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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922652/a-pilot-study-of-loss-aversion-for-drug-and-non-drug-commodities-in-cocaine-users
#1
Justin C Strickland, Joshua S Beckmann, Craig R Rush, William W Stoops
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies in behavioral economics have demonstrated that individuals are more sensitive to the prospect of a loss than a gain (i.e., loss aversion). Although loss aversion has been well described in "healthy" populations, little research exists in individuals with substance use disorders. This gap is notable considering the prominent role that choice and decision-making play in drug use. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate loss aversion in active cocaine users...
September 12, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919821/prevalence-of-fertility-desire-and-its-associated-factors-among-15-to-49-year-old-people-living-with-hiv-aids-in-addis-ababa-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study-design
#2
Takele Menna Adilo, Hirut Megerssa Wordofa
BACKGROUND: The magnitude of unprotected sex to satisfy the desire for fertility among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) may rise more due to the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in most HIV-affected countries. This could, however, have the risk of passing on HIV to sexual partners and children. The aim of this study, therefore, was to determine the magnitude and factors associated with the fertility desire of reproductive-age PLHIV in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, for research-based and timely actions...
2017: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902522/delinquency-and-sexual-experiences-across-adolescence-does-depression-play-a-role
#3
Hanna Savioja, Mika Helminen, Sari Fröjd, Mauri Marttunen, Riittakerttu Kaltiala-Heino
PURPOSE: To elucidate a possible connection between delinquency and adolescent sexual behaviours in different age groups from 14 to 20 and the role of depression therein. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were gathered from the cross-sectional Finnish School Health Promotion Study 2010 and 2011 with 186,632 respondents. We first examined the bivariate relationship between delinquency and sexual behaviour, and then proceeded to multivariate models accounting for self-reported depression...
September 13, 2017: European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886441/place-and-recovery-from-alcohol-dependence-a-journey-through-photovoice
#4
Niamk K Shortt, Sarah J Rhynas, Aisha Holloway
It has been suggested that place, and interaction with the environment, may play a role in recovery from alcohol dependence. In this paper we report findings from a project that used an adapted photovoice methodology to better understand individuals' experience and perceptions of the role of place in recovery from alcohol dependence. Individuals attending a recovery café in central Scotland documented their environment and, in focus group settings, the individuals discussed and analysed their photographs. Here we report aspects of the environment, both therapeutic and risky, experienced by individuals negotiating the journey of dependence recovery...
September 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883633/pok%C3%A3-mon-go-and-psychological-distress-physical-complaints-and-work-performance-among-adult-workers-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#5
Kazuhiro Watanabe, Norito Kawakami, Kotaro Imamura, Akiomi Inoue, Akihito Shimazu, Toru Yoshikawa, Hisanori Hiro, Yumi Asai, Yuko Odagiri, Etsuko Yoshikawa, Akizumi Tsutsumi
The effects of Pokémon GO, a new mobile game application which utilizes augmented reality, on risky behavior and health have already been discussed in anecdotal evidence. However, there have been no studies about its effects on mental health. This study investigated the relationships between Pokémon GO and psychological distress from an existing workers' cohort in Japan. Online surveys were conducted to 3,915 full-time workers, at baseline (Nov 26, 2015-Feb 18, 2016) and at follow-up (Dec 1-4, 2016), using a self-report questionnaire...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829630/associated-factors-of-readiness-to-change-in-young-adult-risky-drinkers
#6
Ebon S Alley, Mary M Velasquez, Kirk Von Sternberg
BACKGROUND: Readiness to change alcohol use has been associated with a number of predictors including emotional distress, drinking severity, and consequence severity, as well as with static demographic factors such as gender and race/ethnicity. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationships among these variables and readiness to change alcohol use in young adults. METHODS: Structural equation modeling was used to test pathways of readiness to change in 1,256 young adult patients (78% male/22% female) ages 18-29 who were provided screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment (SBIRT) as part of a Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Treatment Capacity Expansion Project...
August 22, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802768/when-you-can-scale-up-large-scale-study-shows-no-effect-of-tdcs-in-an-ambiguous-risk-taking-task
#7
Riccardo Russo, Paul Twyman, Nicholas R Cooper, Paul B Fitzgerald, Denise Wallace
BACKGROUND: A wide range of neuroimaging and neuromodulation studies have shown that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) plays a pivotal role in decision-making. Of particular interest is the question of its role in decision-making when conditions are uncertain and whether manipulating this neural substrate through neuromodulation changes subsequent risk-taking behaviour. Previous work using the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) suggests that bilateral tDCS stimulation of the DLPFC reduces risk-taking behaviour but unilateral stimulation has no effect...
