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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768666/predicting-cancer-prevention-behavior-disentangling-the-effects-of-risk-aversion-and-risk-perceptions
#1
Mary Riddel, David Hales
Experimental and survey research spanning the last two decades concludes that people who are more risk tolerant are more likely to engage in risky health activities such as smoking and heavy alcohol consumption, and are more likely to be obese. Subjective perceptions of the risk associated with different activities have also been found to be associated with health behaviors. While there are numerous studies that link risk perceptions with risky behavior, it is notable that none of these controls for risk aversion...
May 16, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729493/neural-substrates-of-the-influence-of-emotional-cues-on-cognitive-control-in-risk-taking-adolescents
#2
Nikki C Lee, Wouter D Weeda, Catherine Insel, Leah H Somerville, Lydia Krabbendam, Mariëtte Huizinga
Adolescence is a period characterised by increases in risk-taking. This behaviour has been associated with an imbalance in the integration of the networks involved in cognitive control and motivational processes. We examined whether the influence of emotional cues on cognitive control differs between adolescents who show high or low levels of risk-taking behaviour. Participants who scored especially high or low on a risky decision task were subsequently administered an emotional go/no-go fMRI task comprising angry, happy and calm faces...
April 22, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706752/estimating-individual-treatment-effect-in-observational-data-using-random-forest-methods
#3
Min Lu, Saad Sadiq, Daniel J Feaster, Hemant Ishwaran
Estimation of individual treatment effect in observational data is complicated due to the challenges of confounding and selection bias. A useful inferential framework to address this is the counterfactual (potential outcomes) model, which takes the hypothetical stance of asking what if an individual had received both treatments. Making use of random forests (RF) within the counterfactual framework we estimate individual treatment effects by directly modeling the response. We find that accurate estimation of individual treatment effects is possible even in complex heterogenous settings but that the type of RF approach plays an important role in accuracy...
2018: Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684132/prefrontal-cortical-activity-during-the-stroop-task-new-insights-into-the-why-and-the-who-of-real-world-risky-sexual-behavior
#4
Emily Barkley-Levenson, Feng Xue, Vita Droutman, Lynn C Miller, Benjamin J Smith, David Jeong, Zhong-Lin Lu, Antoine Bechara, Stephen J Read
Background: Research suggests that deficits in both executive functioning and trait impulsivity may play a role in risky sexual behavior. At the neural level, differences in regulation of the prefrontal cortex have been linked to impulsivity, measured neurocognitively and through self-report. The relationship between neurocognitive measures of executive control and trait impulsivity in predicting risky sexual behavior has not been investigated. Purpose: To investigate the relationship between neural functioning during the Stroop task and risky sexual behavior, as well as the effect of individual differences in urgent (positive and negative) impulsivity on this relationship...
April 19, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657011/molecular-differentiation-and-species-composition-of-genus-culicoides-biting-midges-diptera-ceratopogonidae-in-different-habitats-in-southern-china
#5
Yangqing Liu, Huiying Tao, Yixin Yu, Liangliang Yue, Wen Xia, Weiqing Zheng, Hongmei Ma, Xiaoqing Liu, Haiying Chen
Culicoides biting midges (Diptera:Ceratopogonidae) cause a significant biting nuisance to humans, livestock, which are the biological vectors of a range of risky pathogens. Accurate illustration of vector play a key role in arthropod borne diseases surveillance. However, few studies have focused on the Culicoides, which caused bluetongue disease in 29 provinces of China since 1979. In this study, we assessed cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) mtDNA molecular marker for identification of ten major vector species and analyzed the Culicoides species community and diversity in different habitats...
April 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621922/understanding-the-role-played-by-parents-culture-and-the-school-curriculum-in-socializing-young-women-on-sexual-health-issues-in-rural-south-african-communities
#6
Feziwe Mpondo, Robert A C Ruiter, Dilana Schaafsma, Bart van den Borne, Priscilla S Reddy
BACKGROUND: the decline in South Africa's HIV infection rates especially among young women is encouraging. However, studies show that the 15-24-year-old cohort remains vulnerable. As they still report early sexual debut, being involved in sexual partnerships with older men as well as having unprotected sex. These risky sexual behaviors may be linked to factors such as the parent-child sexual health communication and the timing of the first talk. The quality of sexual health information received in school may also be important for enhancing healthier sexual behaviors...
December 2018: SAHARA J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621841/australian-bat-lyssavirus
#7
Tony Merritt, Kathryn Taylor, Keren Cox-Witton, Hume Field, Kate Wingett, Diana Mendez, Michelle Power, David Durrheim
BACKGROUND: Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) causes human illness that is indistinguishable from classical rabies. All Australian bats have the potential to carry and transmit ABLV, and potentially risky human exposures to bats are common. ABLV infection has resulted in three human deaths in Australia since 1996. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to equip general practitioners (GPs) to assist in the prevention and management of potential ABLV exposures in Australia, including complex clinical scenarios that are not fully addressed in current national guidelines...
