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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424682/interactions-between-type-1-interferons-and-the-th17-response-in-tuberculosis-lessons-learned-from-autoimmune-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Bas C Mourik, Erik Lubberts, Jurriaan E M de Steenwinkel, Tom H M Ottenhoff, Pieter J M Leenen
The classical paradigm of tuberculosis (TB) immunity, with a central protective role for Th1 responses and IFN-γ-stimulated cellular responses, has been challenged by unsatisfactory results of vaccine strategies aimed at enhancing Th1 immunity. Moreover, preclinical TB models have shown that increasing IFN-γ responses in the lungs is more damaging to the host than to the pathogen. Type 1 interferon signaling and altered Th17 responses have also been associated with active TB, but their functional roles in TB pathogenesis remain to be established...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424406/targeting-ccr2-with-its-antagonist-suppresses-viability-motility-and-invasion-by-downregulating-mmp-9-expression-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells
#2
Jun An, Ying Xue, Meijun Long, Ge Zhang, Junhang Zhang, Hang Su
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer, which is the leading cancer killer in the world. Despite the recent advances in its diagnosis and therapy, the prognosis of NSCLC patients remains very poor, mainly due to the development of drug resistance and metastasis. Both the chemokine network and the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) system play important roles in cancer cell metastasis. The disruption of CCL2/CCR2 chemokine signaling has been shown to suppress cancer cellviability and metastasis...
April 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419818/local-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-promote-corneal-regeneration-after-epithelial-abrasion
#3
Jun Liu, Chengju Xiao, Hanqing Wang, Yunxia Xue, Dong Dong, Cuipei Lin, Fang Song, Ting Fu, Zhaorui Wang, Jiansu Chen, Hongwei Pan, Yangqiu Li, Dongqing Cai, Zhijie Li
Corneal injuries and infections are the leading cause of blindness worldwide. Thus, understanding the mechanisms that control healing of the damaged cornea is critical for the development of new therapies to promptly restore vision. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a recently identified heterogeneous cell population that has been reported to orchestrate immunity and promote tissue repair in the lungs and skin after injury. However, whether ILCs can modulate the repair process in the cornea remains poorly understood...
April 15, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413195/purinergic-signaling-in-microglia-in-the-pathogenesis-of-neuropathic-pain
#4
Kazuhide Inoue
Nerve injury often causes debilitating chronic pain, referred to as neuropathic pain, which is refractory to currently available analgesics including morphine. Many reports indicate that activated spinal microglia evoke neuropathic pain. The P2X4 receptor (P2X4R), a subtype of ionotropic ATP receptors, is upregulated in spinal microglia after nerve injury by several factors, including CC chemokine receptor CCR2, the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin in the spinal cord, interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8) and IRF5...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407684/atorvastatin-inhibits-the-immediate-early-response-gene-egr1-and-improves-the-functional-profile-of-cd4-t-lymphocytes-in-acute-coronary-syndromes
#5
Anna Severino, Chiara Zara, Mara Campioni, Davide Flego, Giulia Angelini, Daniela Pedicino, Ada Francesca Giglio, Francesco Trotta, Simona Giubilato, Vincenzo Pazzano, Claudia Lucci, Antonio Iaconelli, Aureliano Ruggio, Luigi Marzio Biasucci, Filippo Crea, Giovanna Liuzzo
Background- Adaptive immune-response is associated with a worse outcome in acute coronary syndromes. Statins have anti-inflammatory activity beyond lowering lipid levels. We investigated the effects of ex-vivo and in-vivo atorvastatin treatment in acute coronary syndromes on CD4+T-cells, and the underlying molecular mechanisms.Approach and results- Blood samples were collected from 50 statin-naïve acute coronary syndrome patients. We assessed CD4+T-cell activation by flow-cytometry, the expression of 84 T-helper transcription-factors and 84 T-cell related genes by RT-qPCR, and protein expression by Western-blot, before and after 24-hours incubation with increasing doses of atorvastatin: 3-10-26 μg/ml (corresponding to blood levels achieved with doses of 10-40-80 mg, respectively)...
