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Postural stability and older adults

Marcio Jose Dos Santos, Renato Claudino, Giovana Zarpellon Mazzo
The goal of this study was to investigate the timing of compensatory postural adjustments (CPAs) in older adults during body perturbations in the mediolateral direction, circumstances that increase their risk of falls. The latencies of leg and trunk muscle activation to body perturbations at the shoulder level and variables of center of pressure (COP) excursion, which characterize postural stability, were analyzed in 40 older adults (non-fallers and fallers evenly split) and in 20 young participants. The older adults exhibited longer latencies of muscular activation in 8 out of 15 postural muscles as compared to young participants; for three muscles, the latencies were longer for the older fallers than non-fallers...
October 21, 2016: Motor Control
Emily I McIntosh, John L Zettel, Lori Ann Vallis
The objective of this work was to investigate the influence perturbation direction has on postural responses during overground gait, and whether these responses are age related. Differences in stepping patterns following perturbations of the support surface were examined in the frontal and sagittal planes during forward walking. Eleven young and 10 older adults completed Mini BESTest, hip strength tests, and 45 perturbed walking trials, triggered on heel contact. Lateral perturbations were more challenging to postural stability for both groups...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Maria Joana D Caetano, Jasmine C Menant, Daniel Schoene, Paulo H S Pelicioni, Daina L Sturnieks, Stephen R Lord
BACKGROUND: The ability to adapt gait when negotiating unexpected hazards is crucial to maintain stability and avoid falling. This study investigated whether impaired gait adaptability in a task including obstacle and stepping targets is associated with cognitive and sensorimotor capacities in older adults. METHODS: Fifty healthy older adults (74±7 years) were instructed to either (a) avoid an obstacle at usual step distance or (b) step onto a target at either a short or long step distance projected on a walkway two heel strikes ahead and then continue walking...
August 29, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Katarzyna Filar-Mierzwa, Małgorzata Długosz, Anna Marchewka, Zbigniew Dąbrowski, Anna Poznańska
Dance therapy is a physical activity that can lead to balance improvement in older adults. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of dance therapy on balance and risk of falls in older women. Twenty-four older women (mean age 66.4 years old) attended dance sessions for three months. Pretest/posttests were completed using the Postural Stability Test, the Limits of Stability Test, and the Fall Risk Test M-CTSIB. Results showed the Limits of Stability Test was significantly higher (17.5%) after dance classes...
August 23, 2016: Journal of Women & Aging
Ryan M Peters, Monica D McKeown, Mark G Carpenter, J Timothy Inglis
Age-related changes in the density, morphology, and physiology of plantar cutaneous receptors negatively impact the quality and quantity of balance-relevant information arising from the foot soles. Plantar perceptual sensitivity declines with age and may predict postural instability; however, alteration in lower limb cutaneous reflex strength may also explain greater instability in older adults and has yet to be investigated. We replicated the age-related decline in sensitivity by assessing monofilament and vibrotactile (30 and 250 Hz) detection thresholds near the first metatarsal head bilaterally in healthy young and older adults...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Craig R Louer, Sean L Boone, Andre K Guthrie, John R Motley, Ryan P Calfee, Lindley B Wall
BACKGROUND: The physical risk factors leading to distal radial fractures are poorly understood. The goal of this study was to compare postural stability between older adults with and without a prior distal radial fragility fracture. METHODS: This case-control evaluation was performed at a single tertiary institution. The fracture cohort comprised 23 patients treated for a low-energy distal radial fracture within 6 to 24 months prior to this study. Twenty-three age and sex-matched control participants, without a prior fragility fracture, were selected from an outpatient clinic population...
July 20, 2016: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Andrew H Huntley, John L Zettel, Lori Ann Vallis
A "reach and transport object" task that represents common activities of daily living may provide improved insight into dynamic postural stability and movement variability deficits in older adults compared to previous lean to reach and functional reach tests. Healthy young and older, community dwelling adults performed three same elevation object transport tasks and two multiple elevation object transport tasks under two self-selected speeds, self-paced and fast-paced. Dynamic postural stability and movement variability was quantified by whole-body center of mass motion...
