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Clenbuterol

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340793/a-novel-quartz-crystal-microbalance-sensor-array-based-on-molecular-imprinted-polymers-for-simultaneous-detection-of-clenbuterol-and-its-metabolites
#1
Fan Feng, Jianwu Zheng, Peng Qin, Tao Han, Dayun Zhao
For the rapid and robust detection of both parent clenbuterol (CLB) and its metabolites in swine urine samples, a novel quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor array for CLB detection based on molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) was developed in this investigation. At first, clenbuterol and the structural analogs of its metabolites, 4-Aminohippuric acid (AHA) and 4-hydroxymandelic acid (HMA), were chosen as molecular templates. Through computational molecular modeling, the optimum ratio between the functional monomer and molecular template was selected...
May 15, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317772/ultrasensitive-detection-of-clenbuterol-by-a-covalent-imprinted-polymer-as-a-biomimetic-antibody
#2
Yiwei Tang, Jingwen Gao, Xiuying Liu, Xue Gao, Tao Ma, Xiaonan Lu, Jianrong Li
As an ideal biomimetic antibody, molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) has shown great promise in immunoassays. Here, we developed a covalent imprinting method to prepare MIP artificial antibody towards clenbuterol on the well surface of a microtiter plate. Template molecule (clenbuterol) was splited by hydrolysis with functional monomer and removed by methanol/acetic acid solution, and then three-dimensional cavities were fabricated in the MIP, which can rebind template molecule via hydrogen bond interaction...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278125/laboratory-validation-of-an-lc-ms-ms-method-for-the-detection-of-ractopamine-clenbuterol-and-salbutamol-in-bovine-and-swine-muscle-at-sub-%C3%AE-g-kg-regulatory-limits
#3
Rodrigo H M M Granja, Karine V G Reche, Fabio M Giannotti, João K G de Souza, Sarita P G Ferrari, André Danioti Dos Santos, Amarylis C B A Wanschel, Alessandro G Salerno
Ractopamine (RAC), is a β-adrenergic agonist increasingly used in the swine and cattle industry. This compound redirects nutrients to favor leanness rather than fat deposition, improves growth and carcass traits gaining higher economic benefit to producers. Countries around the world are split over whether to allow the use of RAC, in meat production. Clenbuterol (CLB) and Salbutamol (SLB) are anillinic and phenolic β-agonists, respectively, with the same capacity of producing economic benefits for the meat sector...
February 28, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274437/detection-of-%C3%AE-agonists-in-pork-tissue-with-novel-electrospun-nanofibers-based-solid-phase-extraction-followed-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#4
Lanling Chu, Shenglan Zheng, Bin Qu, Shiwei Geng, Xuejun Kang
A selective analytical method based on packed-fiber solid-phase extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (PFSPE-UPLC-MS/MS) has been developed for determination of six β-agonists (clorprenaline, bambuterol, clenbuterol, brombuterol, mabuterol, and penbuterol) in pork tissue. Polystyrene-polymeric crown ether (PS-PCE) composite nanofibers were fabricated by electrospinning and utilized to prepare the homemade extraction columns. With optimal conditions, all analytes were separated very well and the blank pork did not disturb the determination, and the linearity is good in a range of 5...
July 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199788/development-of-fluorescence-surrogates-to-predict-the-photochemical-transformation-of-pharmaceuticals-in-wastewater-effluents
#5
Shuwen Yan, Bo Yao, Lushi Lian, Xinchen Lu, Shane A Snyder, Rui Li, Weihua Song
The photochemical transformation of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in wastewater effluents is an emerging concern for environmental scientists. In the current study, the photodegradation of 29 PPCPs was examined in effluents under simulated solar irradiation. Direct photodegradation, triplet state effluent organic matter ((3)EfOM*)-mediated and hydroxyl radical (HO(•))-mediated degradation are three major pathways in the removal process. With the photodegradation of trace levels of PPCPs, the excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence intensities of the effluents were also gradually reduced...