March 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406165/myostatin-mediates-abdominal-aortic-atherosclerosis-progression-by-inducing-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-dysfunction-and-monocyte-recruitment
#6
D Verzola, S Milanesi, M Bertolotto, S Garibaldi, B Villaggio, C Brunelli, M Balbi, P Ameri, F Montecucco, D Palombo, G Ghigliotti, G Garibotto, J H Lindeman, C Barisione
Myostatin (Mstn) is a skeletal muscle growth inhibitor involved in metabolic disorders and heart fibrosis. In this study we sought to verify whether Mstn is also operative in atherosclerosis of abdominal aorta. In human specimens, Mstn expression was almost absent in normal vessels, became detectable in the media of non-progressive lesions and increased with the severity of the damage. In progressive atherosclerotic lesions, Mstn was present in the media, neointima, plaque shoulder and in infiltrating macrophages...
April 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405620/microglia-mediate-postoperative-hippocampal-inflammation-and-cognitive-decline-in-mice
#7
Xiaomei Feng, Martin Valdearcos, Yosuke Uchida, David Lutrin, Mervyn Maze, Suneil K Koliwad
Surgery can induce cognitive decline, a risk that increases with advancing age. In rodents, postoperative cognitive decline (POCD) is associated with the inflammatory activation of hippocampal microglia. To examine the role of microglia in POCD, we inhibited the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) in adult mice, effectively depleting CNS microglia. Surgical trauma (tibial fracture) reduced the ability of mice to remember a conditioned response learned preoperatively, a deficit more pronounced and persistent in mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO)...
April 6, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393247/bioinformatics-analysis-of-gene-expression-alterations-in-microrna%C3%A2-122-knockout-mice-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#8
Bosheng He, Ying He, Weixiang Shi, Shenchu Gong, Xiaohong Chen, Jing Xiao, Jinhua Gu, Wenbin Ding, Yilang Wang
Reduced microRNA (miR)‑122 expression levels are frequently observed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The present study was conducted to investigate potential targets of miR‑122 and determine the underlying regulatory mechanisms of miR‑122 in HCC development. The public dataset GSE31731 was utilized, consisting of 8 miR‑122 knockout (KO) mice (miR‑122 KO) and 8 age‑matched wild‑type mice (WT group). Following data preprocessing, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were selected, followed by enrichment analysis...
April 7, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393210/cardiac-resident-macrophages-are-involved-in-hypoxia%C3%A2-induced-postnatal-cardiomyocyte-proliferation
#9
Bo Liu, Hua-Gang Zhang, Yun Zhu, Yun-Han Jiang, Gui-Ping Luo, Fu-Qin Tang, Zhao Jian, Ying-Bin Xiao
Induction of cardiomyocyte proliferation, the most promising approach to reverse myocardial attrition, has been gaining importance as a therapy for cardiovascular disease. Hypoxia and macrophages were previously independently reported to promote cardiomyocyte proliferation in mice. However, whether hypoxia promotes cardiomyocyte proliferation in humans, and the association between hypoxia and macrophages in cardiomyocyte proliferation, have not to the best of our knowledge been previously investigated. The present study investigated the cardiomyocyte proliferation in 22 acyanotic and 29 cyanotic patients...
April 4, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389721/chemokines-in-neuron-glial-cell-interaction-and-pathogenesis-of-neuropathic-pain
#10
REVIEW
Zhi-Jun Zhang, Bao-Chun Jiang, Yong-Jing Gao
Neuropathic pain resulting from damage or dysfunction of the nervous system is a highly debilitating chronic pain state and is often resistant to currently available treatments. It has become clear that neuroinflammation, mainly mediated by proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, plays an important role in the establishment and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Chemokines were originally identified as regulators of peripheral immune cell trafficking and were also expressed in neurons and glial cells in the central nervous system...
April 7, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389600/intravascular-donor-monocytes-play-a-central-role-in-lung-transplant-ischaemia-reperfusion-injury
#11
Kate Colette Tatham, Kieran Patrick O'Dea, Rosalba Romano, Hannah Elizabeth Donaldson, Kenji Wakabayashi, Brijesh Vipin Patel, Louit Thakuria, Andre Rudiger Simon, Padmini Sarathchandra, Nandor Marczin, Masao Takata
RATIONALE: Primary graft dysfunction in lung transplant recipients derives from the initial, largely leukocyte-dependent, ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Intravascular lung-marginated monocytes have been shown to play key roles in experimental acute lung injury, but their contribution to lung ischaemia-reperfusion injury post transplantation is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To define the role of donor intravascular monocytes in lung transplant-related acute lung injury and primary graft dysfunction...
