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Clenbuterol

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199788/development-of-fluorescence-surrogates-to-predict-the-photochemical-transformation-of-pharmaceuticals-in-wastewater-effluents
#1
Shuwen Yan, Bo Yao, Lushi Lian, Xinchen Lu, Shane A Snyder, Rui Li, Weihua Song
The photochemical transformation of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in wastewater effluents is an emerging concern for environmental scientists. In the current study, the photodegradation of 29 PPCPs was examined in effluents under simulated solar irradiation. Direct photodegradation, triplet state effluent organic matter (3EfOM*)-mediated and hydroxyl radical (HO•)-mediated degradation are three major pathways in the removal process. With the photodegradation of trace levels of PPCPs, the excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence intensities of the effluents were also gradually reduced...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192911/open-port-probe-sampling-interface-for-the-direct-coupling-of-biocompatible-solid-phase-microextraction-to-atmospheric-pressure-ionization-mass-spectrometry
#2
Germán Augusto Gómez-Ríos, Chang Liu, Marcos Tascon, Nathaly Reyes-Garcés, Don W Arnold, Thomas R Covey, Janusz Pawliszyn
In recent years, the direct coupling of solid phase microextraction (SPME) and mass spectrometry (MS) has shown its great potential to improve limits of quantitation, accelerate analysis throughput, and diminish potential matrix effects when compared to direct injection to MS. In this study, we introduce the open port probe (OPP) as a robust interface to couple biocompatible SPME (Bio-SPME) fibers to MS systems for direct electrospray ionization. The presented design consisted of minimal alterations to the front-end of the instrument and provided better sensitivity, simplicity, speed, wider compound coverage, and high-throughput in comparison to the LC-MS based approach...
February 13, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161951/selection-and-application-of-ssdna-aptamers-against-clenbuterol-hydrochloride-based-on-ssdna-library-immobilized-selex
#3
Nuo Duan, Wenhui Gong, Shijia Wu, Zhouping Wang
Clenbuterol Hydrochloride (CLB) is often abused as additive feed for livestock to decrease adipose tissue deposition and increase growth rate. It raised a potential risk to human health through the animal product consume. In this study, aptamers with higher affinity and specificity was screened through sixteen selection rounds based on ssDNA library immobilized systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) technique. After cloning and sequencing, five aptamer candidates were picked out for affinity and specificity assays based on graphene oxide (GO) adsorption method...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134263/hollow-au-ag-nanoparticles-labeled-immunochromatography-strip-for-highly-sensitive-detection-of-clenbuterol
#4
Jingyun Wang, Lei Zhang, Youju Huang, Anirban Dandapat, Liwei Dai, Ganggang Zhang, Xuefei Lu, Jiawei Zhang, Weihua Lai, Tao Chen
The probe materials play a significant role in improving the detection efficiency and sensitivity of lateral-flow immunochromatographic test strip (ICTS). Unlike conventional ICTS assay usually uses single-component, solid gold nanoparticles as labeled probes, in our present study, a bimetallic, hollow Au-Ag nanoparticles (NPs) labeled ICTS was successfully developed for the detection of clenbuterol (CLE). The hollow Au-Ag NPs with different Au/Ag mole ratio and tunable size were synthesized by varying the volume ratio of [HAuCl4]:[Ag NPs] via the galvanic replacement reaction...
January 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121776/collaborative-public-health-investigation-of-clenbuterol-adulterated-heroin-outbreak-richmond-virginia-march-april-2015
#5
Brigette Gleason, Angela West, Danny Avula, Okey Utah, Marshall Vogt, Kirk Cumpston, Michael Kelly, Paul Brasler, Shane Wyatt, Laurie Forlano
CONTEXT: In March 2015, the Virginia Department of Health (VDH) was alerted by the Virginia Poison Center of a 6-patient cluster treated for severe clinical presentations after using heroin. Patients' symptoms were atypical for heroin use, and concern existed that patients were exposed to heroin that had been adulterated with or replaced by another substance. OBJECTIVE: To understand the extent and characterization of the outbreak and implement response measures to prevent further cases...
