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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531942/target-signalling-pathways-of-natural-plant-derived-radioprotective-agents-from-treatment-to-potential-candidates-a-reverse-thought-on-anti-tumour-drugs
#1
REVIEW
Ke-Li Yun, Zhen Yu Wang
Radiation damage can occur in nuclear power plant workers when physical protections fail, which results in nuclear leakage through the protective layers. Alternatively, workers may be unable to use physical protection in time (in the case of a sudden nuclear weapons attack). In addition, patients who receive local radiotherapy and are not allowed to adopt local physical protection may experience radiation damage. Thus, protection against chemical radiation has become indispensable. In view of the side effects caused by synthetic radioprotective agents (such as amisfostine), searching for radioprotective agents from plant sources is an alternative strategy...
May 17, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531804/protective-effect-and-mechanism-of-lycopene-on-endothelial-progenitor-cells-epcs-from-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-rats
#2
Yao-Chi Zeng, Li-Sheng Peng, Liyuan Zou, Shu-Fen Huang, Yi Xie, Gui-Ping Mu, Xue-Hui Zeng, Xi-Lin Zhou, Ya-Chi Zeng
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), widely existing in bone marrow and peripheral blood, are involved in the repair of injured vascular endothelium and angiogenesis which are important to diabetic mellitus (DM) patients with vascular complications. The number and the function of EPCs are related to the advanced glycation end products (AGEs) generated in DM patients. Lycopene (Lyc) is an identified natural antioxidant that protects EPCs under the microenvironment of AGEs from damage. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear...
May 19, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531218/autophagy-inhibitor-facilitates-gefitinib-sensitivity-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-by-activating-mitochondrial-apoptosis-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#3
Zhaoyun Liu, Kewen He, Qinghua Ma, Qian Yu, Chenyu Liu, Isabella Ndege, Xinzhao Wang, Zhiyong Yu
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is over-expressed in about 50% of Triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs), but EGFR inhibitors have not been effective in treating TNBC patients. Increasing evidence supports that autophagy was related to drug resistance at present. However, the role and the mechanism of autophagy to the treatment of TNBC remain unknown. In the current study, we investigated the effect of autophagy inhibitor to gefitinib (Ge) in TNBC cells in vitro and in nude mice vivo. Our study demonstrated that inhibition of autophagy by 3-Methyladenine or bafilomycin A1 improved Ge's sensitivity to MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells, as evidence from stronger inhibition of cell vitality and colony formation, higher level of G0/G1 arrest and DNA damage, and these effects were verified in nude mice vivo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531150/distinct-contributions-of-autophagy-receptors-in-measles-virus-replication
#4
Denitsa S Petkova, Pauline Verlhac, Aurore Rozières, Joël Baguet, Mathieu Claviere, Carole Kretz-Remy, Renaud Mahieux, Christophe Viret, Mathias Faure
Autophagy is a potent cell autonomous defense mechanism that engages the lysosomal pathway to fight intracellular pathogens. Several autophagy receptors can recognize invading pathogens in order to target them towards autophagy for their degradation after the fusion of pathogen-containing autophagosomes with lysosomes. However, numerous intracellular pathogens can avoid or exploit autophagy, among which is measles virus (MeV). This virus induces a complete autophagy flux, which is required to improve viral replication...
May 22, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531143/a-4-phenoxyphenol-derivative-exerts-inhibitory-effects-on-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells-through-regulating-autophagy-and-apoptosis-accompanied-by-downregulating-%C3%AE-tubulin-expression
#5
Wen-Tsan Chang, Wangta Liu, Yi-Han Chiu, Bing-Hung Chen, Shih-Chang Chuang, Yen-Chun Chen, Yun-Tzh Hsu, Mei-Jei Lu, Shean-Jaw Chiou, Chon-Kit Chou, Chien-Chih Chiu
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cancer worldwide. Advanced HCCs are usually resistant to anticancer drugs, causing unsatisfactory chemotherapy outcomes. In this study, we showed that a 4-phenoxyphenol derivative, 4-[4-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)phenoxy]phenol (4-HPPP), exerts an inhibitory activity against two HCC cell lines, Huh7 and Ha22T. We further investigated the anti-HCC activities of 4-HPPP, including anti-proliferation and induction of apoptosis. Our results showed that higher dosage of 4-HPPP downregulates the expression of α-tubulin and causes nuclear enlargement in both the Huh-7 and Ha22T cell lines...
May 21, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530014/microrna-30a-5p-promotes-replication-of-porcine-circovirus-type-2-through-enhancing-autophagy-by-targeting-14-3-3
#6
Xiaomin Wang, Xianglan Xu, Wei Wang, Zhengyu Yu, Libin Wen, Kongwang He, Hongjie Fan
Accumulating evidence demonstrates that autophagy and microRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in regulating virus-host interactions and can restrict or facilitate viral replication. In the present study we examined whether a functional relationship exists between autophagy, miRNA and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection, using several approaches. We demonstrated that there was a positive correlation between PCV2 infection and autophagy in 3D4/21 cells and autophagy induced by PCV2 infection triggered PCV2 replication...
