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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073328/what-constitutes-strong-psychological-science-the-neglected-role-of-diagnosticity-and-a-priori-theorizing
#1
Klaus Fiedler
A Bayesian perspective on Ioannidis's (2005) memorable statement that "Most Published Research Findings Are False" suggests a seemingly inescapable trade-off: It appears as if research hypotheses are based either on safe ground (high prior odds), yielding valid but unsurprising results, or on unexpected and novel ideas (low prior odds), inspiring risky and surprising findings that are inevitably often wrong. Indeed, research of two prominent types, sexy hypothesis testing and model testing, is often characterized by low priors (due to astounding hypotheses and conjunctive models) as well as low-likelihood ratios (due to nondiagnostic predictions of the yin-or-yang type)...
January 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027016/opioid-overdose-prevention-training-with-naloxone-an-adjunct-to-basic-life-support-training-for-first-year-medical-students
#2
Noah Berland, Aaron Fox, Babak Tofighi, Kathleen Hanley
BACKGROUND: Opioid overdose deaths have reached epidemic proportions in the United States. This problem stems from both licit and illicit opioid use. Physicians play a role in prescribing opioids, recognizing risky use, and initiating prevention, including Opioid Overdose Prevention Training (OOPT). The American Heart Association (AHA) modified their basic life support (BLS) algorithms to consider naloxone in high risk populations and when a pulse is appreciated; however, the AHA did not provide OOPT...
December 27, 2016: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003007/icp-ms-analytical-method-for-identification-and-detection-of-elemental-impurities
#3
Mohini Mittal, Kapil Kumar, Durgadas Anghore, Ravindra Kumar Rawal
Aim of this article is to review and discuss the currently used quantitative analytical method ICP-MS, which is used for quality control of pharmaceutical products. ICP-MS technique has several applications such as determination of single elements, multi element analysis in synthetic drugs, heavy metals in environmental water, trace element content of selected fertilizers and dairy manures. ICP-MS is also used for determination of toxic and essential elements in different varieties of food samples and metal pollutant present in the environment...
December 21, 2016: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990616/the-relationship-between-religion-and-risky-behaviors-among-iranian-university-students
#4
Zahra Ameri, Fahimeh Mirzakhani, Amir Reza Nabipour, Narges Khanjani, Mark J M Sullman
One factor that protects an individual from risky behavior is religiosity, which is referred to as a shield against risky behaviors. Belief in God and religion plays an important role in young people's lives, and in comparison with their non-religious peers. They engage less frequently in risky behaviors, such as violence and sexual relations. The present study investigated the relationship between religiosity and engagement in risky behaviors among students from the Pishva branch of the Islamic Azad University, Tehran Province in Iran...
December 18, 2016: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925280/association-between-overall-rate-of-change-in-rising-breath-alcohol-concentration-and-the-magnitude-of-acute-tolerance-of-subjective-intoxication-via-the-mellanby-method
#5
David H Morris, Michael T Amlung, Chia-Lin Tsai, Denis M McCarthy
OBJECTIVE: The magnitude of acute tolerance is a strong predictor of the development of longer-term chronic tolerance and plays a decisive role in risky decisions (e.g., driving after drinking). Therefore, it is important to identify factors that increase the magnitude of this adaptive process. This study explored whether acute tolerance magnitude varied as a function of the overall rate of increase in breath alcohol concentration (BrAC). METHODS: Twenty-nine young adult social drinkers (M age = 22...
December 7, 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865341/bullying-among-lesbian-gay-bisexual-and-transgender-youth
#6
REVIEW
Valerie A Earnshaw, Laura M Bogart, V Paul Poteat, Sari L Reisner, Mark A Schuster
Bullying of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth is prevalent in the United States, and represents LGBT stigma when tied to sexual orientation and/or gender identity or expression. LGBT youth commonly report verbal, relational, and physical bullying, and damage to property. Bullying undermines the well-being of LGBT youth, with implications for risky health behaviors, poor mental health, and poor physical health that may last into adulthood. Pediatricians can play a vital role in preventing and identifying bullying, providing counseling to youth and their parents, and advocating for programs and policies to address LGBT bullying...