April 7, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388241/chagas-disease-immunogenetics-elusive-markers-of-disease-progression
#12
Yelenca Ortega Zamora, Leidy Johana Escamilla Rojas, Elvis Mayron Villa Sandoval, Joan Steven Vela Porras, Edgar Yarleison Cossio Contrera, Sergio Sebastian Cubides Romero, Pedro David Carreño Ramirez, Hermes Urriago Losada, Carolina De Los Rios, Daniela Alejandra Gomez Mahecha, Karen Daniela Lovera Serrano, Juan Carlos Barreto Montaña, Viviana Lorena Narvaez Caicedo, Fredy Rs Gutierrez
Chagas disease (CD) is caused by a parasitic infection. The disease usually occurs after decades of the primary infection and can involve the myocardium or the digestive system. Of note, around 30% of T. cruzi infected patients develop CD while the other 70% may remain asymptomatic for their entire life. CD is usually observed as familial clustered phenomena. Moreover, individuals with chronic Chagas heart disease (CCHD) usually present a strong, deregulated immune response, which strongly suggests an immunogenetic effect...
April 7, 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386765/differential-contribution-of-immune-effector-mechanisms-to-cortical-demyelination-in-multiple-sclerosis
#13
Nielsen Lagumersindez-Denis, Claudia Wrzos, Matthias Mack, Anne Winkler, Franziska van der Meer, Marie C Reinert, Heiko Hollasch, Anne Flach, Hilke Brühl, Eilish Cullen, Christina Schlumbohm, Eberhard Fuchs, Christopher Linington, Alonso Barrantes-Freer, Imke Metz, Christiane Wegner, David Liebetanz, Marco Prinz, Wolfgang Brück, Christine Stadelmann, Stefan Nessler
Cortical demyelination is a widely recognized hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS) and correlate of disease progression and cognitive decline. The pathomechanisms initiating and driving gray matter damage are only incompletely understood. Here, we determined the infiltrating leukocyte subpopulations in 26 cortical demyelinated lesions of biopsied MS patients and assessed their contribution to cortical lesion formation in a newly developed mouse model. We find that conformation-specific anti-myelin antibodies contribute to cortical demyelination even in the absence of the classical complement pathway...
April 6, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386350/change-in-gut-microbiota-is-correlated-with-alterations-in-the-surface-molecule-expression-of-monocytes-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-surgery-in-obese-type-2-diabetic-patients
#14
Hui Chen, Lei Qian, Qiangsheng Lv, Jianxiu Yu, Wei Wu, Haixin Qian
Objectives: Persistent low-grade chronic inflammation is common in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity. To date, the underlying molecular mechanism is not well understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate gut microbiota and the expression of monocyte surface molecules in obese T2D subjects who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. Methods: Twenty-four T2D patients were enrolled. Gut microbiota was assessed by measuring bacterial DNA. The phenotypes and biological functions of monocytes, and the expression of monocyte surface molecules were examined by flow cytometry...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385737/lack-of-stat6-attenuates-inflammation-and-drives-protection-against-early-steps-of-colitis-associated-colon-cancer
#15
Sonia A Leon-Cabrera, Emmanuel Molina-Guzman, Yael G Delgado-Ramirez, Armando Vázquez-Sandoval, Yadira Ledesma-Soto, Carlos G Pérez-Plasencia, Yolanda I Chirino, Norma L Delgado-Buenrostro, Miriam Rodríguez-Sosa, Felipe Vaca-Paniagua, Federico Ávila-Moreno, Emma B Gutierrez-Cirlos, Luis E Arias-Romero, Luis I Terrazas
Colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC) is one of the most common malignant neoplasms and a leading cause of death. The immunologic factors associated with CAC development are not completely understood. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) is part of an important signaling pathway for modulating intestinal immune function and homeostasis. However, the role of STAT6 in colon cancer progression is unclear. Following CAC induction in wild-type (WT) and STAT6-deficient mice (STAT6(-/-)), we found that 70% of STAT6(-/-) mice were tumor-free after 8 weeks, whereas 100% of WT mice developed tumors...
