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Postural stability and older adults

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324510/reliability-and-validity-of-computerized-force-platform-measures-of-balance-function-in-healthy-older-adults
#1
Cathy C Harro, Chelsea Garascia
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Postural control declines with aging and is an independent risk factor for falls in older adults. Objective examination of balance function is warranted to direct fall prevention strategies. Force platform (FP) systems provide quantitative measures of postural control and analysis of different aspects of balance. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of FP measures in healthy older adults. METHODS: This study enrolled 46 healthy elderly adults, mean age 67...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288047/sway-regularity-and-sway-activity-in-older-adults-upright-stance-are-differentially-affected-by-dual-task
#2
Margarita Drozdova-Statkevičienė, Vida Janina Česnaitienė, Kazimieras Pukėnas, Oron Levin, Nerijus Masiulis
Age-related changes in postural control are attributed to visual, vestibular and proprioceptive dysfunctions, muscle weakness, and reduced availability of neural resources required for efficient balance control. Concurrent performance of complex cognitive tasks while standing or walking is expected to increase balance instability due to under-recruitment of brain resources and insufficient allocation of attention to the postural task. Both balance instability and attentional control of movements can, nonetheless, be determined from the center of pressure (CoP) measurements by examining the effects of dual-task on the amount of sway activity (as measured by CoP velocity - Vcop) and the statistical regularity of the CoP trajectory (the wavelet entropy of the signal - WEcop)...
December 26, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246187/muscle-co-contraction-in-elderly-people-change-due-to-postural-stability-during-single-leg-standing
#3
Yoshitaka Iwamoto, Makoto Takahashi, Koichi Shinkoda
BACKGROUND: Muscle co-contraction is the simultaneous contraction of agonist and antagonist muscles crossing a joint, and it increases with age. This study primarily aimed to clarify the difference in the effect of a light fingertip contact to stationary surface on postural sway and muscle co-contraction during single-leg standing (SLS) between young and elderly groups; the secondary aim was to reveal the quantitative difference in the muscle co-contraction of the ankle joint among the three different support structure conditions in the elderly group...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227413/the-association-between-body-adiposity-measures-postural-balance-fear-of-falling-and-fall-risk-in-older-community-dwelling-women
#4
Silvia Gonçalves Ricci Neri, André Bonadias Gadelha, Ana Cristina de David, Aparecido Pimentel Ferreira, Marisete Peralta Safons, Anne Tiedemann, Ricardo M Lima
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Recent investigations demonstrate an association between obesity and the propensity of older adults to fall. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between body adiposity measures, postural balance, fear of falling, and risk of falls in older women. METHODS: One hundred forty-seven volunteers took part in this cross-sectional study. Participants underwent body composition assessment using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and had body mass index, waist circumference (WC), and body adiposity index measured...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209993/carrying-heavy-asymmetrical-loads-increases-postural-sway-during-quiet-standing-in-older-adults
#5
Mathew W Hill, Mike J Price
Holding asymmetrical loads in the hands is common during many daily and occupational activities which, depending on the load mass, may alter postural stability. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of load magnitude held asymmetrically in the hand on postural sway in older people. Eighteen healthy older adults (age 65.9 ± 5.7 years) were assessed in the following conditions; (1) standing without an external load (0%), (2) standing while holding a grocery bag containing 5%, (3) 10% and (4) 20% body mass in the dominant hand...
December 5, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175640/an-exploratory-study-examining-factors-underpinning-postural-instability-in-older-adults-with-idiopathic-neck-pain
#6
June Quek, Julia Treleaven, Ross A Clark, Sandra G Brauer
There is limited understanding of potential mechanisms underpinning postural control deficits in people with neck pain. This study examined several characteristics that might explain impaired postural stability in a group of older adults with neck pain, and compared the results in this cohort with that of asymptomatic controls. In this cross-sectional study we compared physical activity, lower limb motor and sensory function, vestibular and visual function, falls efficacy and dizziness handicap in 84 older adults with (n=35, age 69...
November 16, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114533/effects-of-whole-body-vibration-training-and-mental-training-on-mobility-neuromuscular-performance-and-muscle-strength-in-older-men
#7
Maryam Goudarzian, Samira Ghavi, Ardalan Shariat, Hossein Shirvani, Mostafa Rahimi
This study was designed to evaluate the effects of whole body vibration (WBV) exercise, mental training (MT), and the concurrent effect of WBV and MT on lower body balance, neuromuscular performance, and leg muscle strength in elderly men. In a randomized control trial study with parallel group design, 42 older men (mean±standard deviation age, 68±5.78 years) were randomly divided into four groups: WBV (n=11), MT (n=12), WBV+MT (n=10), and control (n=9) groups. The protocol of training consisted of three sessions per week for 8 weeks and about 30 min for each session...