March 2018: Australian journal of general practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529318/moderate-social-sensitivity-in-a-risky-context-supports-adaptive-decision-making-in-adolescence-evidence-from-brain-and-behavior
#8
Jorien van Hoorn, Ethan M McCormick, Eva H Telzer
Adolescence is a time of increased social-affective sensitivity, which is often related to heightened health-risk behaviors. However, moderate levels of social sensitivity, relative to either low (social vacuum) or high levels (exceptionally attuned), may confer benefits as it facilitates effective navigation of the social world. The present fMRI study tested a curvilinear relationship between social sensitivity and adaptive decision-making. Participants (ages 12-16; N = 35) played the Social Analogue Risk Task (SART), which measures participants' willingness to knock on doors in order to earn points...
February 24, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515683/pregnancy-associated-breast-cancer-the-risky-status-quo-and-new-concepts-of-predictive-medicine
#9
REVIEW
Jiri Polivka, Irem Altun, Olga Golubnitschaja
The paper is motivated by severe concerns regarding currently applied care of the pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) characterised by particularly poor outcomes of the disease. Psychological and ethical aspects play a crucial role in PABC: the highest priority not to damage the foetus significantly complicates any treatment generally, and it is quite usual that patients disclaim undergoing any breast cancer treatment during pregnancy. Although, due to global demographic trends, PABC is far from appearing rarely now, severe societal and economic consequences of the disease are still neglected by currently applied reactive medical approach...
March 2018: EPMA Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514699/go-play-outside-effects-of-a-risk-reframing-tool-on-mothers-tolerance-for-and-parenting-practices-associated-with-children-s-risky-play-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Mariana Brussoni, Takuro Ishikawa, Christina Han, Ian Pike, Anita Bundy, Guy Faulkner, Louise C Mâsse
BACKGROUND: Children's risky play is associated with a variety of positive developmental, physical and mental health outcomes, including greater physical activity, self-confidence and risk-management skills. Children's opportunities for risky play have eroded over time, limited by parents' fears and beliefs about risk, particularly among mothers. We developed a digital tool and in-person Risk-reframing (RR) workshop to reframe parents' perceptions of risk and change parenting behaviours...
March 7, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482632/development-and-differentiability-of-three-brief-interventions-for-risky-alcohol-use-that-include-varying-doses-of-motivational-interviewing
#11
Jennifer E Hettema, Stephanie A Cockrell, Abigail Reeves, Karen S Ingersoll, Paula J Lum, Richard Saitz, Cristina M Murray-Krezan, Valerie A Carrejo
BACKGROUND: While brief intervention (BI) for risky alcohol use generally yields positive effects among those identified by screening, effect sizes are small and there is unexplained heterogeneity in outcome. The heterogeneity may be related to differences in intervention style and content, including elements of motivational interviewing (MI). To date, it has been difficult to interpret the role of MI in BI and these gaps in knowledge interfere with efforts to train, disseminate and implement BI that retains and maximizes efficacy...
February 27, 2018: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470424/young-women-s-perspectives-of-their-adolescent-treatment-programs-a-qualitative-study
#12
Miriam Clark, Rohanna Buchanan, Leslie D Leve
The perspectives of at-risk adolescent clients can play an important role in informing treatment services. The current study examines qualitative interview data from 15 young women with histories of maltreatment. Using a semi-structured qualitative interview approach, we asked the women to think retrospectively about their treatment experiences as adolescent girls. Results highlight the need for providing adolescent girls with reliable and practical information about risky sexual behavior and drug use from relatable and trustworthy helping professionals...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460281/alexithymia-and-risk-preferences-predicting-risk-behaviour-across-decision-domains
#13
Angelo Panno, Ainize Sarrionandia, Marco Lauriola, Mauro Giacomantonio
Risk-taking is a critical health factor as it plays a key role in several diseases and is related to a number of health risk factors. The aim of the present study is to investigate the role of alexithymia in predicting risk preferences across decision domains. One hundred and thirteen participants filled out an alexithymia scale (Toronto Alexithymia Scale-TAS-20), impulsivity and venturesomeness measures (I7 scale), and-1 month later-the Cognitive Appraisal of Risky Events (CARE questionnaire). The hierarchical regression analyses showed that alexithymia positively predicted risk preferences in two domains: aggressive/illegal behaviour and irresponsible academic/work behaviour...