September 2016: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Simone R Caljouw, Renee Veldkamp, Claudine J C Lamoth
Sequence-specific postural motor learning in a target-directed weight-shifting task in 12 older and 12 young participants was assessed. In the implicit sequence learning condition participants performed a concurrent spatial cognitive task and in the two explicit conditions participants were required to discover the sequence order either with or without the concurrent cognitive task. Participants moved a cursor on the screen from the center location to one of the target locations projected in a semi-circle and back by shifting their center of pressure (CoP) on force plates...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Ty B Palmer, Ryan M Thiele, Brennan J Thompson
The purpose of the present study was to examine age-related differences in maximal and rapid torque characteristics of the hip extensor muscles and dynamic postural balance in healthy, young and older females. Eleven young (age, 26±8 years) and 11 old (age, 67±8 years) females performed two isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of the hip extensor muscles. Absolute and relative peak torque (PT) and rate of torque development (RTD) at early (0-50 ms) and late (0-200 ms) phases of muscle contraction were examined during each MVC...
May 21, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
L Pizzigalli, M Micheletti Cremasco, A Mulasso, A Rainoldi
OBJECTIVE: Falls are a serious health problem for older adults. Several studies have identified the decline of postural balance as one of the main risk factors for falls. Contrary to what may be believed, the capability of force platform measurements to predict falls remains uncertain. The focus of this narrative review is the identification of postural characteristics of older adults at risk of falling using both static and dynamic postural balance assessments. METHODS: The literature analysis was conducted on Medline/PubMed...
April 2016: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
Marius Dettmer, Amir Pourmoghaddam, Beom-Chan Lee, Charles S Layne
Appropriate neuromuscular responses to support surface perturbations are crucial to prevent falls, but aging-related anatomical and physiological changes affect the appropriateness and efficiency of such responses. Low-level noise application to sensory receptors has shown to be effective for postural improvement in a variety of different balance tasks, but it is unknown whether this intervention may have value for improvement of corrective postural responses. Ten healthy younger and ten healthy older adults were exposed to sudden backward translations of the support surface...
2016: Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research
Mariano Esbrí Víctor, Isabel Huedo Rodenas, Melisa López Utiel, Marta Martínez Reig, Esther López Jiménez, María Ángeles Herizo Muñoz, Ginés Sánchez Nievas, Pedro Abizanda Soler
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to identify the physical determining factors of the Fear of Falling Syndrome (FoF) in older adults with a history of falls. METHODS: An observational study was conducted on 183 subjects older than 64 years with a fall in the previous year, with data collected from the geriatrics outpatient clinic of the Complejo Hospitalario Universitario from Albacete, Spain. Sociodemographic and anthropometric data, as well as comorbidity, drugs usually taken, functional status, physical function, frailty, cognitive and affective status were collected...
April 25, 2016: Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología
Wakako Inoue, Tome Ikezoe, Tadao Tsuboyama, Ikuya Sato, Katarzyna Bronislawa Malinowska, Takahisa Kawaguchi, Yasuharu Tabara, Takeo Nakayama, Fumihiko Matsuda, Noriaki Ichihashi
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the relationships between walking speed and gait cycle variability, and muscle strength and postural stability, with a focus on gender differences. AIM: The aim of this study was to examine whether there are different factors affecting walking speed and gait cycle variability between men and women in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: The subjects comprised 712 community-dwelling older adults (252 men, 460 women, aged 68...
