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Clenbuterol

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637453/electroacupuncture-at-li11-promotes-jejunal-motility-via-the-parasympathetic-pathway
#1
Xuanming Hu, Mengqian Yuan, Yin Yin, Yidan Wang, Yuqin Li, Na Zhang, Xueyi Sun, Zhi Yu, Bin Xu
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal motility disorder has been demonstrated to be regulated by acupuncture treatment. The mechanisms underlying the effects of acupuncture stimulation of abdominal and lower limb acupoints on gastrointestinal motility have been thoroughly studied; however, the physiology underlying the effects of acupuncture on the forelimbs to mediate gastrointestinal motility requires further exploration. The aim of this study was to determine whether electroacupuncture (EA) at LI11 promotes jejunal motility, whether the parasympathetic pathway participates in this effect, and if so, which somatic afferent nerve fibres are involved...
June 21, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634884/a-nanosensor-based-on-carbon-dots-for-recovered-fluorescence-detection-clenbuterol-in-pork-samples
#2
Yalan Liu, Qiujun Lu, Xiaojun Hu, Haiyan Wang, Haitao Li, Youyu Zhang, Shouzhuo Yao
Clenbuterol (CLB), a member of β-agonist family, has now been a serious threat to human health due to its illegal usage in the animal feed. In this paper, we designed a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) system consisting of carbon dots (C-dots) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for recovered fluorescence detecting of CLB. In the presence of CLB, CLB molecules can interact with AuNPs via Au-N bonds, preventing the interaction of C-dots and AuNPs, which induced the recover of the fluorescent intensity...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633284/determination-of-some-%C3%AE-blockers-and-%C3%AE-2-agonists-in-plasma-and-urine-using-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-and-solid-phase-extraction
#3
Alaa A Salem, Ibrahim Wasfi, Salama S Al-Nassib, Mahmoud Allawy Mohsin, Nawal Al-Katheeri
A highly sensitive method for the determinations of acebutolol, clenbuterol, nadolol, oxprenolol, propranolol, terbutaline and timolol β-blockers and β2-agonists in plasma and urine was developed. The method was optimized using electrospray ionization liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS) and clean screen solid phase extraction cartridges. Matrix effect was reduced by removing co-extractives from the SPE cartridges using methanol prior to drugs' elution. Using blood and serum matrices for calibration and applying the internal standard method has also contributed to the reduction of matrix effect...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Chromatographic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618339/hplc-ms-ms-method-for-troventol-determination-in-human-plasma-and-its-application-to-biological-samples
#4
Aleksandra Nikitina, Alexander Grigoriev, Alla Sidorova
For the first time, an HPLC-MS/MS method for the determination pmol/l levels of troventol (TRV) and clenbuterol as an internal standard (IS) in human plasma was developed, validated and tested on biological samples. The method included solid phase extraction by Waters Oasis WCX cartridges and chromatographic separation on a YMC-Pack SIL (100mm×2.1mm, 5μm, 12nm) analytical column with acetonitrile-water-formic acid (50:50:0.1, v/v/v) as the mobile phase; the selected ion transitions were m/z 332.2→138.2 and m/z 277...
April 29, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602280/mechanism-of-surface-plasmon-resonance-sensing-by-indirect-competitive-inhibition-immunoassay-using-au-nanoparticle-labeled-antibody
#5
Dulal C Kabiraz, Kinichi Morita, Kazuhira Sakamoto, Toshikazu Kawaguchi
We investigated the use of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor using an antibody (Ab) labeled with Au-nanoparticle (Ab-AuNP conjugate). As clenbuterol is a small molecule, an indirect competitive inhibition immunoassay was used. The SPR immunoassay using Ab-AuNP conjugate had an extremely low limit of the detection (LOD) with a magnitude of 0.05 ppt (0.05pgmL(-1)), which was 40 times lower than that of unlabeled Ab. To identify the key factor in determining the LOD of the indirect competitive inhibition immunoassay, affinity constants of the surface immunoreaction (K1) and of the premixed solution (αK2) were evaluated...
