel, Federica Higa, Sandria Godwin, Nelson Gutierrez, Roman Shalimov, Paula Cardinal, Brizio Di Donfrancesco, Miriam Sosa, Angel A Carbonell-Barrachina, Loreida Timberg, Edgar Chambers
Foodborne illnesses may be related to many food production factors with home practices of consumers playing an important role in food safety. Consumer behavior for handling food leftovers has been studied, however little work on comparisons among countries has been published. The objective of this study was to investigate home food leftover practices of people from North American, South American, and European countries. Surveys were conducted with approximately 100 or more consumers in Argentina, Colombia, the United States, Estonia, Italy, Russia, and Spain...
September 21, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216369/role-of-socio-cultural-and-economic-factors-in-cyprinid-fish-distribution-networks-and-consumption-in-lawa-lake-region-northeast-thailand-novel-perspectives-on-opisthorchis-viverrini-transmission-dynamics
#16
Christina Sunyoung Kim, John F Smith, Apiporn Suwannatrai, Pierre Echaubard, Bruce Wilcox, Sasithorn Kaewkes, Paiboon Sithithaworn, Banchob Sripa
Opisthorchis viverrini (Ov) is a fish-borne parasite endemic in parts of Lao PDR, Cambodia, southern Vietnam and Northeast Thailand (Isaan) where an estimated 10 million people are infected. Human Ov infection, associated with hepatobiliary complications, including cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), occurs when infected fish are consumed raw or undercooked, a longstanding cultural tradition in the region. This mixed- methods descriptive study was carried out in Isaan villages around Lawa Lake, Khon Kaen Province, known for their Ov endemicity...
June 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215265/intrinsic-and-extrinsic-predictors-of-video-gaming-behaviour-and-adolescent-bedtimes-the-relationship-between-flow-states-self-perceived-risk-taking-device-accessibility-parental-regulation-of-media-and-bedtime
#17
Lisa J Smith, Michael Gradisar, Daniel L King, Michelle Short
How computer games affect the time at which adolescents go to bed is of growing research interest; however, the intrinsic individual and extrinsic sociocultural factors mediating the relationship between gaming and sleep have received minimal attention. This paper investigates how gaming duration mediates the relationship between intrinsic factors (perception of risky events and flow) and extrinsic factors (parental regulation and media accessibility) and adolescent bedtime. Adolescents (N = 422; age = 16...
February 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182902/money-in-the-bank-distortive-effects-of-accumulated-earnings-on-risky-choice
#18
Arkady Konovalov, Ian Krajbich
A new study by Juechems et al. (2017) demonstrates that individuals take fewer risks as they accumulate monetary reward. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex plays a key role in the decision process, encoding both momentary reward and the context of the accumulated wealth.
February 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174543/rank-among-peers-during-game-competition-affects-the-tendency-to-make-risky-choices-in-adolescent-males
#19
Jerome C Foo, Kohei Nagase, Sawako Naramura-Ohno, Kazuhiro Yoshiuchi, Yoshiharu Yamamoto, Kenji Morita
It has been shown that adolescents take more risks when they are with peers than when they are alone, presumably because the presence of peers can be a social reward/punishment that can bias decision making. Competition is inherent in peer interactions, and recent work has demonstrated that winning/losing is an intrinsic social reward/punishment. Taken together, it can be hypothesized that competition amongst peers affects adolescents' risky behavior. While there is much evidence that status amongst peers can relate to antisocial/aggressive behavior, it remains unclear whether risky behavior is affected...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154003/ethics-of-a-relaxed-antidoping-rule-accompanied-by-harm-reduction-measures
#20
Bengt Kayser, Jan Tolleneer
Harm-reduction approaches are used to reduce the burden of risky human behaviour without necessarily aiming to stop the behaviour. We discuss what an introduction of harm reduction for doping in sports would mean in parallel with a relaxation of the antidoping rule. We analyse what is ethically at stake in the following five levels: (1) What would it mean for the athlete (the self)? (2) How would it impact other athletes (the other)? (3) How would it affect the phenomenon of sport as a game and its fair play basis (the play)? (4) What would be the consequences for the spectator and the role of sports in society (the display)? and (5) What would it mean for what some consider as essential to being human (humanity)? For each level, we present arguments for and against doping and then discuss what a harm-reduction approach, within a dynamic regime of a partially relaxed antidoping rule, could imply...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
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