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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398126/a-multifactorial-and-integrative-approach-to-impulsivity-in-neuropsychology-insights-from-the-upps-model-of-impulsivity
#1
Lucien Rochat, Joël Billieux, Jean Gagnon, Martial Van der Linden
Risky and excessive behaviors, such as aggressive and compulsive behaviors, are frequently described in patients with brain damage and have dramatic psychosocial consequences. Although there is strong evidence that impulsivity constitutes a key factor at play in these behaviors, the literature about impulsivity in neuropsychology is to date scarce. In addition, examining and understanding these problematic behaviors requires the assumption that impulsivity is a multidimensional construct. Consequently, this article aims at shedding light on frequent risky and excessive behaviors in patients with brain damage by focusing on a unified, comprehensive, and well-validated model, namely, the UPPS model of impulsivity...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379109/substance-use-in-young-swiss-men-the-interplay-of-perceived-social-support-and-dispositional-characteristics
#2
Joseph Studer, Stéphanie Baggio, Marc Dupuis, Meichun Mohler-Kuo, Jean-Bernard Daeppen, Gerhard Gmel
BACKGROUND: Social environment plays a central role in substance use behaviors. However, it is not clear whether its role varies as a function of individual dispositional characteristics. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the interaction between dispositional characteristics (i.e. sensation seeking, anxiety/neuroticism) and social environment (i.e. perceived social support [PSS]) in association with substance use. METHODS: A representative sample of 5,377 young Swiss males completed a questionnaire assessing substance use, sensation seeking, anxiety/neuroticism, and PSS from friends and from a significant other...
May 12, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330803/relationship-between-religion-and-school-students-road-behavior-in-southern-iran
#3
Reza Tabrizi, Maryam Akbari, Kamran B Lankarani, Seyed Taghi Heydari, Alireza Masoudi, Amir Hossein Shams, Armin Akbarzadeh, Saba Moalemi, Maryam Mahmoodi Mehr, Ahmad Kalateh Sadati, Payam Peymani
PURPOSE: Unsafe behaviors are an important cause of accidents in adolescent age groups. This study was designed to examine the behaviors of adolescent pedestrians in southern Iran. METHODS: This is a descriptive analytical cross-sectional study. The study population consisted of high school students in Shiraz, capital city of Fars Province, Iran. Five hundred and sixteen students were selected by multi-stage sampling. Data were collected by the use of three questionnaires, which included Persian copies of adolescent road user behavior questionnaire (ARBQ), Duke University Religious Index (DUREL), as well as the context and independent variables questionnaire...
February 24, 2017: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315547/how-can-i-change-my-patients-treatment-decision-making-by-becoming-a-nurse-scientist-%C3%A2
#4
Tamryn F Gray
"What would you do?" I have heard this question numerous times throughout my nursing career by patients and families affected by cancer. As a pediatric blood and marrow transplantation nurse, I have often seen patients and their families wrestle with difficult treatment decisions. I have witnessed parents struggle between beginning end-of-life care for their child, or pursuing a risky but potentially life-saving clinical trial. With science driving advances in cancer treatments and patients playing more active roles in their care, uncertainty around cancer treatment decisions will only become more complicated...
April 1, 2017: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288371/gender-and-other-risk-factors-associated-with-risky-behaviours-among-nigerian-adolescents
#5
Oluyemi O Akanni, Olaide N Koleoso, Anthony A Olashore, Ehigiator O Adayonfo, Adeagbo F Osundina, Olaniyi O Ayilara
Risky behaviours in adolescents, apart from substance use, and their associate factors, have not been thoroughly investigated in Nigeria. Hence, there is a need to study the prevalence of risky behaviours and their relationship with gender and other potential risk factors. Data comprising socio-demographic, risky behaviours, personality traits, religious orientation and substance use were obtained from 300 randomly selected secondary school students. Two risk groups (low and high) based on the number of risky behaviours were determined...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286411/peer-effects-on-risk-behaviour-the-importance-of-group-identity
#6
Francesca Gioia
This paper investigates whether and to what extent group identity plays a role in peer effects on risk behaviour. We run a laboratory experiment in which different levels of group identity are induced through different matching protocols (random or based on individual painting preferences) and the possibility to interact with group members via an online chat in a group task. Risk behaviour is measured by using the Bomb Risk Elicitation Task and peer influence is introduced by giving subjects feedback regarding group members' previous decisions...
2017: Experimental Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283138/knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-related-to-schistosomiasis-among-children-in-northern-senegal
#7
Simona Frigerio, Fabrizio Bert, Marco Clari, Giovanni Di Fine, Susanna Riva, Ilaria Bergese, Samba Gueye Diouf, Rosaria Alvaro, Ersilia Buonomo
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a highly prevalent parasitic disease in Senegal. The early symptoms are hematuria and dysuria. Children's comprehension of the disease is fundamental to preventing the infection. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge attitudes, and practices related to schistosomiasis among schoolchildren in 2 rural villages in Northern Senegal and to evaluate their impact on the disease. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted...