September 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578076/%C3%AE-1-and-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-receptor-stimulation-differ-in-their-effects-on-pgc-1%C3%AE-and-atrogin-1-mafbx-gene-expression-in-chick-skeletal-muscle
#6
Saki Shimamoto, Daichi Ijiri, Mana Kawaguchi, Kazuki Nakashima, Osamu Tada, Hiroki Inoue, Akira Ohtsuka
Adrenaline changes expression of the genes encoding peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α), which is known as a regulator of muscle size, and atrogin-1/muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx), which is a muscle-specific ubiquitin ligase. However, the subtype of β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) involved in regulating these genes in skeletal muscle is not yet well defined. In this study, the effects of intraperitoneal injection of adrenaline and three β1-3-AR selective agonists on chick skeletal muscle metabolism were examined, to evaluate the functions of β-AR subtypes...
June 1, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544353/chiral-separation-of-12-pairs-of-enantiomers-by-capillary-electrophoresis-using-heptakis-2-3-diacetyl-6-sulfato-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-as-the-chiral-selector-and-the-elucidation-of-the-chiral-recognition-mechanism-by-computational-methods
#7
Yaqi Yao, Peilu Song, Xiaoli Wen, Miaoduo Deng, Jian Wang, Xingjie Guo
Chiral separation of 12 pairs of basic analyte enantiomers including oxybutynin, bambuterol, tradinterol, clenbuterol, clorprenaline, terbutaline, tulobuterol, citalopram, phencynonate, fexofenadine, salbutamol and penehyclidine was conducted by capillary electrophoresis using a single-isomer anionic β-cyclodextrin derivative, heptakis-(2,3-diacetyl-6-sulfato)-β-cyclodextrin as the chiral selector. Parameters influencing separation were studied, including background electrolyte pH, heptakis-(2,3-diacetyl-6-sulfato)-β-cyclodextrin concentration, buffer concentration and separation voltage...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535735/clenbuterol-attenuates-herg-channel-by-promoting-the-mature-channel-degradation
#8
Ling Luo, Peijing Hu, Changqing Miao, Aiqun Ma, Tingzhong Wang
Clenbuterol, a β2-selective adrenergic receptor agonist, is illicitly used in weight loss and performance enhancement and animal production. Increasing evidence demonstrates that clenbuterol induces various kinds of arrhythmias and QTc interval prolongation. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism. Most drugs are associated with QTc prolongation through interfering with human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) K(+) channels. The present study aims to investigate the effects and underlying mechanisms of clenbuterol on the hERG channel...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453289/identification-of-buctopamine-and-mebuctopamine-a-%C3%AE-2-receptor-agonist-and-its-metabolite-in-swine-hair-and-feed-additives
#9
Ying-Heng Chen, Chia-Ying Yang, Chih Wen Cheng, Yi-Ying Lin, Su Lien Kuo, Ling-Wei Hsin
4-[2-(t-Butylamino)-1-hydroxyethyl]phenol (buctopamine, 4), a new β2 receptor agonist (β2-agonist), was found to be an adulterant in feed additives for swine in Taiwan, where using β2-agonists in food-production animals is prohibited. Buctopamine and its metabolite, 4-[2-(t-butylamino)-1-hydroxyethyl]-2-methoxyphenol (mebuctopamine, 2), were detected in swine hair specimens. Authentic compounds 2 and 4 were synthesized with 98.6% and 97.7% purity, respectively, as reference standards for analysis, and both compounds were more hydrophilic than ractopamine and clenbuterol...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431781/clenbuterol-hydrochloride
#10
Abdulrahman A Al-Majed, Nasr Y Khalil, Ibraheem Khbrani, Hatem A Abdel-Aziz
Clenbuterol (Broncodil and trade) is a direct-acting sympathomimetic agent with mainly beta-adrenergic activity and a selective action on β2 receptors (a β2 agonist). It has properties similar to those of salbutamol. It is used as a bronchodilator in the management of reversible airways obstruction, as in asthma and in certain patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The uses, applications, and the synthetic pathways of this drug are outlined. Physical characteristics including: ionization constant, solubility, X-ray powder diffraction pattern, thermal methods of analysis, UV spectrum, IR spectrum, mass spectrum are all produced...