March 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117338/beta-agonist-stimulation-ameliorates-the-phenotype-of-spinal-and-bulbar-muscular-atrophy-mice-and-patient-derived-myotubes
#6
Carmelo Milioto, Adriana Malena, Eleonora Maino, Maria J Polanco, Caterina Marchioretti, Doriana Borgia, Marcelo Gomes Pereira, Bert Blaauw, Andrew P Lieberman, Roberta Venturini, Mario Plebani, Fabio Sambataro, Lodovica Vergani, Elena Pegoraro, Gianni Sorarù, Maria Pennuto
Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a neuromuscular disease characterized by the loss of lower motor neurons. SBMA is caused by expansions of a polyglutamine tract in the gene coding for androgen receptor (AR). Expression of polyglutamine-expanded AR causes damage to motor neurons and skeletal muscle cells. Here we investigated the effect of β-agonist stimulation in SBMA myotube cells derived from mice and patients, and in knock-in mice. We show that treatment of myotubes expressing polyglutamine-expanded AR with the β-agonist clenbuterol increases their size...
January 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099883/beta2-adrenergic-signaling-affects-the-phenotype-of-human-cardiac-progenitor-cells-through-emt-modulation
#7
Francesca Pagano, Francesco Angelini, Camilla Siciliano, Julia Tasciotti, Giorgio Mangino, Elena De Falco, Roberto Carnevale, Sebastiano Sciarretta, Giacomo Frati, Isotta Chimenti
Human cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) offer great promises to cardiac cell therapy for heart failure. Many in vivo studies have shown their therapeutic benefits, paving the way for clinical translation. The 3D model of cardiospheres (CSs) represents a unique niche-like in vitro microenvironment, which includes CPCs and supporting cells. CSs have been shown to form through a process mediated by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). β2-Adrenergic signaling significantly affects stem/progenitor cells activation and mobilization in multiple tissues, and crosstalk between β2-adrenergic signaling and EMT processes has been reported...
January 15, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904493/beta-2-adrenergic-receptor-activation-enhances-neurogenesis-in-alzheimer-s-disease-mice
#8
Gao-Shang Chai, Yang-Yang Wang, Amina Yasheng, Peng Zhao
Impaired hippocampal neurogenesis is one of the early pathological features of Alzheimer's disease. Enhancing adult hippocampal neurogenesis has been pursued as a potential therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer's disease. Recent studies have demonstrated that environmental novelty activates β2-adrenergic signaling and prevents the memory impairment induced by amyloid-β oligomers. Here, we hypothesized that β2-adrenoceptor activation would enhance neurogenesis and ameliorate memory deficits in Alzheimer's disease...
October 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859454/rapid-analysis-of-interaction-between-six-drugs-and-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-receptor-by-injection-amount-dependent-method
#9
Kaizhu Zeng, Jing Wang, Zhenyu Sun, Qian Li, Sha Liao, Xinfeng Zhao, Xiaohui Zheng
Drug-protein interaction analysis has become a considerable topic in life science which includes clarifying protein functions, explaining drug action mechanisms and uncovering novel drug candidates. This work was to determine the association constants (KA ) of six drugs to β2 -adrenergic receptor by injection amount dependent method using stationary phase containing the immobilized receptor. The association constants (KA ) were calculated to be (25.85 ± 0.035) × 10(4)  M(-1) for clorprenaline, (42...
