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risky play

Anna L Funk, Flavie Luce Goutard, Eve Miguel, Mathieu Bourgarel, Veronique Chevalier, Bernard Faye, J S Malik Peiris, Maria D Van Kerkhove, Francois Louis Roger
Nearly 4 years after the first report of the emergence of Middle-East respiratory syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and nearly 1800 human cases later, the ecology of MERS-CoV, its epidemiology, and more than risk factors of MERS-CoV transmission between camels are poorly understood. Knowledge about the pathways and mechanisms of transmission from animals to humans is limited; as of yet, transmission risks have not been quantified. Moreover the divergent sanitary situations and exposures to animals among populations in the Arabian Peninsula, where human primary cases appear to dominate, vs...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Colleen Gail Moodley
HIV and AIDS are rapidly spreading amongst the world's 15- to 24-year age group, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite vigorous government interventions and campaigns, 10 % of South African youth in the age cohort 15-24 are infected with HIV and AIDS. Furthermore, for the first time in history the world has its largest number of individuals under the age of 30 years. Researchers are desperately seeking a solution and have found religion to play an important role in moderating risky sexual behaviour amongst youth...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Religion and Health
Walter Chingwaru, Jerneja Vidmar
Zimbabwe is going through a generalised acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic. The first five years of the epidemic (1985-1990) were characterised by lack of medicines against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and an exponential increase in prevalence (65-fold) and incidence (13-fold), which were fuelled by high-risk sexual behaviour. The high HIV prevalence, mortality and stigma yielded great fear and panic in the population, which are thought to have led to confusion and hopelessness, and, in turn, increased risky sexual behaviour...
August 11, 2016: Global Public Health
Timothy A Wencewicz
The doom and gloom of antibiotic resistance dominates public perception of this drug class. Many believe the world has entered the post-antibiotic era. Classic and modern approaches to antibacterial drug discovery have delivered a plethora of lead molecules with a great majority being natural products of ancient microbial origin. The failure of antibiotics in the resistance era comes from an inability to develop new leads into clinical candidates, which is a costly and risky endeavor for any therapeutic area, especially when resistance is at play...
September 13, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Louise Byrne, Brenda Happell, Kerry Reid-Searl
Mental health policy includes a clear expectation that consumers will participate in all aspects of the design and delivery of mental health services. This edict has led to employment roles for people with lived experience of significant mental health challenges and service use. Despite the proliferation of these roles, research into factors impacting their success or otherwise is limited. This paper presents findings from a grounded theory study investigating the experiences of Lived Experience Practitioners in the context of their employment...
September 21, 2016: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
Alhusain Nagm, Tetsuyoshi Horiuchi, Takao Yanagawa, Kazuhiro Hongo
This study documents a risky vascular anatomic orientation that might play an important role in the postoperative hemodynamics following anterior cerebral artery (ACA) revascularization. A 71-year-old woman presented with uncontrollable frequent right lower limb transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) attributed to a left cerebral ischemic lesion due to severe left ACA stenosis. She underwent successful left-sided superficial temporal artery-ACA bypass using interposed vascular graft. The patient awoke satisfactory from anesthesia; however, on postoperative day 1, she developed right-sided hemiparesis...
September 15, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Christopher R Madan, Elliot A Ludvig, Marcia L Spetch
People's risk preferences differ for choices based on described probabilities versus those based on information learned through experience. For decisions from description, people are typically more risk averse for gains than for losses. In contrast, for decisions from experience, people are sometimes more risk seeking for gains than losses, especially for choices with the possibility of extreme outcomes (big wins or big losses), which are systematically overweighed in memory. Using a within-subject design, this study evaluated whether this memory bias plays a role in the differences in risky choice between description and experience...
September 7, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Zdeňa A Op de Macks, Silvia A Bunge, Orly N Bell, Linda Wilbrecht, Lance J Kriegsfeld, Andrew S Kayser, Ronald E Dahl
Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by a greater tendency to take risks. While the adult literature has shown that sex steroids influence reward-related brain functioning and risk taking, research on the role of these hormones during puberty is limited. In this study, we examined the relation between pubertal hormones and adolescent risk taking using a probabilistic decision-making task. In this task, participants could choose on each trial to play or pass based on explicit information about the risk level and stakes involved in their decision...
August 17, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
David Szpilman, James P Orlowski
Aquatic sports are included in the top list of risky practices as the environment per se carries a possibility of death by drowning if not rescued in time. Not only are aquatic sports related to a high risk of death, but also all sports practiced on the water, over the water and on ice. Whatever the reason a person is in the water, drowning carries a higher possibility of death if the individual is unable to cope with the water situation, which may simply be caused by an inability to stay afloat and get out of the water or by an injury or disease that may lead to physical inability or unconsciousness...
September 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
Jongmin Yoon, Byung-Su Kim, Eun-Jin Joo, Shi-Ryong Park
Some nest predators visually assess parental activities to locate a prey nest, whereas parents modify fitness-related traits to reduce the probability of nest predation, and/or nestlings fledge early to escape the risky nest environment. Here, we experimentally tested if the parental and fledging behaviours of oriental tits (Parus minor) that bred in the nest-box varied with cavity conditions associated with nest predation risk during the nestling period. The entrance of experimental nest-boxes was enlarged to create a long-term risk soon after clutch competition...