February 24, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192911/open-port-probe-sampling-interface-for-the-direct-coupling-of-biocompatible-solid-phase-microextraction-to-atmospheric-pressure-ionization-mass-spectrometry
#6
Germán Augusto Gómez-Ríos, Chang Liu, Marcos Tascon, Nathaly Reyes-Garcés, Don W Arnold, Thomas R Covey, Janusz Pawliszyn
In recent years, the direct coupling of solid phase microextraction (SPME) and mass spectrometry (MS) has shown its great potential to improve limits of quantitation, accelerate analysis throughput, and diminish potential matrix effects when compared to direct injection to MS. In this study, we introduce the open port probe (OPP) as a robust interface to couple biocompatible SPME (Bio-SPME) fibers to MS systems for direct electrospray ionization. The presented design consisted of minimal alterations to the front-end of the instrument and provided better sensitivity, simplicity, speed, wider compound coverage, and high-throughput in comparison to the LC-MS based approach...
February 13, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161951/selection-and-application-of-ssdna-aptamers-against-clenbuterol-hydrochloride-based-on-ssdna-library-immobilized-selex
#7
Nuo Duan, Wenhui Gong, Shijia Wu, Zhouping Wang
Clenbuterol hydrochloride (CLB) is often abused as additive feed for livestock to decrease adipose tissue deposition and to increase growth rate. It raises a potential risk to human health through the consumption of animal product. In this study, aptamers with higher affinity and specificity were screened through 16 selection rounds based on the ssDNA library immobilized systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) technique. After cloning and sequencing, five aptamer candidates were picked out for affinity and specificity assays based on a graphene oxide (GO) adsorption method...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134263/hollow-au-ag-nanoparticles-labeled-immunochromatography-strip-for-highly-sensitive-detection-of-clenbuterol
#8
Jingyun Wang, Lei Zhang, Youju Huang, Anirban Dandapat, Liwei Dai, Ganggang Zhang, Xuefei Lu, Jiawei Zhang, Weihua Lai, Tao Chen
The probe materials play a significant role in improving the detection efficiency and sensitivity of lateral-flow immunochromatographic test strip (ICTS). Unlike conventional ICTS assay usually uses single-component, solid gold nanoparticles as labeled probes, in our present study, a bimetallic, hollow Au-Ag nanoparticles (NPs) labeled ICTS was successfully developed for the detection of clenbuterol (CLE). The hollow Au-Ag NPs with different Au/Ag mole ratio and tunable size were synthesized by varying the volume ratio of [HAuCl4]:[Ag NPs] via the galvanic replacement reaction...
January 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121776/collaborative-public-health-investigation-of-clenbuterol-adulterated-heroin-outbreak-richmond-virginia-march-april-2015
#9
Brigette Gleason, Angela West, Danny Avula, Okey Utah, Marshall Vogt, Kirk Cumpston, Michael Kelly, Paul Brasler, Shane Wyatt, Laurie Forlano
CONTEXT: In March 2015, the Virginia Department of Health (VDH) was alerted by the Virginia Poison Center of a 6-patient cluster treated for severe clinical presentations after using heroin. Patients' symptoms were atypical for heroin use, and concern existed that patients were exposed to heroin that had been adulterated with or replaced by another substance. OBJECTIVE: To understand the extent and characterization of the outbreak and implement response measures to prevent further cases...
March 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117338/beta-agonist-stimulation-ameliorates-the-phenotype-of-spinal-and-bulbar-muscular-atrophy-mice-and-patient-derived-myotubes
#10
Carmelo Milioto, Adriana Malena, Eleonora Maino, Maria J Polanco, Caterina Marchioretti, Doriana Borgia, Marcelo Gomes Pereira, Bert Blaauw, Andrew P Lieberman, Roberta Venturini, Mario Plebani, Fabio Sambataro, Lodovica Vergani, Elena Pegoraro, Gianni Sorarù, Maria Pennuto
Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a neuromuscular disease characterized by the loss of lower motor neurons. SBMA is caused by expansions of a polyglutamine tract in the gene coding for androgen receptor (AR). Expression of polyglutamine-expanded AR causes damage to motor neurons and skeletal muscle cells. Here we investigated the effect of β-agonist stimulation in SBMA myotube cells derived from mice and patients, and in knock-in mice. We show that treatment of myotubes expressing polyglutamine-expanded AR with the β-agonist clenbuterol increases their size...