April 11, 2016: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
Kelly R Holt, Heidi Haavik, Arier Chi Lun Lee, Bernadette Murphy, C Raina Elley
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed whether 12 weeks of chiropractic care was effective in improving sensorimotor function associated with fall risk, compared with no intervention, in community-dwelling older adults living in Auckland, New Zealand. METHODS: Sixty community-dwelling adults older than 65 years were enrolled in the study. Outcome measures were assessed at baseline, 4 weeks, and 12 weeks and included proprioception (ankle joint position sense), postural stability (static posturography), sensorimotor function (choice stepping reaction time), multisensory integration (sound-induced flash illusion), and health-related quality of life (SF-36)...
May 2016: Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
Janusz W Błaszczyk
Force-plate posturography is a simple method that is commonly used in the contemporary laboratory and clinic to assess postural control. Despite the obvious advantages and popularity of the method, universal standards for posturographic tests have not been developed thus far: most postural assessments are based on the standard spatiotemporal metrics of the center-of-foot pressure (COP) recorded during quiet stance. Unfortunately, the standard COP characteristics are strongly dependent on individual experimental design and are susceptible to distortions such as the noise of signal digitalization, which often makes the results from different laboratories incomparable and unreliable...
February 2016: Gait & Posture
Mirian N Moreira, Tereza L Bilton, Rosangela C Dias, Eduardo Ferriolli, Monica R Perracini
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Fall risk perceptions may influence the judgement over physical and functional competencies to avoid falls. However, few studies have explored the physical functioning characteristics associated with falls among older people with low perceived fall risk. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of falls and physical functioning factors associated with falling among community-dwelling older adults with low and high perceived fall risk. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional population based study with 773 community-dwelling elders...
March 7, 2016: Physiotherapy Research International: the Journal for Researchers and Clinicians in Physical Therapy
T Cattagni, G Scaglioni, D Laroche, V Gremeaux, A Martin
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the mechanical contribution of ankle muscles in the upright stance differed among young adults (YA) (n=10, age: ~24.3), elderly non-fallers (ENF) (n=12, age: ~77.3) and elderly fallers (EF) (n=20, age: ~80.7). Torque and electromyographic (EMG) activity were recorded on the triceps surae and tibialis anterior during maximum and submaximum contractions in the seated position. EMG activity was also recorded in subjects standing still. Plantar flexor (PF) and dorsal flexor (DF) torques generated in the upright posture were estimated from the torque-EMG relationship obtained during submaximum contractions in the seated position...
May 2016: Experimental Gerontology
Eadric Bressel, Talin J Louder, Dennis G Dolny
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Quantifying how the environment (land vs water) influences age-related changes in postural sway is important for the development of new therapies that improve balance. The authors are not aware of any previous studies that have compared postural sway in an aquatic environment between age groups or when water depth and/or perturbations are incorporated into the comparison. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of water depth and jet intensity on postural sway in older and younger adults...
February 12, 2016: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy
Joseph G Verbalis, Howard Ellison, Mary Hobart, Holly Krasa, John Ouyang, Frank S Czerwiec
BACKGROUND: This trial assessed the effect of tolvaptan on cognition, gait, and postural stability in adult patients with mild to moderate asymptomatic hyponatremia. STUDY DESIGN: Phase 3b, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group pilot study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 57 men and women 50 years or older with chronic asymptomatic euvolemic or hypervolemic hyponatremia (serum sodium concentration >120-<135 mEq/L) at 16 sites...
June 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
E Maranesi, A Merlo, S Fioretti, D D Zemp, I Campanini, P Quadri
BACKGROUND: Identification of future non-fallers, infrequent and frequent fallers among older people would permit focusing the delivery of prevention programs on selected individuals. Posturographic parameters have been proven to differentiate between non-fallers and frequent fallers, but not between the first group and infrequent fallers. METHODS: In this study, postural stability with eyes open and closed on both a firm and a compliant surface and while performing a cognitive task was assessed in a consecutive sample of 130 cognitively able elderly, mean age 77(7)years, categorized as non-fallers (N=67), infrequent fallers (one/two falls, N=45) and frequent fallers (more than two falls, N=18) according to their last year fall history...
February 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
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