May 22, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529930/the-central-role-of-ifi204-in-ifn-%C3%AE-release-and-autophagy-activation-during-mycobacterium-bovis-infection
#7
Liu Chunfa, Sun Xin, Li Qiang, Srinand Sreevatsan, Lifeng Yang, Deming Zhao, Xiangmei Zhou
Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) is the pathogen of animals and humans that can replicate in the phagosomes of myeloid cells. Cytosolic detection of bacterial products plays a crucial role in initiating the innate immune response, including autophagy activation and interferon-β (IFN-β) release. Although IFN-β release and autophagy activation have been reported during mycobacterium infection, the mechanisms underlying remains poorly defined. Here, we demonstrated that IFN-β release increases in macrophages exposed to M...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529589/tetrandrine-triggers-an-alternative-autophagy-in-du145-cells
#8
Wei Qiu, Ai-Li Zhang, Ye Tian
Tetrandrine (Tet), a potent lysosomal inhibitor, blocks autophagic flux and induces cancer cell death. Previously, the present authors identified the prostate cancer cell line DU145 to exhibit high sensitivity towards Tet in 11 cancer cell lines. In the present study, autophagy in Tet-treated DU145 cells was investigated. Similar to other cell lines, such as PC-3 and 786-O cells, Tet neutralized the acidity of lysosome and blocked autophagy in DU145 cells. However, Tet failed to induce microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) conversion in DU145 cells...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529582/angiotensin-ii-receptor-blockers-induce-autophagy-in-prostate-cancer-cells
#9
Yunseo Woo, Yu-Jin Jung
Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are anti-hypertensive drugs that competitively inhibit the binding of angiotensin II to its receptor, resulting in blood vessel dilation and the reduction of blood pressure. These antagonists are also known as sartans, and are a group of pharmaceuticals that possess tetrazole or imidazole groups. In the present study, the anticancer and antimetastatic effects of the ARBs fimasartan, losartan, eprosartan and valsartan on the human prostate cancer PC-3, DU-145 and LNCap-LN3 cell lines were investigated in vitro...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529574/knockdown-of-stmn1-enhances-osteosarcoma-cell-chemosensitivity-through-inhibition-of-autophagy
#10
Zili Wang, Rongzhen He, Hansong Xia, Yu Wei, Song Wu
Chemoresistance is a major cause for the poor prognosis of osteosarcoma (OS) patients. However, our understanding of mechanisms underlying chemoresistance in OS are limited. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of stathmin 1 (STMN1) on paclitaxel-induced chemoresistance, as well as the underlying mechanism. Western blot analysis data revealed that the expression level of STMN1 was dramatically increased in OS cell lines (HOS, Saos-2, U-2OS and MG-63), when compared to normal osteoblast hFOB1.19 cells...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529453/the-role-of-germ-cell-loss-during-primordial-follicle-assembly-a-review-of-current-advances
#11
REVIEW
Yuan-Chao Sun, Xiao-Feng Sun, Paul W Dyce, Wei Shen, Hong Chen
In most female mammals, early germline development begins with the appearance of primordial germ cells (PGCs), and develops to form mature oocytes following several vital processes. It remains well accepted that significant germ cell apoptosis and oocyte loss takes place around the time of birth. The transition of the ovarian environment from fetal to neonatal, coincides with the loss of germ cells and the timing of follicle formation. All told it is common to lose approximately two thirds of germ cells during this transition period...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529316/pharmacological-modulation-of-autophagy-therapeutic-potential-and-persisting-obstacles
#12
REVIEW
Lorenzo Galluzzi, José Manuel Bravo-San Pedro, Beth Levine, Douglas R Green, Guido Kroemer
Autophagy is central to the maintenance of organismal homeostasis in both physiological and pathological situations. Accordingly, alterations in autophagy have been linked to clinically relevant conditions as diverse as cancer, neurodegeneration and cardiac disorders. Throughout the past decade, autophagy has attracted considerable attention as a target for the development of novel therapeutics. However, such efforts have not yet generated clinically viable interventions. In this Review, we discuss the therapeutic potential of autophagy modulators, analyse the obstacles that have limited their development and propose strategies that may unlock the full therapeutic potential of autophagy modulation in the clinic...
May 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528980/phospholipase-c-%C3%AE-1-negatively-regulates-autophagy-in-colorectal-cancer-cells
#13
Makoto Shimozawa, Sakiho Anzai, Reiko Satow, Kiyoko Fukami
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) is frequently mutated in CRC, and KRAS mutations promote cell motility, growth, and survival. We previously revealed that the expression of phospholipase C (PLC) δ1, one of the most basal PLCs, is down-regulated in colon adenocarcinoma, and that the KRAS signaling pathway suppresses PLCδ1 expression. Although recent studies revealed that KRAS mutations activate autophagy in cancer cells, a relation between PLCδ1 and autophagy remains unclear...