December 2016: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865061/setting-spatial-conservation-priorities-despite-incomplete-data-for-characterizing-metapopulations
#7
A H Fullerton, S Anzalone, P Moran, D M Van Doornik, T Copeland, R W Zabel
Management of spatially structured species poses unique challenges. Despite a strong theoretical foundation, practitioners rarely have sufficient empirical data to evaluate how populations interact. Rather, assumptions about connectivity and source-sink dynamics are often based on incomplete, extrapolated, or modeled data, if such interactions are even considered at all. Therefore, it has been difficult to evaluate whether spatially structured species are meeting conservation goals. We evaluated how estimated metapopulation structure responded to estimates of population sizes and dispersal probabilities and to the set of populations included...
December 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831701/risky-business-when-humor-increases-and-decreases-status
#8
T Bradford Bitterly, Alison Wood Brooks, Maurice E Schweitzer
Across 8 experiments, we demonstrate that humor can influence status, but attempting to use humor is risky. The successful use of humor can increase status in both new and existing relationships, but unsuccessful humor attempts (e.g., inappropriate jokes) can harm status. The relationship between the successful use of humor and status is mediated by perceptions of confidence and competence. The successful use of humor signals confidence and competence, which in turn increases the joke teller's status. Interestingly, telling both appropriate and inappropriate jokes, regardless of the outcome, signals confidence...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816780/adolescent-neural-response-to-reward-is-related-to-participant-sex-and-task-motivation
#9
Gabriela Alarcón, Anita Cservenka, Bonnie J Nagel
Risky decision making is prominent during adolescence, perhaps contributed to by heightened sensation seeking and ongoing maturation of reward and dopamine systems in the brain, which are, in part, modulated by sex hormones. In this study, we examined sex differences in the neural substrates of reward sensitivity during a risky decision-making task and hypothesized that compared with girls, boys would show heightened brain activation in reward-relevant regions, particularly the nucleus accumbens, during reward receipt...
February 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798090/the-effect-of-tobacco-control-policies-on-us-smokeless-tobacco-use-a-structured-review
#10
REVIEW
David T Levy, Darren Mays, Raymond G Boyle, Jamie Tam, Frank J Chaloupka
INTRODUCTION: Tobacco use has shifted increasingly from cigarettes to other products. While the focus has been mostly on cigarette-oriented policies, it is important to gauge the effects of policies targeting other products. We review and critique the literature on how policies affect smokeless tobacco (ST). METHODS: We conducted a search of the literature on tobacco control policies as they relate to ST use, focusing on tobacco taxes, smoke-free air laws, media campaigns, advertising restrictions, health warnings, cessation treatment policies, and youth access policies...
October 25, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790996/formation-of-raiding-parties-for-intergroup-violence-is-mediated-by-social-network-structure
#11
Luke Glowacki, Alexander Isakov, Richard W Wrangham, Rose McDermott, James H Fowler, Nicholas A Christakis
Intergroup violence is common among humans worldwide. To assess how within-group social dynamics contribute to risky, between-group conflict, we conducted a 3-y longitudinal study of the formation of raiding parties among the Nyangatom, a group of East African nomadic pastoralists currently engaged in small-scale warfare. We also mapped the social network structure of potential male raiders. Here, we show that the initiation of raids depends on the presence of specific leaders who tend to participate in many raids, to have more friends, and to occupy more central positions in the network...
October 25, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761437/mers-cov-at-the-animal-human-interface-inputs-on-exposure-pathways-from-an-expert-opinion-elicitation
#12
Anna L Funk, Flavie Luce Goutard, Eve Miguel, Mathieu Bourgarel, Veronique Chevalier, Bernard Faye, J S Malik Peiris, Maria D Van Kerkhove, Francois Louis Roger
Nearly 4 years after the first report of the emergence of Middle-East respiratory syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and nearly 1800 human cases later, the ecology of MERS-CoV, its epidemiology, and more than risk factors of MERS-CoV transmission between camels are poorly understood. Knowledge about the pathways and mechanisms of transmission from animals to humans is limited; as of yet, transmission risks have not been quantified. Moreover the divergent sanitary situations and exposures to animals among populations in the Arabian Peninsula, where human primary cases appear to dominate, vs...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730439/perceptions-of-south-african-emerging-adult-fet-college-students-on-sexual-practices-in-relation-to-religion
#13
Colleen Gail Moodley
HIV and AIDS are rapidly spreading amongst the world's 15- to 24-year age group, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite vigorous government interventions and campaigns, 10 % of South African youth in the age cohort 15-24 are infected with HIV and AIDS. Furthermore, for the first time in history the world has its largest number of individuals under the age of 30 years. Researchers are desperately seeking a solution and have found religion to play an important role in moderating risky sexual behaviour amongst youth...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685780/culture-myths-and-panic-three-decades-and-beyond-with-an-hiv-aids-epidemic-in-zimbabwe
#14
Walter Chingwaru, Jerneja Vidmar
Zimbabwe is going through a generalised acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic. The first five years of the epidemic (1985-1990) were characterised by lack of medicines against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and an exponential increase in prevalence (65-fold) and incidence (13-fold), which were fuelled by high-risk sexual behaviour. The high HIV prevalence, mortality and stigma yielded great fear and panic in the population, which are thought to have led to confusion and hopelessness, and, in turn, increased risky sexual behaviour...