November 15, 2016: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818700/electroacupuncture-at-st37-enhances-jejunal-motility-via-excitation-of-the-parasympathetic-system-in-rats-and-mice
#10
Mengqian Yuan, Yuqin Li, Yidan Wang, Na Zhang, XuanMing Hu, Yin Yin, Bing Zhu, Zhi Yu, Bin Xu
Background. The roles of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems in mediating the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) at ST37 on jejunal motility have yet to be demonstrated. Aim. We used rats and mice to investigate the effect and mechanism of action of EA at ST37 on jejunal motility. Methods. Jejunal motility was recorded by a balloon placed in the jejunum and connected to a biological signal collection system through a transducer. The effects of EA (3 mA) at ST37 were evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats without drugs and with the administration of clenbuterol, propranolol, acetylcholine, and atropine...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765842/adrenodemedullation-activates-the-ca2-dependent-proteolysis-in-soleus-muscles-from-rats-exposed-to-cold
#11
Leandro H Manfredi, D Lustrino, Juliano Machado, Wilian Assis Silveira, Neusa Maria Zanon, Luiz C Navegantes, Isis do Carmo Kettelhut
Previous studies have shown that catecholamines in vivo and in vitro inhibit the activity of Ca(2+)-dependent proteolysis in skeletal muscles under basal conditions. In the present study we sought to investigate the role of catecholamines in regulating the Ca(2+)-dependent proteolysis in soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles from rats acutely exposed to cold. Overall proteolysis, the activity of proteolytic systems as well as protein levels and gene expression of different components of calpain system were investigated in rats submitted to adrenodemedullation (ADMX) and exposed to cold for 24 h...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718465/analysis-of-beta-agonist-residues-in-bovine-hair-development-of-a-uplc-ms-ms-method-and-stability-study
#12
Luigi Giannetti, Giovanni Ferretti, Valentina Gallo, Francesco Necci, Andrea Giorgi, Francesca Marini, Elisa Gennuso, Bruno Neri
Beta-sympathomimetic compounds are widely used in therapy because of the bronchodilator, smooth muscle-relaxant and tocolytic properties. However, their growth promoting and performance enhancing effects are often subject to illegal use. The present work describes the development of a fast and reliable analytical multiresidue method for the confirmation 20 β-agonist compounds in animal hair. The procedure is based on alkaline digestion, LLE with organic solvents, SPE clean up and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) analysis, and is suitable for the public Official control of β-agonist residues in hair sample...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690842/distinction-of-clenbuterol-intake-from-drug-or-contaminated-food-of-animal-origin-in-a-controlled-administration-trial-the-potential-of-enantiomeric-separation-for-doping-control-analysis
#13
Maria Kristina Parr, Marco H Blokland, Franz Liebetrau, Alexander H Schmidt, Thijs Meijer, Mijo Stanic, Dorota Kwiatkowska, Emilia Waraksa, Saskia S Sterk
The differentiation of clenbuterol abuse and unintentional ingestion by contaminated meat is crucial with respect to the valuation of an adverse analytical finding in human sports doping control. The proportion of the two enantiomers of clenbuterol may serve as potential discriminating parameter. For the determination of the individual enantiomers, specific methods were developed and validated for the different matrices under investigation based on chiral chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Data from the administration of clenbuterol from a pharmaceutical preparation and from cattle meat and liver containing residues to humans are presented...
October 3, 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664680/development-of-molecular-imprinted-column-on-line-two-dimensional-liquid-chromatography-for-selective-determination-of-clenbuterol-residues-in-biological-samples
#14
Pengqi Guo, Zhimin Luo, Xinya Xu, Yulan Zhou, Bilin Zhang, Ruimiao Chang, Wei Du, Chun Chang, Qiang Fu
A novel method coupling molecular imprinted monolithic column with two-dimensional liquid chromatography was developed and validated for the analysis of clenbuterol in pork liver and swine urine samples. The polymers were characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption desorption analyses, frontal analysis and the adsorption of selectivity. The results indicated that the imprinted columns were well prepared and possessed high selectivity adsorption capacity. Subsequently, the MIMC-2D-LC (molecular imprinted monolithic column-two dimensional liquid chromatography) method was developed for the selective analysis of clenbuterol in practical samples...