September 2016: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278745/-ballroom-itself-can-either-make-you-or-break-you-black-gbt-youths-psychosocial-development-in-the-house-ball-community
#8
Kyle Telander, Sybil G Hosek, Diana Lemos, Gihane Jeremie-Brink
Social context plays a significant role in adolescent identity development, particularly for youth lacking traditional systems of support. Using ecological and symbolic interactionism perspectives, this study qualitatively explored the psychosocial identity development of Black gay, bisexual, or transgendered youth participating in the House Ball Community (HBC). The HBC is a diverse network of family-like structures called 'houses', as well as a glamorous social outlet via pageant-like 'balls' in which participants compete...
March 3, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274386/willingness-to-pay-for-other-individuals-healthcare-expenditures
#9
A P Borges, A Reis, J Anjos
OBJECTIVES: The need to improve the sustainability of public health expenditure, in a climate of growing pressure on national budgets, inevitably leads to a discussion about resource rationing, and the extent of society's responsibility for those expenditures. To contribute to this discussion empirically, this study evaluated the willingness of Portuguese respondents to pay for other individuals' healthcare expenditures through out-of-pocket payments. STUDY DESIGN: A questionnaire addressed to the general public was developed, with 296 respondents...
March 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231161/food-leftover-practices-among-consumers-in-selected-countries-in-europe-south-and-north-america
#10
Kadri Koppel, Federica Higa, Sandria Godwin, Nelson Gutierrez, Roman Shalimov, Paula Cardinal, Brizio Di Donfrancesco, Miriam Sosa, Angel A Carbonell-Barrachina, Loreida Timberg, Edgar Chambers
Foodborne illnesses may be related to many food production factors with home practices of consumers playing an important role in food safety. Consumer behavior for handling food leftovers has been studied, however little work on comparisons among countries has been published. The objective of this study was to investigate home food leftover practices of people from North American, South American, and European countries. Surveys were conducted with approximately 100 or more consumers in Argentina, Colombia, the United States, Estonia, Italy, Russia, and Spain...
September 21, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216369/role-of-socio-cultural-and-economic-factors-in-cyprinid-fish-distribution-networks-and-consumption-in-lawa-lake-region-northeast-thailand-novel-perspectives-on-opisthorchis-viverrini-transmission-dynamics
#11
Christina Sunyoung Kim, John F Smith, Apiporn Suwannatrai, Pierre Echaubard, Bruce Wilcox, Sasithorn Kaewkes, Paiboon Sithithaworn, Banchob Sripa
Opisthorchis viverrini (Ov) is a fish-borne parasite endemic in parts of Lao PDR, Cambodia, southern Vietnam and Northeast Thailand (Isaan) where an estimated 10 million people are infected. Human Ov infection, associated with hepatobiliary complications, including cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), occurs when infected fish are consumed raw or undercooked, a longstanding cultural tradition in the region. This mixed- methods descriptive study was carried out in Isaan villages around Lawa Lake, Khon Kaen Province, known for their Ov endemicity...
February 16, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215265/intrinsic-and-extrinsic-predictors-of-video-gaming-behaviour-and-adolescent-bedtimes-the-relationship-between-flow-states-self-perceived-risk-taking-device-accessibility-parental-regulation-of-media-and-bedtime
#12
Lisa J Smith, Michael Gradisar, Daniel L King, Michelle Short
How computer games affect the time at which adolescents go to bed is of growing research interest; however, the intrinsic individual and extrinsic sociocultural factors mediating the relationship between gaming and sleep have received minimal attention. This paper investigates how gaming duration mediates the relationship between intrinsic factors (perception of risky events and flow) and extrinsic factors (parental regulation and media accessibility) and adolescent bedtime. Adolescents (N = 422; age = 16...
February 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182902/money-in-the-bank-distortive-effects-of-accumulated-earnings-on-risky-choice
#13
Arkady Konovalov, Ian Krajbich
A new study by Juechems et al. (2017) demonstrates that individuals take fewer risks as they accumulate monetary reward. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex plays a key role in the decision process, encoding both momentary reward and the context of the accumulated wealth.