February 20, 2018: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448892/examining-the-role-of-racism-in-the-risky-alcohol-use-behaviors-of-black-female-college-students
#14
Delishia M Pittman, Paramjit Kaur
OBJECTIVE: This study explores the impact racism has on the drinking behaviors of Black college women. Little is known about Black college women's experience of racism and the impact racism has on their psychological wellbeing and drinking behaviors. The current study fills a gap in our understanding of the role racism plays in the risky drinking behavior of Black college women. PARTICIPANTS: 469 Black college women ages 18-29 were sampled from 8 colleges and universities across the US, in 3 waves from December 2014-August 2017...
February 15, 2018: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415690/the-role-of-venues-in-structuring-hiv-sexually-transmitted-infections-and-risk-networks-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#15
Lydia N Drumright, Sharon S Weir, Simon D W Frost
BACKGROUND: Venues form part of the sampling frame for time-location sampling, an approach often used for HIV surveillance. While sampling location is often regarded as a nuisance factor, venues may play a central role in structuring risk networks. We investigated individual reports of risk behaviors and infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) attending different venues to examine structuring of HIV risk behaviors. However, teasing apart 'risky people' from 'risky places' is difficult, as individuals cannot be randomized to attend different venues...
February 7, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407688/in-pursuit-of-a-self-sustaining-college-alcohol-intervention-deploying-gamified-pnf-in-the-real-world
#16
Andrew M Earle, Joseph W LaBrie, Sarah C Boyle, Daniel Smith
Our recent work (Boyle, Earle, LaBrie, & Smith, 2017) showed that the efficacy of personalized normative feedback-based (PNF) college alcohol interventions can be improved through the addition of gamified elements including points, chance, competition, and personal avatars. However, participants in that study were compensated with subject pool credit. In the current study, we piloted an upgraded, smartphone-based version of the game, which was designed to be truly self-sustaining (i.e., engaging enough that students play voluntarily without the presence of external motivators)...
May 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384872/the-psychological-results-of-438-patients-with-persisting-gerd-symptoms-by-symptom-checklist-90-revised-scl-90-r-questionnaire
#17
Ping Li, Fei Wang, Guo-Zhong Ji, Lin Miao, Sihong You, Xia Chen
Persisting gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms affect mental state and social activities and mental disorders likewise play a crucial role on GERD symptoms. The aim of this study was to analyze the data of Symptom Checklist by 90-Revised (SCL-90-R) questionnaire in patients with persisting GERD symptom and to explore the impact of psychological factors on them.The patients accepted SCL-90-R questionnaire survey, following endoscopy, high-resolution manometry (HRM) and ambulatory impedance-pH monitoring...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368440/sexualized-drug-use-chemsex-and-high-risk-sexual-behaviours-in-hiv-positive-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#18
E L Pufall, M Kall, M Shahmanesh, A Nardone, R Gilson, V Delpech, H Ward
OBJECTIVES: The incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV infection remains high in gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) in the UK, and sexualized drug use ("chemsex") and injecting drug use ("slamsex") may play a part in this. We aimed to characterize HIV-positive MSM engaging in chemsex/slamsex and to assess the associations with self-reported STI diagnoses and sexual behaviours. METHODS: Data from a 2014 survey of people attending HIV clinics in England and Wales were linked to clinical data from national HIV surveillance records and weighted to be nationally representative...
January 24, 2018: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330827/profiling-online-poker-players-are-executive-functions-correlated-with-poker-ability-and-problem-gambling
#19
Mauro Schiavella, Matteo Pelagatti, Jerker Westin, Gabriele Lepore, Paolo Cherubini
Poker playing and responsible gambling both entail the use of the executive functions (EF), which are higher-level cognitive abilities. This study investigated if online poker players of different ability showed different performances in their EF and if so, which functions were the most discriminating for their playing ability. Furthermore, it assessed if the EF performance was correlated to the quality of gambling, according to self-reported questionnaires (PGSI, SOGS, GRCS). Three poker experts evaluated anonymized poker hand history files and, then, a trained professional administered an extensive neuropsychological test battery...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320447/parents-perspectives-on-family-sexuality-communication-from-middle-school-to-high-school
#20
Jennifer M Grossman, Lisa J Jenkins, Amanda M Richer
Parents' conversations with teens about sex and relationships can play a critical role in improving teenage reproductive health by reducing teens' risky sexual behavior. However, little is known about how teen-parent communication changes from early to middle adolescence and how parents can tailor their communication to address their teens' changing development and experiences during these periods. In this longitudinal qualitative study, U.S. parents ( N = 23) participated in interviews when their teens were in early adolescence, then again when the teens were in middle adolescence...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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