January 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099883/beta2-adrenergic-signaling-affects-the-phenotype-of-human-cardiac-progenitor-cells-through-emt-modulation
#11
Francesca Pagano, Francesco Angelini, Camilla Siciliano, Julia Tasciotti, Giorgio Mangino, Elena De Falco, Roberto Carnevale, Sebastiano Sciarretta, Giacomo Frati, Isotta Chimenti
Human cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) offer great promises to cardiac cell therapy for heart failure. Many in vivo studies have shown their therapeutic benefits, paving the way for clinical translation. The 3D model of cardiospheres (CSs) represents a unique niche-like in vitro microenvironment, which includes CPCs and supporting cells. CSs have been shown to form through a process mediated by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). β2-Adrenergic signaling significantly affects stem/progenitor cells activation and mobilization in multiple tissues, and crosstalk between β2-adrenergic signaling and EMT processes has been reported...
January 15, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904493/beta-2-adrenergic-receptor-activation-enhances-neurogenesis-in-alzheimer-s-disease-mice
#12
Gao-Shang Chai, Yang-Yang Wang, Amina Yasheng, Peng Zhao
Impaired hippocampal neurogenesis is one of the early pathological features of Alzheimer's disease. Enhancing adult hippocampal neurogenesis has been pursued as a potential therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer's disease. Recent studies have demonstrated that environmental novelty activates β2-adrenergic signaling and prevents the memory impairment induced by amyloid-β oligomers. Here, we hypothesized that β2-adrenoceptor activation would enhance neurogenesis and ameliorate memory deficits in Alzheimer's disease...
October 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859454/rapid-analysis-of-interaction-between-six-drugs-and-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-receptor-by-injection-amount-dependent-method
#13
Kaizhu Zeng, Jing Wang, Zhenyu Sun, Qian Li, Sha Liao, Xinfeng Zhao, Xiaohui Zheng
Drug-protein interaction analysis has become a considerable topic in life science which includes clarifying protein functions, explaining drug action mechanisms and uncovering novel drug candidates. This work was to determine the association constants (KA ) of six drugs to β2 -adrenergic receptor by injection amount dependent method using stationary phase containing the immobilized receptor. The association constants (KA ) were calculated to be (25.85 ± 0.035) × 10(4)  M(-1) for clorprenaline, (42...
November 15, 2016: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818700/electroacupuncture-at-st37-enhances-jejunal-motility-via-excitation-of-the-parasympathetic-system-in-rats-and-mice
#14
Mengqian Yuan, Yuqin Li, Yidan Wang, Na Zhang, XuanMing Hu, Yin Yin, Bing Zhu, Zhi Yu, Bin Xu
Background. The roles of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems in mediating the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) at ST37 on jejunal motility have yet to be demonstrated. Aim. We used rats and mice to investigate the effect and mechanism of action of EA at ST37 on jejunal motility. Methods. Jejunal motility was recorded by a balloon placed in the jejunum and connected to a biological signal collection system through a transducer. The effects of EA (3 mA) at ST37 were evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats without drugs and with the administration of clenbuterol, propranolol, acetylcholine, and atropine...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765842/adrenodemedullation-activates-the-ca2-dependent-proteolysis-in-soleus-muscles-from-rats-exposed-to-cold
#15
Leandro H Manfredi, D Lustrino, Juliano Machado, Wilian Assis Silveira, Neusa Maria Zanon, Luiz C Navegantes, Isis do Carmo Kettelhut
Previous studies have shown that catecholamines in vivo and in vitro inhibit the activity of Ca(2+)-dependent proteolysis in skeletal muscles under basal conditions. In the present study we sought to investigate the role of catecholamines in regulating the Ca(2+)-dependent proteolysis in soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles from rats acutely exposed to cold. Overall proteolysis, the activity of proteolytic systems as well as protein levels and gene expression of different components of calpain system were investigated in rats submitted to adrenodemedullation (ADMX) and exposed to cold for 24 h...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718465/analysis-of-beta-agonist-residues-in-bovine-hair-development-of-a-uplc-ms-ms-method-and-stability-study
#16