August 9, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800472/phthalate-and-bisphenol-a-exposure-during-in-utero-windows-of-susceptibility-in-relation-to-reproductive-hormones-and-pubertal-development-in-girls
#8
Deborah J Watkins, Brisa N Sánchez, Martha Maria Téllez-Rojo, Joyce M Lee, Adriana Mercado-García, Clara Blank-Goldenberg, Karen E Peterson, John D Meeker
BACKGROUND: Over the past several decades, the age of pubertal onset in girls has shifted downward worldwide. As early pubertal onset is associated with increased risky behavior and psychological issues during adolescence and cardiometabolic disease and cancer in adulthood, this is an important public health concern. Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals during critical windows of in utero development may play a role in this trend. Our objective was to investigate trimester-specific phthalate and BPA exposure in relation to pubertal development among girls in the Early Life Exposure in Mexico to Environmental Toxicants (ELEMENT) birth cohort...
August 8, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790303/prognostic-value-from-integrative-analysis-of-transcription-factors-c-jun-and-fra-1-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-a-multicenter-cohort-study
#9
Hao Xu, Xin Jin, Yao Yuan, Peng Deng, Lu Jiang, Xin Zeng, Xiao-Song Li, Zhi-Yong Wang, Qian-Ming Chen
Transcription factors c-Jun and Fra-1 have been reported to play a role during the initiation and progression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, cohort studies are rarely reported. Here is an integrative analysis of their prognostic value in OSCC through a multicenter cohort study.313 OSCC patients were included in this study and received regular follow-up. The survival rate and hazard ratios(HR) were generated by survival analysis. The concordance probability and receiver operating characteristic curve area were chosen to measure the model discrimination...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777202/nitrite-inhalant-use-and-hiv-infection-among-chinese-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-2-large-cities-in-china
#10
Xiaofang Wang, Yanqi Li, Zunyou Wu, Zhenzhu Tang, Kathleen H Reilly, Quanxing Nong
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine the role that nitrite inhalants play in HIV infection and risky sex behaviors among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: The study consisted of a baseline and a follow-up survey conducted in Beijing and Nanning, China. The baseline study recruited participants through online advertisements and peer referral to complete a questionnaire interview, oral rapid HIV test, and blood HIV and syphilis tests. The follow-up included a questionnaire interview, and optional oral and/or blood HIV testing...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764585/sexual-transactions-between-long-distance-truck-drivers-and-female-sex-workers-in-south-africa
#11
Nosipho Faith Makhakhe, Tim Lane, James McIntyre, Helen Struthers
BACKGROUND: Female sex workers (FSWs) and long distance truck drivers (LDTDs) are considered key populations at high risk for HIV transmission due to high prevalence. The intersection of these mobile populations presents unique challenges in the fight against HIV and the movement towards reducing new infections. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore the nature of sex trade along a particular transport route. Sexual transactions and the vulnerabilities that exist between these two groups with regards to HIV/AIDS are described, with the purpose of furthering the agenda for targeted interventions...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743301/loading-pattern-of-postoperative-hallux-valgus-feet-with-and-without-transfer-metatarsalgia-a-case-control-study
#12
Xiang Geng, Dichao Huang, Xu Wang, Chao Zhang, Jiazhang Huang, Xin Ma, Li Chen, Chen Wang, Junsheng Yang, Heng Wang
BACKGROUND: Postoperative transfer metatarsalgia is a common complication after hallux valgus surgeries. Shortening of the first metatarsal is traditionally thought to be the primary cause of it. However, we speculate the abnormal loading pattern during gait is the real reason. This study is to determine specific differences in the loading patterns between reconstructive hallux valgus (HV) feet with and without postoperative transfer metatarsalgia, so as to find risky loading characteristics of this complication...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743067/-we-must-cooperate-with-one-another-against-the-enemy-agency-and-activism-in-school-aged-children-as-protective-factors-against-ongoing-war-trauma-and-political-violence-in-the-gaza-strip
#13
Guido Veronese, Alessandro Pepe, Alaa Jaradah, Feda Murannak, Housam Hamdouna
This exploratory qualitative study investigated self-perceived risk and protection factors that may reinforce the ability of children living in refugee camps on the Gaza Strip to adjust to a traumatic and risky life context characterized by loss and dispossession. The sample comprised 200 Palestinian children recruited at primary schools in four refugee camps in the Gaza Strip following the Israeli military operation "Pillar of Defence" in 2012. Thematic content analysis was applied to written materials and narratives produced by the children...
