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Vaccine in developing countries

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351277/ex-ante-assessment-of-different-vaccination-based-control-schedules-against-the-peste-des-petits-ruminants-virus-in-sub-saharan-africa
#1
Pachka Hammami, Renaud Lancelot, Joseph Domenech, Matthieu Lesnoff
BACKGROUND: Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious and widespread viral infection of small ruminants (goats and sheep), causing heavy economic losses in many developing countries. Therefore, its progressive control and global eradication by 2030 was defined as a priority by international organizations addressing animal health. The control phase of the global strategy is based on mass vaccination of small ruminant populations in endemic regions or countries. It is estimated that a 70% post-vaccination immunity rate (PVIR) is needed in a given epidemiological unit to prevent PPR virus spread...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344358/the-global-problem-of-childhood-diarrhoeal-diseases-emerging-strategies-in-prevention-and-management
#2
REVIEW
Margaret Mokomane, Ishmael Kasvosve, Emilia de Melo, Jeffrey M Pernica, David M Goldfarb
Acute diarrhoeal diseases remain a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality particularly among young children in resource-limited countries. Recent large studies utilizing case-control design, prospective sampling and more sensitive and broad diagnostic techniques have shed light on particular pathogens of importance and highlighted the previously under recognized impact of these infections on post-acute illness mortality and growth. Vaccination, particularly against rotavirus, has emerged as a key effective means of preventing significant morbidity and mortality from childhood diarrhoeal disease...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341984/effect-of-age-at-vaccination-on-rotavirus-vaccine-effectiveness-in-bolivian-infants
#3
Rachel M Burke, Jacqueline E Tate, Kimberly D Pringle, Manish Patel, Lucia H De Oliveira, Umesh D Parashar
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus vaccines are less effective in developing countries versus developed countries. One hypothesis for this difference in performance is that higher levels of maternal antibodies in developing countries may interfere with vaccine response, suggesting that delayed dosing could be beneficial. The present analysis aims to assess whether rotavirus vaccine effectiveness (VE) varies by age at vaccination during routine use in Bolivia. METHODS: Data were merged from two post-licensure evaluations of monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) in Bolivia, where two doses of RV1 are recommended at two and four months of age...
January 16, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341845/outside-in-inside-out-creating-focus-on-the-patient-a-vaccine-company-perspective
#4
Denis Sohy, Isabelle Dusart, Philibert Goulet, Diane Visy, Luc Gasthuys, Tatjana Poplazarova, Thomas Breuer, Norman Begg
Involving patients in the development of medicines and vaccines should result in benefits to patients. The vaccine recipient is usually a healthy person. We describe the rationale and implementation of a vaccine company's initiative to encourage employees to identify with patients of the conditions prevented by the vaccines they help to produce. The Voice of the Patient ("VoP"), begun in 2014, is an educational programme directed at the 16,000 employees of a global vaccine company. It engages employees through an understanding that they are all "vaccine patients", and that they can make a difference by considering the impact of decisions made in their day to day work...
January 17, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338438/challenges-in-adult-vaccination
#5
Eduardo de Gomensoro, Giuseppe Del Giudice, T Mark Doherty
Life-long primary prevention interventions beginning and continuing throughout an individual's lifetime are increasingly seen as key to meeting the global healthcare challenges that accompany demographic changes - a concept referred to as "Healthy aging". In this perspective, vaccination is seen as part of a triad, together with healthy diet and exercise. Current adult vaccine coverage is lower than target vaccination rates in most developed countries, and so vaccine preventable diseases continue to present a substantial burden on health and healthcare resources, especially in older individuals...
January 16, 2018: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336923/report-on-who-meeting-on-immunization-in-older-adults-geneva-switzerland-22-23-march-2017
#6
M Teresa Aguado, Jane Barratt, John R Beard, Bonnie B Blomberg, Wilbur H Chen, Julian Hickling, Terri B Hyde, Mark Jit, Rebecca Jones, Gregory A Poland, Martin Friede, Justin R Ortiz
Many industrialized countries have implemented routine immunization policies for older adults, but similar strategies have not been widely implemented in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In March 2017, the World Health Organization (WHO) convened a meeting to identify policies and activities to promote access to vaccination of older adults, specifically in LMICs. Participants included academic and industry researchers, funders, civil society organizations, implementers of global health interventions, and stakeholders from developing countries with adult immunization needs...
January 11, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330996/missed-immunization-opportunities-among-children-under-5-years-of-age-dwelling-in-karachi-city
#7
Asif Khaliq, Sayeeda Amber Sayed, Syed Abdullah Hussaini, Kiran Azam, Mehak Qamar
BACKGROUND: Immunization is the safest and effective measure for preventing and eradicating various communicable diseases. A glaring immunization gap exists between developing and industrialized countries towards immunization, because the developing countries including Pakistan are still striving to provide basic immunization to their children. The purpose of this study was to access the prevalence and factors of missing immunization among under 5-year children of Karachi.. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted from June 2015 to October 2015 among different outpatient clinics of Karachi...