Luigi Giannetti, Giovanni Ferretti, Valentina Gallo, Francesco Necci, Andrea Giorgi, Francesca Marini, Elisa Gennuso, Bruno Neri
Beta-sympathomimetic compounds are widely used in therapy because of the bronchodilator, smooth muscle-relaxant and tocolytic properties. However, their growth promoting and performance enhancing effects are often subject to illegal use. The present work describes the development of a fast and reliable analytical multiresidue method for the confirmation 20 β-agonist compounds in animal hair. The procedure is based on alkaline digestion, LLE with organic solvents, SPE clean up and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) analysis, and is suitable for the public Official control of β-agonist residues in hair sample...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690842/distinction-of-clenbuterol-intake-from-drug-or-contaminated-food-of-animal-origin-in-a-controlled-administration-trial-the-potential-of-enantiomeric-separation-for-doping-control-analysis
#17
Maria Kristina Parr, Marco H Blokland, Franz Liebetrau, Alexander H Schmidt, Thijs Meijer, Mijo Stanic, Dorota Kwiatkowska, Emilia Waraksa, Saskia S Sterk
The differentiation of clenbuterol abuse and unintentional ingestion from contaminated meat is crucial with respect to the valuation of an adverse analytical finding in human sports doping control. The proportion of the two enantiomers of clenbuterol may serve as potential discriminating parameter. For the determination of the individual enantiomers, specific methods were developed and validated for the different matrices under investigation based on chiral chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry...
April 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664680/development-of-molecular-imprinted-column-on-line-two-dimensional-liquid-chromatography-for-selective-determination-of-clenbuterol-residues-in-biological-samples
#18
Pengqi Guo, Zhimin Luo, Xinya Xu, Yulan Zhou, Bilin Zhang, Ruimiao Chang, Wei Du, Chun Chang, Qiang Fu
A novel method coupling molecular imprinted monolithic column with two-dimensional liquid chromatography was developed and validated for the analysis of clenbuterol in pork liver and swine urine samples. The polymers were characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption desorption analyses, frontal analysis and the adsorption of selectivity. The results indicated that the imprinted columns were well prepared and possessed high selectivity adsorption capacity. Subsequently, the MIMC-2D-LC (molecular imprinted monolithic column-two dimensional liquid chromatography) method was developed for the selective analysis of clenbuterol in practical samples...
February 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599754/highly-sensitive-detection-of-clenbuterol-in-animal-urine-using-immunomagnetic-bead-treatment-and-surface-enhanced-raman-spectroscopy
#19
Jie Cheng, Xiao-Ou Su, Shi Wang, Yiping Zhao
Combining surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) of aggregated graphene oxide/gold nanoparticle hybrids with immunomagnetic bead sample preparation method, a highly sensitive strategy to determine the clenbuterol content in animal urine was developed. Based on a linear calibration curve of the SERS characteristic peak intensity of clenbuterol at Δv = 1474 cm(-1) versus the spiked clenbuterol concentration in the range of 0.5-20 ng·mL(-1), the quantity of clenbuterol in real animal urine samples can be determined and matches well with those determined by LC-MS/MS, while the detection time is significantly reduced to 15 min/sample...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566547/skeletal-muscle-specific-g-protein-coupled-receptor-kinase-2-ablation-alters-isolated-skeletal-muscle-mechanics-and-enhances-clenbuterol-stimulated-hypertrophy
#20
Benjamin P Woodall, Meryl C Woodall, Timothy S Luongo, Laurel A Grisanti, Douglas G Tilley, John W Elrod, Walter J Koch
GRK2, a G protein-coupled receptor kinase, plays a critical role in cardiac physiology. Adrenergic receptors are the primary target for GRK2 activity in the heart; phosphorylation by GRK2 leads to desensitization of these receptors. As such, levels of GRK2 activity in the heart directly correlate with cardiac contractile function. Furthermore, increased expression of GRK2 after cardiac insult exacerbates injury and speeds progression to heart failure. Despite the importance of this kinase in both the physiology and pathophysiology of the heart, relatively little is known about the role of GRK2 in skeletal muscle function and disease...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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