May 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528979/sensitization-of-breast-cancer-cells-to-paclitaxel-by-dichloroacetate-through-inhibiting-autophagy
#14
Minghao Wang, Cuiwei Liao, Ying Hu, Wenqin Pan, Jun Jiang
Chemotherapy is still the main adjuvant strategy in the treatment of cancer, however, chemoresistance is also frequently encountered. Autophagy inhibition has been widely accepted as a promising therapeutic strategy in cancer, while the lack of effective and specific autophagy inhibitors hinders its application. Here we found that dichloroacetate (DCA), a small molecule compound, could significantly inhibit the autophagy induced by Doxorubicin in breast cancer cells. And DCA markedly enhances Doxorubicin-induced breast cancer cell death and anti-proliferation in vitro...
May 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528977/imatinib-induces-autophagy-via-upregulating-xiap-in-gist882%C3%A2-cells
#15
Qingqing Xie, Qi Lin, Dezhi Li, Jianming Chen
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms originating from the gastrointestinal tract with gain of function mutations in receptor tyrosine kinases KIT or platelet-derived growth factor receptor A (PDGFRA). The main effective treatment for GISTs is tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as imatinib mesylate. However, GISTs respond to imatinib treatment eventually develop acquired resistance, which is a main obstacle for GISTs therapy. Therefore, it's urgent to have a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the imatinib resistance in GISTs to develop novel therapeutic strategies...
May 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528975/autophagy-related-gene-microarray-and-bioinformatics-analysis-for-ischemic-stroke-detection
#16
Yinsheng Guo, Yue Ma, Yanwei Zhang, Li Zhou, Suli Huang, Ying Wen, Fei Zou, Jinquan Cheng
Ischemic stroke (IS) is characterized by high morbidity and poor prognosis. However, the mechanisms of IS induced injury are still poorly understood. The main aim of this study is to explore the role of autophagy in IS. Ten pairs of whole blood samples of IS patients and matched controls were included to select differential expressed genes (DE genes) by autophagy-related functional gene microarray analysis. And then, one hundred and fifty pairs of whole blood samples of IS patients and matched controls were included to validate the DE genes...
May 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528796/zinc-oxide-nanoparticle-energy-band-gap-reduction-triggers-the-oxidative-stress-resulting-into-autophagy-mediated-apoptotic-cell-death
#17
Manoranjan Arakha, Jyoti Roy, Parth Sarthi Nayak, Bibekanand Mallick, Suman Jha
The physico-chemical properties of nanoparticle (NP), such as particle size, surface defects, crystallinity and accessible surface, affect NP photocatalytic activity that in turn defines the NP cytotoxic propensity. Since zinc oxide nanoparticle (ZnONP) energy band gap falls in a range of a semiconductor, the particle possesses photocatalytic activity. Hence, the study correlates energy band gap with cytotoxic propensity of ZnONP. To this end, ZnONPs with varying energy band gap are fabricated by varying calcination temperature...
May 18, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528294/isoliquiritigenin-reduces-oxidative-damage-and-alleviates-mitochondrial-impairment-by-sirt1-activation-in-experimental-diabetic-neuropathy
#18
Veera Ganesh Yerra, Anil Kumar Kalvala, Ashutosh Kumar
Sirtuin (SIRT1) inactivation underlies the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and hyperglycaemia-associated vascular complications, but its role in diabetic neuropathy (DN) has not been yet explored. We have evaluated hyperglycaemia-induced alteration of SIRT1 signalling and the effect of isoliquiritigenin (ILQ) on SIRT1-directed AMP kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) signalling in peripheral nerves of streptozotocin (STZ) (55 mg/kg, ip)-induced diabetic rats and in high glucose (30 mM)-exposed neuro2a (N2A) cells...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528166/regulation-of-nutrient-recycling-via-autophagy
#19
REVIEW
Céline Masclaux-Daubresse, Qinwu Chen, Marien Havé
Autophagy is a universal mechanism in eukaryotes that promotes cell longevity and nutrient recycling through the degradation of unwanted organelles, proteins and damaged cytoplasmic compounds. Autophagy is important in plant resistance to stresses and starvations and in remobilization. Autophagy facilitates bulk and selective degradations, through the delivery of cell material to the vacuole where hydrolases and proteases reside. Large metabolite modifications are observed in autophagy mutants showing the important role of autophagy in cell homeostasis...
May 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528119/autophagy-plays-a-dual-role-during-intracellular-sirna-delivery-by-lipoplex-and-polyplex-nanoparticles
#20
Wen Song, Zhiwei Ma, Yumei Zhang, Chuanxu Yang
Growing evidence indicates that autophagy plays a vital role during the intracellular DNA delivery mediated by lipoplex and polyplex nanoparticles. However, autophagy in intracellular siRNA delivery has not been well understood. In this study, lipofectamine 2000 and chitosan were used to formulate lipoplex and polyplex with siRNA for systematically investigating the interplay between siRNA delivery and autophagy. After transfection of H1299 cells with lipoplex and polyplex, the number of autophagic vacuoles was increased significantly indicated by the accumulation of monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining...
May 17, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
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