October 2017: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103600/upper-body-accelerations-during-planned-gait-termination-in-young-and-older-women
#8
Lorenzo Rum, Luca Laudani, Andrea Macaluso, Giuseppe Vannozzi
Transitory tasks, such as gait termination, involve interactions between neural and biomechanical factors that challenge postural stability and head stabilization patterns in older adults. The aim of the study was to compare upper body patterns of acceleration during planned gait termination at different speeds between young and older women. Ten young and 10 older women were asked to carry out three gait termination trials at slow, comfortable and fast speed. A stereophotogrammetric system and a 15-body segments model were used to calculate antero-posterior whole-body Center of Mass (AP CoM) speed and to reconstruct the centroids of head, trunk and pelvis segments...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063490/effect-of-somatosensory-and-neurofeedback-training-on-balance-in-older-healthy-adults-a-preliminary-investigation
#9
Atefeh Azarpaikan, Hamidreza Taheri Torbati
The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of balance training with somatosensory and neurofeedback training on dynamic and static balance in healthy, elderly adults. The sample group consisted of 45 healthy adults randomly assigned to one of the three test groups: somatosensory, neurofeedback, and a control. Individualization of the balance program started with pre-tests for static and dynamic balances. Each group had 15- and 30-min training sessions. All groups were tested for static (postural stability) and dynamic balances (Berg Balance Scale) in acquisition and transfer tests (fall risk of stability and timed up and go)...
October 23, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052804/correction-to-effectiveness-of-exercise-interventions-to-improve-postural-control-in-older-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses-of-centre-of-pressure-measurements
#10
Daniel C Low, Gregory S Walsh, Marco Arkesteijn
Page 103, Table 1: The cell entry in the 'Terms used' column which previously read: "Centre of pressure OR center of pressure OR COP OR postural sway OR postural stability OR postural control OR balance OR force plat*".
October 20, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990633/a-tailor-made-exercise-program-for-improving-balance-and-mobility-in-older-adults-with-type-2-diabetes
#11
Thomas Ka-Wai Ng, Rachel Lai Chu Kwan, Sing Kai Lo, Gladys Lai-Ying Cheing
Effectiveness of an exercise program designed for improving postural control and mobility in older adults with type 2 diabetes was investigated. Ninety-three adults 65 or older diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and able to walk unaided were recruited. The intervention group received exercise training focused on ankle strengthening and mobility twice per week for 10 weeks. The control group did not participate in any exercise program. After 10 weeks, the intervention group showed significantly greater improvement in the mean Sensory Organization Test composite score (4...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Gerontological Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973782/the-effects-of-cerebellar-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-static-and-dynamic-postural-stability-in-older-individuals-a-randomized-double-blind-sham-controlled-study
#12
Fatemeh Ehsani, Afshin Samaei, Maryam Zoghi, Rozita Hedayati, Shapour Jaberzadeh
The aging population is growing rapidly. Risk of falling is higher in older people compared to young adults due to several reasons including poor posture and balance. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cerebellar anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) on static and dynamic postural stability in older individuals. Twenty-nine older adults participated in this study and were randomly allocated to two groups of active a-tDCS (experimental) (n=14) or sham tDCS group (n=15)...
October 3, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895802/slip-and-trip-perturbations-during-an-object-transport-task-requiring-a-lateral-change-in-support
#13
Andrew H Huntley, Keaton A Inkol, Lori Ann Vallis
The ability to counteract destabilizing external forces while simultaneously executing a complex task presents a novel way to ascertain one's ability to generate adaptive postural control responses to avoid a potential fall. In this study, participants performed an upper limb object transport task requiring a lateral change in support on a robotic platform that could remain fixed in space or translated (mimicking a slip or trip perturbation). No significant stability differences were observed at initial recovery step between slip and trip perturbations...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893391/the-effects-of-early-stages-of-aging-on-postural-sway-a-multiple-domain-balance-assessment-using-a-force-platform
#14
Adriana M Degani, Charles T Leonard, Alessander Danna-Dos-Santos
Technical advancements in instrumentation and analytical methods have improved the ability of assessing balance control. This study investigated the effects of early stages of aging on postural sway using traditional and contemporary postural indices from different domains. Eleven healthy young adults and fourteen healthy non-faller older adults performed two postural tasks: (a) functional limits of stability and (b) unperturbed bipedal stance for 120s. Postural indices from spatial, temporal, frequency, and structural domains were extracted from the body's center of pressure (COP) signals and its Rambling and Trembling components...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837917/aging-effect-on-step-adjustments-and-stability-control-in-visually-perturbed-gait-initiation
#15
Ruopeng Sun, Chuyi Cui, John B Shea
Gait adaptability is essential for fall avoidance during locomotion. It requires the ability to rapidly inhibit original motor planning, select and execute alternative motor commands, while also maintaining the stability of locomotion. This study investigated the aging effect on gait adaptability and dynamic stability control during a visually perturbed gait initiation task. A novel approach was used such that the anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) during gait initiation were used to trigger the unpredictable relocation of a foot-size stepping target...