February 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174543/rank-among-peers-during-game-competition-affects-the-tendency-to-make-risky-choices-in-adolescent-males
#14
Jerome C Foo, Kohei Nagase, Sawako Naramura-Ohno, Kazuhiro Yoshiuchi, Yoshiharu Yamamoto, Kenji Morita
It has been shown that adolescents take more risks when they are with peers than when they are alone, presumably because the presence of peers can be a social reward/punishment that can bias decision making. Competition is inherent in peer interactions, and recent work has demonstrated that winning/losing is an intrinsic social reward/punishment. Taken together, it can be hypothesized that competition amongst peers affects adolescents' risky behavior. While there is much evidence that status amongst peers can relate to antisocial/aggressive behavior, it remains unclear whether risky behavior is affected...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154003/ethics-of-a-relaxed-antidoping-rule-accompanied-by-harm-reduction-measures
#15
Bengt Kayser, Jan Tolleneer
Harm-reduction approaches are used to reduce the burden of risky human behaviour without necessarily aiming to stop the behaviour. We discuss what an introduction of harm reduction for doping in sports would mean in parallel with a relaxation of the antidoping rule. We analyse what is ethically at stake in the following five levels: (1) What would it mean for the athlete (the self)? (2) How would it impact other athletes (the other)? (3) How would it affect the phenomenon of sport as a game and its fair play basis (the play)? (4) What would be the consequences for the spectator and the role of sports in society (the display)? and (5) What would it mean for what some consider as essential to being human (humanity)? For each level, we present arguments for and against doping and then discuss what a harm-reduction approach, within a dynamic regime of a partially relaxed antidoping rule, could imply...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146047/similarities-and-differences-matter-considering-the-influence-of-gender-on-hiv-prevention-programs-for-young-adults-in-an-urban-hbcu
#16
Ian Lindong, Lorece Edwards, Sabriya Dennis, Olaoluwa Fajobi
Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) disproportionately burdens African American youth and young adults. In studies conducted in Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) settings, African American youth generally perceive themselves as having a low risk of contracting HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) despite having higher rates of unprotected sexual encounters, multiple sex partners, and particularly low rates of HIV testing and awareness of HIV status...
January 29, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143579/method-for-generating-multiple-risky-barcodes-of-complex-diseases-using-ant-colony-algorithm
#17
Xiong Li, Wen Jiang
BACKGROUND: Susceptible barcode recognition plays an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of complex diseases. Numerous approaches have been proposed to identify risky barcodes involved in the progress of complex diseases. However, some methods only consider differences in barcode frequencies between the control and disease groups; as such, these methods may be partial or even wrong. For example, some barcodes with a high risk ratio yield a low frequency on cases or exhibit a high frequency on controls, which may unreasonable from a statistical point...
February 1, 2017: Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120644/risk-behaviours-and-prevalences-of-hiv-and-sexually-transmitted-infections-among-female-sex-workers-in-various-venues-in-changzhou-china
#18
Yanli Guo, Xiaoguo Xu, Gengfeng Fu, Xiping Huan, Ning Jiang, Yueping Yin, Xiangsheng Chen
Female sex workers (FSWs) play an important role in the heterosexual transmission of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in China. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 609 FSWs from various venues in Changzhou to investigate risk behaviours and prevalences of HIV and STIs among FSW subgroups. Structured questionnaires were used in face-to-face interviews to collect information. Blood and cervical specimens were collected to test for HIV, syphilis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infections...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103937/the-influence-of-marketing-on-the-sports-betting-attitudes-and-consumption-behaviours-of-young-men-implications-for-harm-reduction-and-prevention-strategies
#19
Emily G Deans, Samantha L Thomas, Jeffrey Derevensky, Mike Daube
BACKGROUND: Gambling can cause significant health and social harms for individuals, their families, and communities. While many studies have explored the individual factors that may lead to and minimise harmful gambling, there is still limited knowledge about the broader range of factors that may contribute to gambling harm. There are significant regulations to prevent the marketing of some forms of gambling but comparatively limited regulations relating to the marketing of newer forms of online gambling such as sports betting...
January 19, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100187/prevalence-of-hiv-and-syphilis-co-infection-and-associated-factors-among-non-commercial-men-who-have-sex-with-men-attending-a-sexually-transmitted-disease-clinic-in-shenzhen-china
#20
Wenjie Dai, Zhenzhou Luo, Ruiwei Xu, Guanglu Zhao, Dan Tu, Lin Yang, Feng Wang, Yumao Cai, Lina Lan, Fuchang Hong, Tubao Yang, Tiejian Feng
BACKGROUND: Although HIV and syphilis co-infection has been frequently observed in men who have sex with men (MSM), only few studies have focused on it. Different subgroups of MSM might exhibit heterogeneous HIV and syphilis risk profiles, indicating that interventions for HIV and HIV-related co-infections may vary with different subgroups of MSM. However, no previous study has investigated HIV and syphilis co-infection among non-commercial MSM (ncMSM) attending a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic...
January 18, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
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