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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330166/impact-of-free-access-to-leisure-facilities-and-community-outreach-on-inequalities-in-physical-activity-a-quasi-experimental-study
#1
James Higgerson, Emma Halliday, Aurora Ortiz-Nunez, Richard Brown, Ben Barr
BACKGROUND: There are large inequalities in levels of physical activity in the UK, and this is an important determinant of health inequalities. Little is known about the effectiveness of community-wide interventions to increase physical activity and whether effects differ by socioeconomic group. METHODS: We conducted interrupted time series and difference-in-differences analyses using local administrative data and a large national survey to investigate the impact of an intervention providing universal free access to leisure facilities alongside outreach and marketing activities in a deprived local authority area in the northwest of England...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325516/brucellosis-remains-a-neglected-disease-in-the-developing-world-a-call-for-interdisciplinary-action
#2
K A Franc, R C Krecek, B N Häsler, A M Arenas-Gamboa
BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is an endemic zoonotic disease in most of the developing world that causes devastating losses to the livestock industry and small-scale livestock holders. Infected animals exhibit clinical signs that are of economic significance to stakeholders and include reduced fertility, abortion, poor weight gain, lost draught power, and a substantial decline in milk production. In humans, brucellosis typically manifests as a variety of non-specific clinical signs. Chronicity and recurring febrile conditions, as well as devastating complications in pregnant women are common sequelae...
January 11, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325397/unequal-gain-of-equal-resources-across-racial-groups
#3
Shervin Assari
The health effects of economic resources (eg, education, employment, and living place) and psychological assets (eg, self-efficacy, perceived control over life, anger control, and emotions) are well-known. This article summarizes the results of a growing body of evidence documenting Blacks' diminished return, defined as a systematically smaller health gain from economic resources and psychological assets for Blacks in comparison to Whites. Due to structural barriers that Blacks face in their daily lives, the very same resources and assets generate smaller health gain for Blacks compared to Whites...
August 5, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319496/geographic-variations-in-antibiotic-prescription-for-pediatric-acute-upper-respiratory-tract-infections-in-south-korea
#4
Youn Jung, Hyemin Cho, Eunhee Ji, Eun-Ji Park, Sunmee Jang
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the factors affecting the geographic differences in antibiotic prescription rates in pediatric upper respiratory tract infections (URI) patients in South Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a nationwide cross-sectional study using 228 administrative districts of Korea, which are the unit of analysis. Prescription rate of antibiotics, the outcome variable, was measured as the proportion of antibiotic prescription days out of total visit days for the treatment of acute URIs using National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) claims data for 2012...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318531/a-study-on-sheep-farming-practices-in-relation-to-future-production-strategies-in-bensa-district-of-southern-ethiopia
#5
Hizkel Kenfo, Yoseph Mekasha, Yosef Tadesse
The study was carried out in Bensa district of Sidama zone, Southern Ethiopia. Agro-ecologically, the study sites were classified into highland and mid-altitude. The objective of the study was to identify sheep farming practices in relation to future production strategies in the study area. A total of 128 households from four kebeles (lower administrative structure) were selected purposively based on sheep population and production potential and accessibility. Data was collected through semi-structured questionnaire, focus group discussions, and key informants...
January 9, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317002/mobile-produce-market-influences-access-to-fruits-and-vegetables-in-an-urban-environment
#6
Bi-Sek Hsiao, Lindiwe Sibeko, Kathy Wicks, Lisa M Troy
OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of a mobile produce market (MPM) on fruit and vegetable access. DESIGN: Novel application of a structured assessment (five dimensions of access framework) to examine fruit and vegetable access through self-administered surveys on shopping behaviours, and perceptions and experiences of shopping at the MPM. SETTING: Low-income neighbourhoods with limited access to fruits and vegetables. SUBJECTS: Older (≥60 years) and younger (18-59·9 years) shoppers...
January 10, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309219/understanding-the-relationship-between-medicaid-expansions-and-hospital-closures
#7
Richard C Lindrooth, Marcelo C Perraillon, Rose Y Hardy, Gregory J Tung
Decisions by states about whether to expand Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) have implications for hospitals' financial health. We hypothesized that Medicaid expansion of eligibility for childless adults prevents hospital closures because increased Medicaid coverage for previously uninsured people reduces uncompensated care expenditures and strengthens hospitals' financial position. We tested this hypothesis using data for the period 2008-16 on hospital closures and financial performance. We found that the ACA's Medicaid expansion was associated with improved hospital financial performance and substantially lower likelihoods of closure, especially in rural markets and counties with large numbers of uninsured adults before Medicaid expansion...