April 6, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383204/monocytic-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-regulate-t-cell-responses-against-vaccinia-virus
#16
Carl Fortin, Yiping Yang, Xiaopei Huang
Vaccinia virus (VV) can potently activate NK- and T-cell responses, leading to efficient viral control and generation of long-lasting protective immunity. However, immune responses against viral infections are often tightly controlled to avoid collateral damage and systemic inflammation. We have previously shown that granulocytic myeloid derived suppressor cells (g-MDSCs) can suppress the NK-cell response to VV infection. It remains unknown what regulates T-cell responses to VV infection in vivo. In this study, we first showed that monocytic MDSCs (m-MDSCs), but not g-MDSCs, from VV-infected mice could directly suppress CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell activation in vitro...
April 6, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383062/nox4-regulates-ccr2-and-ccl2-mrna-stability-in-alcoholic-liver-disease
#17
Yu Sasaki, Ali Dehnad, Sarah Fish, Ai Sato, Joy Jiang, Jijing Tian, Kathrin Schröder, Ralf Brandes, Natalie J Török
Recruitment of inflammatory cells is a major feature of alcoholic liver injury however; the signals and cellular sources regulating this are not well defined. C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) is expressed by active hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and is a key monocyte recruitment signal. Activated HSC are also important sources of hydrogen peroxide resulting from the activation of NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4). As the role of this NOX in early alcoholic liver injury has not been addressed, we studied NOX4-mediated regulation of CCR2/CCL2 mRNA stability...
April 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380351/local-inflammatory-cues-regulate-differentiation-and-persistence-of-cd8-tissue-resident-memory-t-cells
#18
Tessa Bergsbaken, Michael J Bevan, Pamela J Fink
Many pathogens initiate infection at mucosal surfaces, and tissue-resident memory T (Trm) cells play an important role in protective immunity, yet the tissue-specific signals that regulate Trm differentiation are poorly defined. During Yersinia infection, CD8(+) T cell recruitment to areas of inflammation within the intestine is required for differentiation of the CD103(-)CD69(+) Trm subset. Intestinal proinflammatory microenvironments have elevated interferon (IFN)-β and interleukin-12 (IL-12), which regulated Trm markers, including CD103...
April 4, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362325/possible-roles-of-cc-and-cxc-chemokines-in-regulating-bovine-endometrial-function-during-early-pregnancy
#19
Ryosuke Sakumoto, Ken-Go Hayashi, Shiori Fujii, Hiroko Kanahara, Misa Hosoe, Tadashi Furusawa, Keiichiro Kizaki
The aim of the present study was to determine the possible roles of chemokines in regulating bovine endometrial function during early pregnancy. The expression of six chemokines, including CCL2, CCL8, CCL11, CCL14, CCL16, and CXCL10, was higher in the endometrium at 15 and 18 days of pregnancy than at the same days in non-pregnant animals. Immunohistochemical staining showed that chemokine receptors (CCR1, CCR2, CCR3, and CXCR3) were expressed in the epithelial cells and glandular epithelial cells of the bovine endometrium as well as in the fetal trophoblast obtained from a cow on day 18 of pregnancy...
March 31, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359537/macrophage-density-in-early-surveillance-biopsies-predicts-future-renal-transplant-function
#20
Jan Hinrich Bräsen, Abedalrazag Khalifa, Jessica Schmitz, Wei Dai, Gunilla Einecke, Anke Schwarz, Michael Hallensleben, Bernhard M W Schmidt, Hans H Kreipe, Hermann Haller, Sibylle von Vietinghoff
Inflammation impairs renal allograft survival but is difficult to quantify by eye at low densities. Here we measured leukocyte abundance in early surveillance biopsies by digital image analysis to test for a role of chemokine receptor genotypes and analyze the predictive value of leukocyte subsets to allograft function. In six-week surveillance biopsies, T-cell (CD3), B-cell (CD20), macrophage (CD68), and dendritic cell (CD209) densities were assessed in whole slide scans. Renal cortical CD3, CD20, and CD68 were significantly higher in histologic rejection...
March 27, 2017: Kidney International
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