October 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325573/genetic-diversity-of-three-surface-protein-genes-in-plasmodium-malariae-from-three-asian-countries
#8
Suttipat Srisutham, Naowarat Saralamba, Kanlaya Sriprawat, Mayfong Mayxay, Frank Smithuis, Francois Nosten, Sasithon Pukrittayakamee, Nicholas P J Day, Arjen M Dondorp, Mallika Imwong
BACKGROUND: Genetic diversity of the three important antigenic proteins, namely thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP), apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1), and 6-cysteine protein (P48/45), all of which are found in various developmental stages of Plasmodium parasites is crucial for targeted vaccine development. While studies related to the genetic diversity of these proteins are available for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, barely enough information exists regarding Plasmodium malariae...
January 11, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325528/knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-regarding-cervical-cancer-and-screening-among-women-visiting-primary-health-care-centres-in-bahrain
#9
Ghufran Jassim, Alaaeddin Obeid, Huda A Al Nasheet
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers among women, with 80% of the cases occurring in developing countries. Cervical cancer is largely preventable by effective screening programs. This has not been possible with opportunistic screening and its low use in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The objective of this study was to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of women attending primary care health centres for cervical cancer screening. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 300 women attending primary health care centres in Bahrain...
January 11, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325409/all-health-partnerships-great-and-small-comparing-mandated-with-emergent-health-partnerships-comment-on-evaluating-global-health-partnerships-a-case-study-of-a-gavi-hpv-vaccine-application-process-in-uganda
#10
Elaine Green, Dan Ritman, Graeme Chisholm
The plurality of healthcare providers and funders in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) has given rise to an era in which health partnerships are becoming the norm in international development. Whether mandated or emergent, three common drivers are essential for ensuring successful health partnerships: trust; a diverse and inclusive network; and a clear governance structure. Mandated and emergent health partnerships operate as very different models and at different scales. However, there is potential for sharing and learning between these types of partnerships...
June 11, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322642/peste-des-petits-ruminants-in-china-since-its-first-outbreak-in-2007-a-10-year-review
#11
REVIEW
F Liu, J Li, L Li, Y Liu, X Wu, Z Wang
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly infectious disease of small ruminants and caused by small ruminant morbillivirus (SRMV), formerly called peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV). This disease is circulating in Africa (except most countries in southern Africa), the Arabian Peninsula, the Middle East, and Central, East and South-East Asia. Peste des petits ruminants is still regarded as an exotic disease in China, where its first outbreak was reported in the Ngari region of Tibet in 2007, but effectively controlled by slaughter, vaccination and animal movement restriction in PPR-infected areas...
January 10, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321321/functional-analysis-of-the-dengue-virus-genome-using-an-insertional-mutagenesis-screen
#12
Jeffrey W Perry, Yanhua Chen, Elizabeth Speliotes, Andrew W Tai
In the last few decades, dengue virus, an arbovirus, has spread to over 120 countries. Although a vaccine has been approved in some countries, limitations on its effectiveness, and a lack of effective antiviral treatments reinforce the need for additional research. The functions of several viral nonstructural proteins are essentially unknown. To better understand the functions of these proteins and thus dengue virus pathogenesis, we embarked on a genome wide transposon mutagenesis screen with Next Generation Sequencing to determine sites in the viral genome that tolerate 15 nucleotide insertions...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319212/synergistic-glycosylation-as-key-to-the-chemical-synthesis-of-an-outer-core-octasaccharide-of-helicobacter-pylori
#13
Jian Yin, Xiaopeng Zou, Chunjun Qin, Claney L Pereira, Guangzong Tian, Jing Hu, Peter H Seeberger
Helicobacter pylori, a widespread gastric bacterial pathogen that infects 90% of the population in developing countries, causes chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. Battling H. pylori infection is a serious challenge due to the increased resistance to antibiotics and the lack of vaccines. The lipopolysaccharide covering the H. pylori cell-surface outer membrane is an attractive target for the development of a glycoconjugate vaccine. Here, we report a [3+5] convergent synthesis of an outer core octasaccharide of H...
January 10, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318997/screening-of-returned-travelers
#14
Orçun Zorbozan, Ayşegül Ünver, Adnan Yüksel Gürüz
Travel-related health problems have been reported in 22-64% of travelers to developing countries. Approximately 8% of these patients are moderately ill and are referred to health facilities. Post-travel infections are usually symptomatic in the early stages, but they may last for up to months or even years, depending on the incubation period. It has been reported that it is not necessary to have extensive knowledge on tropical diseases to be able to make a clinical evaluation after the trip. All post-travel consultations should be performed by physicians and should include travel-related illness identification, timely medical intervention, and, if necessary, referral to a senior hospital...