January 2018: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308991/risk-behaviors-among-young-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-bangkok-a-qualitative-study-to-understand-and-contextualize-high-hiv-incidence
#8
Tareerat Chemnasiri, Chelsey R Beane, Anchalee Varangrat, Supaporn Chaikummao, Anupong Chitwarakorn, Frits Van Griensven, Timothy H Holtz
The Bangkok Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) Cohort Study has shown high HIV incidence (8-12/100 person-years) among 18-21 year-old MSM. These data led to a further study using qualitative methods among young (18-24 year old) MSM in order to understand the factors driving the HIV epidemic among YMSM. We conducted 8 focus group discussions and 10 key informant interviews among YMSM in Bangkok, Thailand. Socio-demographic and behavioral data were collected using a questionnaire. We audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed qualitative and questionnaire data using computer software...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304938/payer-and-pharmaceutical-manufacturer-considerations-for-outcomes-based-agreements-in-the-united-states
#9
Joshua D Brown, Rich Sheer, Margaret Pasquale, Lavanya Sudharshan, Kirsten Axelsen, Prasun Subedi, Daniel Wiederkehr, Fred Brownfield, Sachin Kamal-Bahl
BACKGROUND: Considerable interest exists among health care payers and pharmaceutical manufacturers in designing outcomes-based agreements (OBAs) for medications for which evidence on real-world effectiveness is limited at product launch. OBJECTIVES: To build hypothetical OBA models in which both payer and manufacturer can benefit. METHODS: Models were developed for a hypothetical hypercholesterolemia OBA, in which the OBA was assumed to increase market access for a newly marketed medication...
January 2018: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304862/cluster-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-mobile-market-intervention-to-increase-fruit-and-vegetable-intake-among-adults-in-lower-income-communities-in-north-carolina
#10
Lucia A Leone, Gina L Tripicchio, Lindsey Haynes-Maslow, Jared McGuirt, Jacqueline S Grady Smith, Janelle Armstrong-Brown, Ziya Gizlice, Alice Ammerman
BACKGROUND: Poorer diets and subsequent higher rates of chronic disease among lower-income individuals may be partially attributed to reduced access to fresh fruits and vegetables (F&V) and other healthy foods. Mobile markets are an increasingly popular method for providing access to F&V in underserved communities, but evaluation efforts are limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of Veggie Van (VV), a mobile produce market, on F&V intake in lower-income communities using a group randomized controlled trial...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302224/tobacco-use-disorder-and-treatment-new-challenges-and-opportunities
#11
Douglas Ziedonis, Smita Das, Celine Larkin
Tobacco use remains a global problem, and options for consumers have increased with the development and marketing of e-cigarettes and other new nicotine and tobacco products, such as "heat-not-burn" tobacco and dissolvable tobacco. The increased access to these new products is juxtaposed with expanding public health and clinical intervention options, including mobile technologies and social media. The persistent high rate of tobacco-use disorders among those with psychiatric disorders has gathered increased global attention, including successful approaches to individual treatment and organizational-level interventions...
September 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300122/characterizing-blunt-smokers-by-their-acquisition-of-cannabis
#12
David S Timberlake
BACKGROUND: Ethnographers have reported that young, urban males embraced blunt smoking in response to the crack cocaine epidemic that ravaged their neighborhoods in the 1980s. But, recent survey data has indicated high rates of other illicit drug use among blunt smokers. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to examine the association between blunt smoking and cannabis acquisition as a potential explanation for the correlation with other illicit drug use. METHODS: The sample consisted of participants from the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) who reported use of cannabis or blunts in the prior month (n = 6,040)...
January 4, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284696/re-evaluating-the-possible-increased-risk-of-hiv-acquisition-with-progestin-only-injectables-versus-maternal-mortality-and-life-expectancy-in-africa-a-decision-analysis
#13
Maria Isabel Rodriguez, Mary E Gaffield, Leo Han, Aaron B Caughey
OBJECTIVE: The association between increased risk of HIV acquisition and use of progestin-only injectables (POIs) is controversial. We sought to compare the competing risks of maternal mortality and HIV acquisition with use of POIs using updated data on this association and considering an expanded number of African countries. METHODS: We designed a decision-analytic model to compare the benefits and risks of POIs on the competing risks of maternal mortality and HIV acquisition on life expectancy for women in 9 African countries...
December 28, 2017: Global Health, Science and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284477/disparities-in-the-use-of-mobile-phone-for-seeking-childbirth-services-among-women-in-the-urban-areas-bangladesh-urban-health-survey
#14
Ghose Bishwajit, Md Rakibul Hoque, Sanni Yaya
BACKGROUND: In Bangladesh, similar to its other South Asian counterparts, shortage of health workers along with inadequate infrastructure constitute some of the major obstacles for the equitable provision of reproductive healthcare services, particularly among the marginalized and underserved neighbourhoods. However, given the rapidly expanding broadband communication and mobile phone market in the country, the application of eHealth and mHealth technologies offer a window of opportunities to minimise the impact of socioeconomic barriers and promote the utilization of maternal healthcare services thereby...