August 11, 2016: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658795/new-antibiotics-from-nature-s-chemical-inventory
#15
Timothy A Wencewicz
The doom and gloom of antibiotic resistance dominates public perception of this drug class. Many believe the world has entered the post-antibiotic era. Classic and modern approaches to antibacterial drug discovery have delivered a plethora of lead molecules with a great majority being natural products of ancient microbial origin. The failure of antibiotics in the resistance era comes from an inability to develop new leads into clinical candidates, which is a costly and risky endeavor for any therapeutic area, especially when resistance is at play...
December 15, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650999/risky-business-lived-experience-mental-health-practice-nurses-as-potential-allies
#16
Louise Byrne, Brenda Happell, Kerry Reid-Searl
Mental health policy includes a clear expectation that consumers will participate in all aspects of the design and delivery of mental health services. This edict has led to employment roles for people with lived experience of significant mental health challenges and service use. Despite the proliferation of these roles, research into factors impacting their success or otherwise is limited. This paper presents findings from a grounded theory study investigating the experiences of Lived Experience Practitioners in the context of their employment...
September 21, 2016: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641260/risky-cerebrovascular-anatomic-orientation-implications-for-brain-revascularization
#17
Alhusain Nagm, Tetsuyoshi Horiuchi, Takao Yanagawa, Kazuhiro Hongo
This study documents a risky vascular anatomic orientation that might play an important role in the postoperative hemodynamics following anterior cerebral artery (ACA) revascularization. A 71-year-old woman presented with uncontrollable frequent right lower limb transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) attributed to a left cerebral ischemic lesion due to severe left ACA stenosis. She underwent successful left-sided superficial temporal artery-ACA bypass using interposed vascular graft. The patient awoke satisfactory from anesthesia; however, on postoperative day 1, she developed right-sided hemiparesis...
September 15, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27602887/the-role-of-memory-in-distinguishing-risky-decisions-from-experience-and-description
#18
Christopher R Madan, Elliot A Ludvig, Marcia L Spetch
People's risk preferences differ for choices based on described probabilities versus those based on information learned through experience. For decisions from description, people are typically more risk averse for gains than for losses. In contrast, for decisions from experience, people are sometimes more risk seeking for gains than losses, especially for choices with the possibility of extreme outcomes (big wins or big losses), which are systematically overweighed in memory. Using a within-subject design, this study evaluated whether this memory bias plays a role in the differences in risky choice between description and experience...
September 7, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591399/risky-decision-making-in-adolescent-girls-the-role-of-pubertal-hormones-and-reward-circuitry
#19
Zdeňa A Op de Macks, Silvia A Bunge, Orly N Bell, Linda Wilbrecht, Lance J Kriegsfeld, Andrew S Kayser, Ronald E Dahl
Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by a greater tendency to take risks. While the adult literature has shown that sex steroids influence reward-related brain functioning and risk taking, research on the role of these hormones during puberty is limited. In this study, we examined the relation between pubertal hormones and adolescent risk taking using a probabilistic decision-making task. In this task, participants could choose on each trial to play or pass based on explicit information about the risk level and stakes involved in their decision...
December 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581833/sports-related-to-drowning
#20
David Szpilman, James P Orlowski
Aquatic sports are included in the top list of risky practices as the environment per se carries a possibility of death by drowning if not rescued in time. Not only are aquatic sports related to a high risk of death, but also all sports practiced on the water, over the water and on ice. Whatever the reason a person is in the water, drowning carries a higher possibility of death if the individual is unable to cope with the water situation, which may simply be caused by an inability to stay afloat and get out of the water or by an injury or disease that may lead to physical inability or unconsciousness...
September 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
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