October 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772132/effect-of-hearing-aids-on-static-balance-function-in-elderly-with-hearing-loss
#16
Hossein Negahban, Mahtab Bavarsad Cheshmeh Ali, Gholamhossein Nassadj
While a few studies have investigated the relationship between hearing acuity and postural control, little is known about the effect of hearing aids on postural stability in elderly with hearing loss. The aim was to compare static balance function between elderly with hearing loss who used hearing aids and those who did not use. The subjects asked to stand with (A) open eyes on rigid surface (force platform), (B) closed eyes on rigid surface, (C) open eyes on a foam pad, and (D) closed eyes on a foam pad. Subjects in the aided group (n=22) were tested with their hearing aids turned on and hearing aids turned off in each experimental condition...
October 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765993/effects-of-acute-peripheral-central-visual-field-loss-on-standing-balance
#17
Caitlin O'Connell, Arash Mahboobin, Scott Drexler, Mark S Redfern, Subashan Perera, Amy C Nau, Rakié Cham
Vision impairments such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and glaucoma are among the top risk factors for geriatric falls and falls-related injuries. AMD and glaucoma lead to loss of the central and peripheral visual fields, respectively. This study utilized a custom contact lens model to occlude the peripheral or central visual fields in healthy adults, offering a novel within-subject approach to improve our understanding of the etiology of balance impairments that may lead to an increased fall risk in patients with visual field loss...
November 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729887/whole-body-vibration-training-improves-balance-control-and-sit-to-stand-performance-among-middle-aged-and-older-adults-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Ming-Chen Ko, Long-Shan Wu, Sangwoo Lee, Chien-Chun Wang, Po-Fu Lee, Ching-Yu Tseng, Chien-Chang Ho
BACKGROUND: Aging is associated with decreased balance, which increases falling risk. The objective of the current study was to determine the feasibility and effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) training on knee extensor muscle power, limits of stability, and sit-to-stand performance among community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults in the United States. METHODS: A randomized pilot study with participant blinding was conducted. Feasibility outcomes included recruitment and compliance rate...
2017: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728460/acute-effects-of-moderate-alcohol-consumption-on-postural-stability-in-older-adults
#19
Helen Z Wu, Lisa C Barry, Yinghui Duan, Richard W Bohannon, Jonathan M Covault, James J Grady
This study involved healthy community-living older adults in an investigation of the association between moderate alcohol consumption (AC) and acute changes in postural stability and whether the association differed according to pre-AC balance skills. Thirty-nine moderate drinkers aged ≥ 65 years (62% women; mean age: 73.9 ± 6.1 years) consumed a moderate dose of alcohol (0.4 g/kg; administered as two drinks). Breath alcohol concentration and postural stability were measured at five time points (pre-AC and 40, 80, 120, and 160 minutes post-AC) using unipedal stance time (UPST) and center of pressure (CoP) displacement...
October 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688367/postural-motor-learning-in-parkinson-s-disease-the-effect-of-practice-on-continuous-compensatory-postural-regulation
#20
Karen Van Ooteghem, James S Frank, Fay B Horak
INTRODUCTION: Although balance training is considered the most effective treatment for balance impairments in Parkinson's disease (PD), few studies have examined if learning for balance control remains intact with PD. This study aimed to determine if learning for automatic postural responses is preserved in people with PD. METHODS: Eleven participants with moderate PD (68±6.4years; H&Y: 2-3) on their usual medication maintained balance on a platform that oscillated forward and backward with variable amplitude and constant frequency...
September 2017: Gait & Posture
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