December 29, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284064/policies-for-biosimilar-uptake-in-europe-an-overview
#15
Evelien Moorkens, Arnold G Vulto, Isabelle Huys, Pieter Dylst, Brian Godman, Simon Keuerleber, Barbara Claus, Maria Dimitrova, Guenka Petrova, Ljiljana Sović-Brkičić, Juraj Slabý, Robin Šebesta, Ott Laius, Allan Karr, Morgane Beck, Jaana E Martikainen, Gisbert W Selke, Susan Spillane, Laura McCullagh, Gianluca Trifirò, Patricia Vella Bonanno, Asbjørn Mack, Antra Fogele, Anita Viksna, Magdalena Władysiuk, Helder Mota-Filipe, Dmitry Meshkov, Marija Kalaba, Simona Mencej Bedrač, Jurij Fürst, Corrine Zara, Peter Skiöld, Einar Magnússon, Steven Simoens
BACKGROUND: Across European countries, differences exist in biosimilar policies, leading to variations in uptake of biosimilars and divergences in savings all over Europe. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this article is to provide an overview of different initiatives and policies that may influence the uptake of biosimilars in different European countries. Recommendations will be formulated on how to create sustainable uptake. METHODS: An overview of policies on biosimilars was obtained via a questionnaire, supplemented with relevant articles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281619/shortages-of-benzathine-penicillin-for-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-syphilis-an-evaluation-from-multi-country-surveys-and-stakeholder-interviews
#16
Stephen Nurse-Findlay, Melanie M Taylor, Margaret Savage, Maeve B Mello, Sanni Saliyou, Manuel Lavayen, Frederic Seghers, Michael L Campbell, Françoise Birgirimana, Leopold Ouedraogo, Morkor Newman Owiredu, Nancy Kidula, Lee Pyne-Mercier
BACKGROUND: Benzathine penicillin G (BPG) is the only recommended treatment to prevent mother-to-child transmission of syphilis. Due to recent reports of country-level shortages of BPG, an evaluation was undertaken to quantify countries that have experienced shortages in the past 2 years and to describe factors contributing to these shortages. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Country-level data about BPG shortages were collected using 3 survey approaches. First, a survey designed by the WHO Department of Reproductive Health and Research was distributed to 41 countries and territories in the Americas and 41 more in Africa...
December 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280318/navigating-market-authorization-the-path-holoclar-took-to-become-the-first-stem-cell-product-approved-in-the-european-union
#17
Graziella Pellegrini, Diego Ardigò, Giovanni Milazzo, Giorgio Iotti, Paolo Guatelli, Danilo Pelosi, Michele De Luca
Gene therapy, cell therapy, and tissue engineering have the potential to revolutionize the treatment of disease and injury. Attaining marketing authorization for such advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) requires a rigorous scientific evaluation by the European Medicines Agency-authorization is only granted if the product can fulfil stringent requirements for quality, safety, and efficacy. However, many ATMPs are being provided to patients under alternative means, such as "hospital exemption" schemes...
January 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278933/evaluating-the-contribution-of-the-built-environment-on-obesity-among-new-york-state-students
#18
Adenantera Dwicaksono, Ian Brissette, Guthrie S Birkhead, Christine T Bozlak, Erika G Martin
OBJECTIVES: One third of school-aged children in New York State (NYS) are overweight or obese, with large geographic disparities across local regions. We used NYS student obesity surveillance data to assess whether these geographical variations are attributable to the built environment. METHOD: We combined NYS Student Weight Status Category Reporting System 2010-2012 data with other government publicly available data. Ordinary least squares regression models identified key determinants of school district-level student obesity rates for elementary and middle/high schools...
December 1, 2017: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276304/women-s-employment-patterns-after-childbirth-and-the-perceived-access-to-and-use-of-flexitime-and-teleworking
#19
Heejung Chung, Mariska van der Horst
This article sets out to investigate how flexitime and teleworking can help women maintain their careers after childbirth. Despite the increased number of women in the labour market in the UK, many significantly reduce their working hours or leave the labour market altogether after childbirth. Based on border and boundary management theories, we expect flexitime and teleworking can help mothers stay employed and maintain their working hours. We explore the UK case, where the right to request flexible working has been expanded quickly as a way to address work-life balance issues...
January 2018: Human Relations; Studies Towards the Integration of the Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273282/hemodialysis-access-maintenance-in-the-medicare-population-an-analysis-over-a-decade-of-trends-by-provider-specialty-and-site-of-service
#20
Osman Ahmed, Ketan Patel, Rana Rabei, Mikin V Patel, Michael Ginsburg, Bishir Clayton, Bulent Arslan
PURPOSE: To evaluate annual national trends in hemodialysis access maintenance procedures in the Medicare population by specialty and setting. METHODS: Medicare Physician Supplier Procedure Summary Master Files between 2005 and 2015 were analyzed for procedure codes of hemodialysis access angiography and percutaneous thrombectomy. Using physician specialty codes, component procedure volume for endovascular services were queried for radiology, medicine, and surgery...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
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