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Postural stability and older adults

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493067/visuotactile-interaction-even-in-far-sagittal-space-in-older-adults-with-decreased-gait-and-balance-functions
#1
Wataru Teramoto, Keito Honda, Kento Furuta, Kaoru Sekiyama
Spatial proximity of signals from different sensory modalities is known to be a crucial factor in facilitating efficient multisensory processing in young adults. However, recent studies have demonstrated that older adults exhibit strong visuotactile interactions even when the visual stimuli were presented in a spatially disparate position from a tactile stimulus. This suggests that visuotactile peripersonal space differs between older and younger adults. In the present study, we investigated to what extent peripersonal space expands in the sagittal direction and whether this expansion was linked to the decline in sensorimotor functions in older adults...
May 10, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473404/graded-association-between-kidney-function-and-impaired-orthostatic-blood-pressure-stabilization-in-older-adults
#2
Mark Canney, Matthew D L O'Connell, Donal J Sexton, Neil O'Leary, Rose Anne Kenny, Mark A Little, Conall M O'Seaghdha
BACKGROUND: Impaired orthostatic blood pressure (BP) stabilization is highly prevalent in older adults and is a predictor of end-organ injury, falls, and mortality. We sought to characterize the relationship between postural BP responses and the kidney. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 4204 participants from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing, a national cohort of community-dwelling adults aged ≥50 years. Beat-to-beat systolic and diastolic BP were measured during a 2-minute active stand test...
May 4, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437760/the-effects-of-object-height-and-visual-information-on-the-control-of-obstacle-crossing-during-locomotion-in-healthy-older-adults
#3
Sho Kunimune, Shuichi Okada
In order to safely avoid obstacles, humans must rely on visual information regarding the position and shape of the object obtained in advance. The present study aimed to reveal the duration of obstacle visibility necessary for appropriate visuomotor control during obstacle avoidance in healthy older adults. Participants included 13 healthy young women (mean age: 21.5±1.4years) and 15 healthy older women (mean age: 68.5±3.5years) who were instructed to cross over an obstacle along a pressure-sensitive pathway at a self-selected pace while wearing liquid crystal shutter goggles...
April 13, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411444/continuous-and-difficult-discrete-cognitive-tasks-promote-improved-stability-in-older-adults
#4
Yves Lajoie, Deborah A Jehu, Natalie Richer, Alan Chan
Directing attention away from postural control and onto a cognitive task affords the emergence of automatic control processes. Perhaps the continuous withdrawal of attention from the postural task facilitates an automatization of posture as opposed to only intermittent withdrawal; however this is unknown in the aging population. Twenty older adults (69.9±3.5years) stood with feet together on a force platform for 60s while performing randomly assigned discrete and continuous cognitive tasks. Participants were instructed to stand comfortably with their arms by their sides while verbally responding to the auditory stimuli as fast as possible during the discrete tasks, or mentally performing the continuous cognitive tasks...
April 3, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392246/the-two-faces-of-postural-control-in-older-adults-stability-and-function
#5
Ruth Rath, Michael G Wade
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 25, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355265/effects-of-different-lower-limb-sensory-stimulation-strategies-on-postural-regulation-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Mei Teng Woo, Keith Davids, Jarmo Liukkonen, Dominic Orth, Jia Yi Chow, Timo Jaakkola
Systematic reviews of balance control have tended to only focus on the effects of single lower-limb stimulation strategies, and a current limitation is the lack of comparison between different relevant stimulation strategies. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine evidence of effects of different lower-limb sensory stimulation strategies on postural regulation and stability. Moderate- to high- pooled effect sizes (Unbiased (Hedges' g) standardized mean differences (SMD) = 0.31-0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331301/correlation-between-movement-complexity-during-static-standing-and-balance-function-in-institutionalized-older-adults
#7
Momoko Yamagata, Tome Ikezoe, Midori Kamiya, Mitsuhiro Masaki, Noriaki Ichihashi
PURPOSE: Sample entropy (SampEn) is an analysis to evaluate movement complexity of the center of pressure (COP). A lower value of SampEn indicates lower complexity of COP variability, that is, rigidity, and lower degrees of freedom. Previous studies reported the association of increased SampEn with improved standing balance ability in young subjects. However, no studies have examined these relationships among older adults. Thus, we aimed to investigate the relationship between SampEn and standing balance ability in older adults...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326869/design-and-evaluation-of-vibratory-shoe-on-balance-control-for-elderly-subjects-technical-note
#8
Atefeh Aboutorabi, Mokhtar Arazpour, Farzam Farahmand, Mahmood Bahramizadeh, Reza Fadayevatan, Ehsan Abdollahi
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Aging often results in a decline in somatosensory function, and such changes are associated with diminished motor performance. Input noise can enhance sensory and motor function through a mechanism known as stochastic resonance (SR). This paper describes the development and testing of a new vibrating shoe to possibly assist the elderly patients in controlling their balance and decreasing their falling risks. TECHNIQUE: The new vibrating shoe was evaluated to ascertain its ability to generate appropriate random and nonlinear vibrations...