2017: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431453/carboxymethyl-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-as-chiral-selector-in-capillary-electrophoresis-enantioseparation-of-16-basic-chiral-drugs-and-its-chiral-recognition-mechanism-associated-with-drugs-structural-features
#11
Linlin Fang, Yueying Du, Xiaoyu Hu, Linda Luo, Xin Guo, Xingjie Guo, Jia Yu
Herein we present the enantioseparation of 10 cardiovascular agents and 6 bronchiectasis drugs including propranolol, carteolol, metoprolol, atenolol, pindolol, esmolol, bisoprolol, bevantolol, arotinolol, sotalol, clenbuterol, procaterol, bambuterol, tranterol, salbutamol and terbutaline sulfate using carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin (CM-β-CD) as chiral selector. To our knowledge, there is no literature about using CM-β-CD for separating carteolol, esmolol, bisoprolol, bevantolol, arotinolol, procaterol, bambuterol and tranterol...
April 21, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407896/one-pot-synthesis-of-ethylenediamine-connected-graphene-carbon-nanotube-composite-material-for-isolation-of-clenbuterol-from-pork
#12
Yanan Yuan, Xiaoyan Jiao, Yehong Han, Ligai Bai, Haiyan Liu, Fengxia Qiao, Hongyuan Yan
A fluffy porous ethylenediamine-connected graphene/carbon nanotube composite (EGC), prepared by a simple and time-saving one-pot synthesis, was successfully applied as an adsorbent in pipette-tip solid-phase extraction (PT-SPE) for the rapid extraction and determination of clenbuterol (CLB) from pork. In the one-pot synthesis, carbon nanotubes were inserted into graphene sheets and then connected with ethylenediamine through chemical modification to form a three-dimensional framework structure to prevent agglomeration of the graphene sheets...
September 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389095/chemometric-evaluation-of-the-combined-effect-of-temperature-pressure-and-co-solvent-fractions-on-the-chiral-separation-of-basic-pharmaceuticals-using-actual-vs-set-operational-conditions
#13
Erik Forss, Dan Haupt, Olle Stålberg, Martin Enmark, Jörgen Samuelsson, Torgny Fornstedt
The need to determine the actual operational conditions, instead of merely using the set operational conditions, was investigated for in packed supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) by design of experiments (DoE) using a most important type of compounds, pharmaceutical basics, as models. The actual values of temperature, pressure, and methanol levels were recorded and calculated from external sensors, while the responses in the DoE were the retention factors and selectivity. A Kromasil CelluCoat column was used as the stationary phase, carbon dioxide containing varying methanol contents as the mobile phase, and the six racemates of alprenolol, atenolol, metoprolol, propranolol, clenbuterol, and mianserin were selected as model solutes...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340793/a-novel-quartz-crystal-microbalance-sensor-array-based-on-molecular-imprinted-polymers-for-simultaneous-detection-of-clenbuterol-and-its-metabolites
#14
Fan Feng, Jianwu Zheng, Peng Qin, Tao Han, Dayun Zhao
For the rapid and robust detection of both parent clenbuterol (CLB) and its metabolites in swine urine samples, a novel quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor array for CLB detection based on molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) was developed in this investigation. At first, clenbuterol and the structural analogs of its metabolites, 4-Aminohippuric acid (AHA) and 4-hydroxymandelic acid (HMA), were chosen as molecular templates. Through computational molecular modeling, the optimum ratio between the functional monomer and molecular template was selected...