July 22, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721199/evidence-informed-capacity-building-for-setting-health-priorities-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-framework-and-recommendations-for-further-research
#14
Ryan Li, Francis Ruiz, Anthony J Culyer, Kalipso Chalkidou, Karen J Hofman
Priority-setting in health is risky and challenging, particularly in resource-constrained settings. It is not simply a narrow technical exercise, and involves the mobilisation of a wide range of capacities among stakeholders - not only the technical capacity to "do" research in economic evaluations. Using the Individuals, Nodes, Networks and Environment (INNE) framework, we identify those stakeholders, whose capacity needs will vary along the evidence-to-policy continuum. Policymakers and healthcare managers require the capacity to commission and use relevant evidence (including evidence of clinical and cost-effectiveness, and of social values); academics need to understand and respond to decision-makers' needs to produce relevant research...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720106/caretaker-adolescent-communication-on-sexual-and-reproductive-health-a-cross-sectional-study-in-unguja-tanzania-zanzibar
#15
Saada A Seif, Thecla W Kohi, Candida S Moshiro
BACKGROUND: Caretakers/parents/caregivers/guardians play important roles in improving Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) of adolescents. Caretaker-adolescent sexual communication suggested to influence young people's sexual behaviours. Despite this significance, the communication is believed to be low in Unguja due to the increase of risky sexual behaviours among adolescents. This study assessed the pattern of such communication using IMB model as a framework. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study targeted caretakers of adolescents aged 15-19...
July 18, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703897/media-representations-of-breech-birth-a-prospective-analysis-of-web-based-news-reports
#16
Karolina Petrovska, Athena Sheehan, Caroline S E Homer
INTRODUCTION: Recent research has demonstrated that the media presentation of childbirth is highly medicalized, often portraying birth as risky and dramatic. Media representation of breech presentation and birth is unexplored in this context. This study aimed to explore the content and tone of news media reports relating to breech presentation and breech birth. METHODS: Google alerts were created using the terms breech and breech birth in online English-language news sites over a 3-year period from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2015...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695835/the-concept-of-travel-medicine-and-the-actual-situation-of-travel-related-illnesses
#17
Varol Tunalı, Nevin Turgay
Travel medicine defines all diseases and medical situations that are related to travel. Travel medicine comprises infectious diseases, traumas, altitude sickness, sun burns, embolisms, jet lag, and many more travel-related situations. With the increasing possibility and ease of travel, the number of people who have travelled internationally has exceeded 1.13 billion in 2014, and the revenues of international travel have exceeded 1.25 trillion dollars. With every passing day, international travels are shifting toward the developing countries and to more exotic regions of the world, and travelers tend to be more adventurous and daring, thereby increasing risky behaviors during travels...
June 2017: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694710/modeling-ecodevelopmental-context-of-sexually-transmitted-disease-hiv-risk-and-protective-behaviors-among-african-american-adolescents
#18
Ya-Huei Li, Osaro Mgbere, Susan Abughosh, Hua Chen, Paula Cuccaro, Ekere James Essien
Risk and protective processes are integrated developmental processes that directly or indirectly affect behavioral outcomes. A better understanding of these processes is needed, in order to gauge their contribution to sexual risk behaviors. This retrospective cross-sectional study modeled the ecodevelopmental chain of relationships to examine the social contexts of African-American (AA) adolescents associated with sexually transmitted disease (STD)- and HIV-risk behaviors. We used data from 1,619 AA adolescents with an average age of 16±1...
2017: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694338/no-effect-of-commercial-cognitive-training-on-brain-activity-choice-behavior-or-cognitive-performance
#19
Joseph W Kable, M Kathleen Caulfield, Mary Falcone, Mairead McConnell, Leah Bernardo, Trishala Parthasarathi, Nicole Cooper, Rebecca Ashare, Janet Audrain-McGovern, Robert Hornik, Paul Diefenbach, Frank J Lee, Caryn Lerman
Increased preference for immediate over delayed rewards and for risky over certain rewards has been associated with unhealthy behavioral choices. Motivated by evidence that enhanced cognitive control can shift choice behavior away from immediate and risky rewards, we tested whether training executive cognitive function could influence choice behavior and brain responses. In this randomized controlled trial, 128 young adults (71 male, 57 female) participated in 10 weeks of training with either a commercial web-based cognitive training program or web-based video games that do not specifically target executive function or adapt the level of difficulty throughout training...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691176/attitudes-norms-and-the-effect-of-social-connectedness-on-adolescent-sexual-risk-intention
#20
Julie A Cederbaum, Aubrey J Rodriguez, Kathrine Sullivan, Kandice Gray
BACKGROUND: Risky sexual behaviors put adolescents at increased risk of adverse outcomes. Parents, school-based adults, and peers play important roles in influencing these sex intentions. METHODS: This work explored the influence of parent-child sex communication on adolescent attitudes, perceived norms, and intentions to have sex, including the moderating role of social support from school-based adults, in a sample of 21,731 adolescents in California. RESULTS: Although increased parent-child sex communication was associated with intentions to have sex, it also exhibited protective effects, increasing abstinence attitudes among youth that led to decreased intention directly and via support from school-based adults...
August 2017: Journal of School Health
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