March 22, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299643/retention-of-the-first-trial-effect-in-gait-slip-among-community-living-older-adults
#9
Xuan Liu, Tanvi Bhatt, Shuaijie Wang, Feng Yang, Yi-Chung Clive Pai
"First-trial effect" characterizes the rapid adaptive behavior that changes the performance outcome (from fall to non-fall) after merely a single exposure to postural disturbance. The purpose of this study was to investigate how long the first-trial effect could last. Seventy-five (≥ 65 years) community-dwelling older adults, who were protected by an overhead full body harness system, were retested for a single slip 6-12 months after their initial exposure to a single gait-slip. Subjects' body kinematics that was used to compute their proactive (feedforward) and reactive (feedback) control of stability was recorded by an eight-camera motion analysis system...
February 2017: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218341/influence-of-hip-and-knee-osteoarthritis-on-dynamic-postural-control-parameters-among-older-fallers
#10
Sumaiyah Mat, Chin Teck Ng, Maw Pin Tan
OBJECTIVE: To compare the relationship between postural control and knee and hip osteoarthritis in older adults with and without a history of falls. METHODS: Fallers were those with ≥ 2 falls or 1 injurious fall over 12 months. Non-fallers were volunteers with no falls in the past year. Radiological evidence of osteoarthritis with no reported symptoms was considered "asymptomatic osteoarthritis", while "symptomatic osteoarthritis" was defined as radiographic osteoarthritis with pain or stiffness...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204720/postural-stability-in-older-adults-with-alzheimer-disease
#11
Normala Mesbah, Meredith Perry, Keith D Hill, Mandeep Kaur, Leigh Hale
Background: The prevalence of adults with Alzheimer disease (AD) aged >65 years is increasing and estimated to quadruple by 2051. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate postural stability in people with mild to moderate AD and factors contributing to postural instability compared with healthy peers (controls). Data Sources: A computerized systematic search of databases and a hand search of reference lists for articles published from 1984 onward (English-language articles only) were conducted on June 2, 2015, using the main key words "postural stability" and "Alzheimer's disease...
March 1, 2017: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151943/improving-posture-motor-dual-task-with-a-supraposture-focus-strategy-in-young-and-elderly-adults
#12
Shu-Han Yu, Cheng-Ya Huang
In a postural-suprapostural task, appropriate prioritization is necessary to achieve task goals and maintain postural stability. A "posture-first" principle is typically favored by elderly people in order to secure stance stability, but this comes at the cost of reduced suprapostural performance. Using a postural-suprapostural task with a motor suprapostural goal, this study investigated differences between young and older adults in dual-task cost across varying task prioritization paradigms. Eighteen healthy young (mean age: 24...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067608/continuous-cognitive-task-promotes-greater-postural-stability-than-an-internal-or-external-focus-of-attention-in-older-adults
#13
Natalie Richer, Nadia Polskaia, Yves Lajoie
Background/Study Context: Recent evidence suggests that removing attention from postural control using either an external focus or a cognitive task will improve stability in healthy young adults. Due to increases in attentional requirements of upright stance in older adults, it is unclear if similar benefits would be observed in this population. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of attentional focus and of a continuous cognitive task on postural control in older adults. METHODS: Sixteen healthy older adults (71...
January 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004203/aging-effect-on-muscle-synergies-in-stepping-forth-during-a-forward-perturbation
#14
Yun Wang, Kazuhiko Watanabe, Tadayoshi Asaka
PURPOSE: We explored changes in muscle interactions during healthy aging as a window into neural control strategies of postural preparation to action/perturbation. In particular, we quantified the strength of multi-muscle synergies stabilizing the center of pressure (COP) displacement during the preparation for making a step associated with support surface translations. METHODS: Young and elderly subjects were required to make a step in response to support surface perturbations...