February 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599754/highly-sensitive-detection-of-clenbuterol-in-animal-urine-using-immunomagnetic-bead-treatment-and-surface-enhanced-raman-spectroscopy
#15
Jie Cheng, Xiao-Ou Su, Shi Wang, Yiping Zhao
Combining surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) of aggregated graphene oxide/gold nanoparticle hybrids with immunomagnetic bead sample preparation method, a highly sensitive strategy to determine the clenbuterol content in animal urine was developed. Based on a linear calibration curve of the SERS characteristic peak intensity of clenbuterol at Δv = 1474 cm(-1) versus the spiked clenbuterol concentration in the range of 0.5-20 ng·mL(-1), the quantity of clenbuterol in real animal urine samples can be determined and matches well with those determined by LC-MS/MS, while the detection time is significantly reduced to 15 min/sample...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566547/skeletal-muscle-specific-g-protein-coupled-receptor-kinase-2-ablation-alters-isolated-skeletal-muscle-mechanics-and-enhances-clenbuterol-stimulated-hypertrophy
#16
Benjamin P Woodall, Meryl C Woodall, Timothy S Luongo, Laurel A Grisanti, Douglas G Tilley, John W Elrod, Walter J Koch
GRK2, a G protein-coupled receptor kinase, plays a critical role in cardiac physiology. Adrenergic receptors are the primary target for GRK2 activity in the heart; phosphorylation by GRK2 leads to desensitization of these receptors. As such, levels of GRK2 activity in the heart directly correlate with cardiac contractile function. Furthermore, increased expression of GRK2 after cardiac insult exacerbates injury and speeds progression to heart failure. Despite the importance of this kinase in both the physiology and pathophysiology of the heart, relatively little is known about the role of GRK2 in skeletal muscle function and disease...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27555230/role-of-mechanistic-target-of-rapamycin-mtor-in-renal-function-and-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-kidney-injury
#17
Reem Alshaman, Luan Truong, Adebayo Oyekan
Despite the presence of many studies on the role of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) in cardiorenal tissues, the definitive role of mTOR in the pathogenesis of renal injury subsequent to ischemia-reperfusion (IR) remains unclear. The aims of the current study were to characterize the role of mTOR in normal kidney function and to investigate the role of mTOR activation in IR-induced kidney injury. In euvolemic anesthetized rats, treatment with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin increased blood pressure (121±2 to 144±3 mmHg; P<0...
August 24, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27506674/differential-expression-of-skeletal-muscle-genes-following-administration-of-clenbuterol-to-exercised-horses
#18
Heather K Knych, Linda M Harrison, Stacy J Steinmetz, Nadira Chouicha, Phil H Kass
BACKGROUND: Clenbuterol, a beta2-adrenergic receptor agonist, is used therapeutically to treat respiratory conditions in the horse. However, by virtue of its mechanism of action it has been suggested that clenbuterol may also have repartitioning affects in horses and as such the potential to affect performance. Clenbuterol decreases the percent fat and increases fat-free mass following high dose administration in combination with intense exercise in horses. In the current study, microarray analysis and real-time PCR were used to study the temporal effects of low and high dose chronic clenbuterol administration on differential gene expression of several skeletal muscle myosin heavy chains, genes involved in lipid metabolism and the β2-adrenergic receptor...
2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27443574/novel-method-for-the-rapid-and-specific-extraction-of-multiple-%C3%AE-2-agonist-residues-in-food-by-tailor-made-monolith-mips-extraction-disks-and-detection-by-gas-chromatography-with-mass-spectrometry
#19
Haibo Liu, Ning Gan, Yinji Chen, Qingqing Ding, Jie Huang, Saichai Lin, Yuting Cao, Tianhua Li
A quick and specific pretreatment method based on a series of extraction clean-up disks, consisting of molecularly imprinted polymer monoliths and C18 adsorbent, was developed for the specific enrichment of salbutamol and clenbuterol residues in food. The molecularly imprinted monolithic polymer disk was synthesized using salbutamol as a template through a one-step synthesis process. It can simultaneously and specifically recognize salbutamol and clenbuterol. The monolithic polymer disk and series of C18 disks were assembled with a syringe to form a set of tailor-made devices for the extraction of target molecules...
September 2016: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27436267/determination-of-drugs-by-online-column-switching-liquid-chromatography
#20
Sena Caglar Andac
A fully automated and validated 2D online solid-phase extraction (SPE) high-performance liquid chromatographic method was described for the direct simultaneous determination of clenbuterol (CLEN) and doxazosin (DOX) in spiked human plasma samples. Chromatographic separation of the analytes was achieved by column-switching. SPE column packed with restricted access material for depleting matrix and a reversed phase HPLC column for eluting analytes were used with UV detection on 250 nm. A 10 mM acetate buffer (pH: 4) and acetonitrile mixture was used in gradient elution with 1 mL/min flow rate, as mass spectrometry friendly mobile phase...
July 19, 2016: Journal of Chromatographic Science
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