May 15, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317772/ultrasensitive-detection-of-clenbuterol-by-a-covalent-imprinted-polymer-as-a-biomimetic-antibody
#15
Yiwei Tang, Jingwen Gao, Xiuying Liu, Xue Gao, Tao Ma, Xiaonan Lu, Jianrong Li
As an ideal biomimetic antibody, molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) has shown great promise in immunoassays. Here, we developed a covalent imprinting method to prepare MIP artificial antibody towards clenbuterol on the well surface of a microtiter plate. Template molecule (clenbuterol) was splited by hydrolysis with functional monomer and removed by methanol/acetic acid solution, and then three-dimensional cavities were fabricated in the MIP, which can rebind template molecule via hydrogen bond interaction...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278125/laboratory-validation-of-an-lc-ms-ms-method-for-the-detection-of-ractopamine-clenbuterol-and-salbutamol-in-bovine-and-swine-muscle-at-sub-%C3%AE-g%C3%A2-kg-1-regulatory-limits
#16
Alfredo M Montes Nino, Rodrigo H M M Granja, Karine V G Reche, Fabio M Giannotti, João K G de Souza, Sarita P G Ferrari, André D Dos Santos, Amarylis C B A Wanschel, Alessandro G Salerno
Ractopamine (RAC), is a β-adrenergic agonist increasingly used in the swine and cattle industry. This compound redirects nutrients to favour leanness rather than fat deposition, improves growth and carcass traits gaining higher economic benefit to producers. Countries around the world are split over whether to allow the use of RAC in meat production. Clenbuterol (CLB) and salbutamol (SLB) are anillinic and phenolic β-agonists, respectively, with the same capacity of producing economic benefits for the meat sector...
May 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274437/detection-of-%C3%AE-agonists-in-pork-tissue-with-novel-electrospun-nanofibers-based-solid-phase-extraction-followed-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#17
Lanling Chu, Shenglan Zheng, Bin Qu, Shiwei Geng, Xuejun Kang
A selective analytical method based on packed-fiber solid-phase extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (PFSPE-UPLC-MS/MS) has been developed for determination of six β-agonists (clorprenaline, bambuterol, clenbuterol, brombuterol, mabuterol, and penbuterol) in pork tissue. Polystyrene-polymeric crown ether (PS-PCE) composite nanofibers were fabricated by electrospinning and utilized to prepare the homemade extraction columns. With optimal conditions, all analytes were separated very well and the blank pork did not disturb the determination, and the linearity is good in a range of 5...
July 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199788/development-of-fluorescence-surrogates-to-predict-the-photochemical-transformation-of-pharmaceuticals-in-wastewater-effluents
#18
Shuwen Yan, Bo Yao, Lushi Lian, Xinchen Lu, Shane A Snyder, Rui Li, Weihua Song
The photochemical transformation of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in wastewater effluents is an emerging concern for environmental scientists. In the current study, the photodegradation of 29 PPCPs was examined in effluents under simulated solar irradiation. Direct photodegradation, triplet state effluent organic matter ((3)EfOM*)-mediated and hydroxyl radical (HO(•))-mediated degradation are three major pathways in the removal process. With the photodegradation of trace levels of PPCPs, the excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence intensities of the effluents were also gradually reduced...
March 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192911/open-port-probe-sampling-interface-for-the-direct-coupling-of-biocompatible-solid-phase-microextraction-to-atmospheric-pressure-ionization-mass-spectrometry
#19
Germán Augusto Gómez-Ríos, Chang Liu, Marcos Tascon, Nathaly Reyes-Garcés, Don W Arnold, Thomas R Covey, Janusz Pawliszyn
In recent years, the direct coupling of solid phase microextraction (SPME) and mass spectrometry (MS) has shown its great potential to improve limits of quantitation, accelerate analysis throughput, and diminish potential matrix effects when compared to direct injection to MS. In this study, we introduce the open port probe (OPP) as a robust interface to couple biocompatible SPME (Bio-SPME) fibers to MS systems for direct electrospray ionization. The presented design consisted of minimal alterations to the front-end of the instrument and provided better sensitivity, simplicity, speed, wider compound coverage, and high-throughput in comparison to the LC-MS based approach...
February 13, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161951/selection-and-application-of-ssdna-aptamers-against-clenbuterol-hydrochloride-based-on-ssdna-library-immobilized-selex
#20
Nuo Duan, Wenhui Gong, Shijia Wu, Zhouping Wang
Clenbuterol hydrochloride (CLB) is often abused as additive feed for livestock to decrease adipose tissue deposition and to increase growth rate. It raises a potential risk to human health through the consumption of animal product. In this study, aptamers with higher affinity and specificity were screened through 16 selection rounds based on the ssDNA library immobilized systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) technique. After cloning and sequencing, five aptamer candidates were picked out for affinity and specificity assays based on a graphene oxide (GO) adsorption method...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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