2016: Scientific Reports
I Shalaj, F Tishukaj, N Bachl, H Tschan, B Wessner, R Csapo
BACKGROUND: The incidence and severity of football-related injuries has been found to differ strongly between professional leagues from different countries. The aims of this study were to record the incidence, type and severity of injuries in Kosovarian football players and investigate the relationship between injury incidence rates (IRs), players' age and playing positions. METHODS: Players' age, anthropometric characteristics and playing positions, training and match exposure as well as injury occurrences were monitored in 11 teams (143 players) of Kosovo's top division during the 2013/14 season...
2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Christopher M Baker, Ascelin Gordon, Michael Bode
Introducing a new, or previously extant, species to an ecosystem is a risky decision, and managers need quantitative methods that can predict the consequences for the recipient ecosystem. Proponents of keystone predator reintroductions commonly argue that the presence of the predator will restore ecosystem function, but this has not always been the case, and mathematical modeling has important role to play in predicting how reintroductions will likely play out. We propose an ensemble modeling method that integrates species interaction networks and dynamic community simulations, and use it to describe the range of plausible consequences of keystone predator reintroduction...
August 1, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Zepeng Huang, Zhenni Liu, Xiangxiang Liu, Laiwen Lv, Yan Zhang, Limin Ou, Liping Li
Despite the prevalence of the phenomena of peer victimization and bystander behaviors, little data has generated to describe their relationships and risk factors. In this paper, a self-administered survey using a cross-sectional cluster-random sampling method in a sample of 5450 participants (2734 girls and 2716 boys) between 4th and 11th grades was conducted at six schools (two primary schools and four middle schools) located in Shantou, China. Self-reported peer victimization, bystander behaviors and information regarding parents' risky behaviors and individual behavioral factors were collected...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Georges Elias Khalil, Ivan L Beale, Minxing Chen, Alexander V Prokhorov
BACKGROUND: Risky behaviors tend to increase drastically during the transition into young adulthood. This increase may ultimately facilitate the initiation of carcinogenic processes at a young age, highlighting a serious public health problem. By promoting information seeking behavior (ISB), young adults may become aware of cancer risks and potentially take preventive measures. OBJECTIVE: Based on the protection motivation theory, the current study seeks to evaluate the impact of challenge in a fully automated video game called Re-Mission on young adult college students' tendency to perceive the severity of cancer, feel susceptible to cancer, and engage in ISB...
2016: JMIR Serious Games
Agata Sobkow, Jakub Traczyk, Tomasz Zaleskiewicz
Recent research has documented that affect plays a crucial role in risk perception. When no information about numerical risk estimates is available (e.g., probability of loss or magnitude of consequences), people may rely on positive and negative affect toward perceived risk. However, determinants of affective reactions to risks are poorly understood. In a series of three experiments, we addressed the question of whether and to what degree mental imagery eliciting negative affect and stress influences risk perception...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Mahmood Karimy, Ahmad Reza Abedi, Hamid Abredari, Mohammad Taher, Fatemeh Zarei, Zahra Rezaie Shahsavarloo
BACKGROUND: The horror of HIV/AIDS as a non-curable, grueling disease is a destructive issue for every country. Drug use, shared needles and unsafe sex are closely linked to the transmission of HIV/AIDS. Modification or changing unhealthy behavior through educational programs can lead to HIV prevention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of theory-based education intervention on HIV prevention transmission in drug addicts. METHODS: In this quasi-experimental study, 69 male drug injecting users were entered in to the theory- based educational intervention...
2016: Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran
Per Hellevik, Carolina Øverlien
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was threefold: (1) learn more about factors associated with teenage intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization; (2) explore aspects of digital media use in connection with teenage IPV; (3) and compare the impact IPV victimization has on boys and girls. METHOD: Survey data from 549 Norwegian students, mean age 15.2 years, who had experience(s) with being in intimate relationship(s), were examined. Experiences with psychological, physical, digital, and sexual violence were analyzed...
July 6, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Martin Zack, Sang Soo Cho, Jennifer Parlee, Mark Jacobs, Crystal Li, Isabelle Boileau, Antonio Strafella
BACKGROUND: Repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can reduce cravings and improve cognitive function in substance dependent individuals. Whether these benefits extend to individuals with pathological gambling (PG) is unclear. High-frequency rTMS of the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) and continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) of the right dorsolateral PFC can reduce impulsive choice in healthy volunteers. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the effects of these two protocols on gambling reinforcement and related responses in otherwise healthy men with PG...
June 14, 2016: Brain Stimulation
K Kauber, H Fowler, B Lipton, J S Meschke, P Rabinowitz
Raising poultry flocks in urban backyard settings is becoming increasingly popular across the United States, but carries a risk of zoonotic infection. In the United States from 1990 to 2014, 53 outbreaks of human salmonellosis linked to live poultry have been documented resulting in 2611 known illnesses, 387 known hospitalizations and five known deaths (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2015a, A cross-sectional descriptive study was developed to better understand knowledge, attitudes and practices of urban backyard poultry owners regarding Salmonella risk and prevention...
June 22, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
Danuta Penkala-Gawęcka
This paper introduces the notion of 'risky encounters', referring to the way in which contacts with doctors are commonly perceived by the inhabitants of Bishkek, the capital city of Kyrgyzstan. The author's research conducted between 2011 and 2013 revealed that most people were extremely critical of biomedical personnel, despite positive assessments of healthcare reforms expressed by experts. Owing to the prevailing distrust of doctors, their interventions are often considered risky to one's health, which strongly influences people's health-related strategies in the context of medical diversity...
August 2016: Anthropology & Medicine
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