December 2017: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318757/knowledge-gaps-and-research-priorities-in-the-prevention-and-control-of-hepatitis-e-virus-infection
#15
W H M Van der Poel, H R Dalton, R Johne, N Pavio, M Bouwknegt, T Wu, N Cook, X J Meng
Hepatitis E virus (HEV), family Hepeviridae, is a main cause of epidemic hepatitis in developing countries and sporadic and cluster cases of hepatitis in industrialized countries. There are an increasing number of reported cases in humans especially in industrialized countries, and there is a high potential for transboundary spread of zoonotic genotypes of the virus through the transport of pigs, pig products and by-products. Bloodborne transmission of the virus has been reported with a significant medical concern...
January 10, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317873/construction-and-identification-of-a-recombinant-plasmid-encoding-echinococcus-granulosus-oncosphere-antigen-eg95
#16
Nahideh Mazaheri, Abdolhossein Dalimi, Majid Pirestani, Farnoosh Jameie, Mehdi Mohebali, Mohamad Bagher Rokni
Background: Cystic echinococcosis (CE), as a zoonotic disease cause to health threat and economic losses. Despite implemented control programs, few countries have been able to decrease or eliminate this infection. Vaccination of the intermediate host offers an additional strategy to control the parasite transmission and EG95 antigen is considered more than the others in the vaccine issue. According to the high protection induced by the EG95 recombinant vaccine, this study was designed to construct recombinant plasmid formulation of EG95 antigen...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310900/immunogenicity-and-protective-efficacy-of-an-inactivated-cell-culture-derived-seneca-valley-virus-vaccine-in-pigs
#17
Fan Yang, Zixiang Zhu, Weijun Cao, Huanan Liu, Keshan Zhang, Hong Tian, Xiangtao Liu, Haixue Zheng
Seneca Valley virus (SVV) infection in pigs is associated with porcine idiopathic vesicular disease (PIVD). Outbreaks of SVV infection in pig herds have been reported in several Asia and Americas countries. Recently, a series of outbreaks of SVV infection occurred in China, Canada, Thailand and the United States. However, no available vaccines have been developed to limit the transmission of SVV. The SVV CH-FJ-2017 from Fujian province in China is a representative of the epidemic strains, and shows 98.5-99...
January 5, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310678/computational-analysis-of-envelope-glycoproteins-from-diverse-geographical-isolates-of-bovine-leukemia-virus-identifies-highly-conserved-peptide-motifs
#18
Aneta Pluta, Lorraine M Albritton, Marzena Rola-Łuszczak, Jacek Kuźmak
BACKGROUND: Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a deltaretrovirus infecting bovine B cells and causing enzootic bovine leucosis. The SU or surface subunit, gp51, of its envelope glycoprotein is involved in receptor recognition and virion attachment. It contains the major neutralizing and CD4+ and CD8+ T cell epitopes found in naturally infected animals. In this study, we aimed to determine global variation and conservation within gp51 in the context of developing an effective global BLV vaccine...
January 8, 2018: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310577/epidemiology-of-invasive-group-b-streptococcal-disease-in-infants-from-urban-area-of-south-china-2011-2014
#19
Xiaoshan Guan, Xiaoping Mu, Wenjing Ji, Chunlei Yuan, Ping He, Lian Zhang, Yanfen Huang, Juan Li, Jianfeng Chen, Huamin Zhong, Shuyin Pang, Nan Tan, Qiulian Deng, Kankan Gao, Yu-Ping Huang, Chien-Yi Chang, Haiying Liu
BACKGROUND: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in infants in both developed and developing countries. To our knowledge, only a few studies have been reported the clinical features, treatment and outcomes of the GBS disease in China. The severity of neonatal GBS disease in China remains unclear. Population-based surveillance in China is therefore required. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data of <3 months old infants with culture-positive GBS in sterile samples from three large urban tertiary hospitals in South China from Jan 2011 to Dec 2014...
January 8, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309582/associations-between-key-intervention-coverage-and-child-mortality-an-analysis-of-241-sub-national-regions-of-sub-saharan-africa
#20
Yoko Akachi, Maria Steenland, Günther Fink
Background: Reducing child mortality remains a key objective in the Sustainable Development Goals. Although remarkable progress has been made with respect to under-5 mortality over the last 25 years, little is known regarding the relative contributions of public health interventions and general improvements in socioeconomic status during this time period. Methods: We combined all available data from the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) to construct a longitudinal, multi-level dataset with information on subnational-level key intervention coverage, household socioeconomic status and child health outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa...
December 21, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
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