December 21, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993586/imposed-faster-and-slower-walking-speeds-influence-gait-stability-differently-in-parkinson-fallers
#15
Michael H Cole, Matthew Sweeney, Zachary J Conway, Tim Blackmore, Peter A Silburn
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of imposed faster and slower walking speeds on postural stability in people with Parkinson disease (PD). DESIGN: Cross-sectional cohort study. SETTING: General community. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with PD (n=84; 51 with a falls history; 33 without) and age-matched controls (n=82) were invited to participate via neurology clinics and preexisting databases. Of those contacted, 99 did not respond (PD=36; controls=63) and 27 were not interested (PD=18; controls=9)...
December 16, 2016: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923177/the-effect-of-exergaming-on-knee-proprioception-in-older-men-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Hassan Sadeghi, Mohammad Nazrul Hakim, Tengku Aizan Hamid, Saidon Bin Amri, Mohsen Razeghi, Mohammadreza Farazdaghi, Elham Shakoor
BACKGROUND: Proprioception is the ability to sense the body position, muscle sense, joint stability and posture. As balance decreases during the process of aging, knee proprioception has a critical role in body balance and daily activities. Exergaming has shown to be a potentially effective and more enjoyable form of exercise delivery. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an 8-week Xbox Kinect exercise program on knee proprioception in healthy older adults...
March 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896795/intersession-reliability-of-self-selected-and-narrow-stance-balance-testing-in-older-adults
#17
Bryan L Riemann, Kelsey Piersol
BACKGROUND: Despite the common practice of using force platforms to assess balance of older adults, few investigations have examined the reliability of postural screening tests in this population. AIM: We sought to determine the test-retest reliability of self-selected and narrow stance balance testing with eyes open and eyes closed in healthy older adults. METHODS: Thirty older adults (>65 years) completed 45 s trials of eyes open and eyes closed stability tests using self-selected and narrow stances on two separate days (1...
November 28, 2016: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821940/the-effect-of-performing-a-dual-task-on-postural-control-and-selective-attention-of-older-adults-when-stepping-backward
#18
William Wai-Nam Tsang, Vito Wai-Lok Chan, Henry Hei Wong, Tony Wai-Cheong Yip, Xi Lu
[Purpose] The purpose of the study was to investigate the postural control and cognitive performance of older adults when stepping backward with and without a concurrent cognitive task. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty young adults and twenty-eight older adults (mean age=21.3 ± 1.2 and 72.2 ± 5.7 years, respectively) were recruited. Participants were asked to step backward and then maintain a single-leg stance for 10 seconds with and without a concurrent auditory response task. The reaction time and error rate while performing the cognitive task were recorded...
October 2016: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808526/age-related-reversal-of-postural-adjustment-characteristics-during-motor-imagery
#19
Suvobrata Mitra, Nicola Doherty, Hayley Boulton, Elizabeth A Maylor
Physical and imagined movements show similar behavioral constraints and neurophysiological activation patterns. An inhibition mechanism is thought to suppress overt movement during motor imagery, but it does not effectively suppress autonomic or postural adjustments. Inhibitory processes and postural stability both deteriorate with age. Thus, older people's balance is potentially vulnerable to interference from postural adjustments induced by thoughts about past or future actions. Here, young and older adults stood upright and executed or imagined manual reaching movements...
December 2016: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768538/delayed-compensatory-postural-adjustments-after-lateral-perturbations-contribute-to-the-reduced-ability-of-older-adults-to-control-body-balance
#20
Marcio Jose Dos Santos, Renato Claudino, Giovana Zarpellon Mazzo
The goal of this study was to investigate the timing of compensatory postural adjustments (CPAs) in older adults during body perturbations in the mediolateral direction, circumstances that increase their risk of falls. The latencies of leg and trunk muscle activation to body perturbations at the shoulder level and variables of center of pressure (COP) excursion, which characterize postural stability, were analyzed in 40 older adults (non-fallers and fallers evenly split) and in 20 young participants. The older adults exhibited longer latencies of muscular activation in 8 out of 15 postural muscles as compared to young participants; for three muscles, the latencies were longer for the older fallers than non-fallers...
October 21, 2016: Motor Control
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