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Vaccine in developing countries

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103272/prevalence-and-determinants-of-oral-human-papillomavirus-infection-in-500-young-adults-from-italy
#1
Valentina Lupato, Dana Holzinger, Daniela Höfler, Anna Menegaldo, Paolo Giorgi Rossi, Annarosa Del Mistro, Maria Cristina Da Mosto, Michael Pawlita, Paolo Boscolo-Rizzo
Although the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is increasing in developed countries and becoming a relevant health issue, the natural history of oral HPV infection is still unclear. Estimating the infection's prevalence in specific populations and identifying risk factors can widen our understanding of its natural history and help to delineate appropriate prevention strategies. This study sought to (i) determine oral HPV prevalence and genotype distribution in a large series of young Italian adults, (ii) validate an oral rinse sampling/storage protocol, and (iii) pinpoint factors associated with oral HPV infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100620/overexpression-of-il-7-extends-the-humoral-immune-response-induced-by-rabies-vaccination
#2
Yingying Li, Ming Zhou, Zhaochen Luo, Yachun Zhang, Min Cui, Huanchun Chen, Zhen F Fu, Ling Zhao
: Rabies continues to present a public health threat in most countries of the world. The most efficient way to prevent and control rabies is to implement vaccination programmes for domestic animals. However, traditional inactivated vaccines used in animals are costly and have a relatively low efficiency, which impedes their extensive use in developing countries. There is therefore an urgent need to develop single-dose and long-lasting rabies vaccines. However, little information is available regarding the mechanisms underlying immunological memory, which can broaden humoral responses following rabies vaccination...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096331/one-step-design-of-a-stable-variant-of-the-malaria-invasion-protein-rh5-for-use-as-a-vaccine-immunogen
#3
Ivan Campeotto, Adi Goldenzweig, Jack Davey, Lea Barfod, Jennifer M Marshall, Sarah E Silk, Katherine E Wright, Simon J Draper, Matthew K Higgins, Sarel J Fleishman
Many promising vaccine candidates from pathogenic viruses, bacteria, and parasites are unstable and cannot be produced cheaply for clinical use. For instance, Plasmodium falciparum reticulocyte-binding protein homolog 5 (PfRH5) is essential for erythrocyte invasion, is highly conserved among field isolates, and elicits antibodies that neutralize in vitro and protect in an animal model, making it a leading malaria vaccine candidate. However, functional RH5 is only expressible in eukaryotic systems and exhibits moderate temperature tolerance, limiting its usefulness in hot and low-income countries where malaria prevails...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095411/optimal-management-strategies-for-primary-hpv-testing-for-cervical-screening-cost-effectiveness-evaluation-for-the-national-cervical-screening-program-in-australia
#4
Kate T Simms, Michaela Hall, Megan A Smith, Jie-Bin Lew, Suzanne Hughes, Susan Yuill, Ian Hammond, Marion Saville, Karen Canfell
BACKGROUND: Several countries are implementing a transition to HPV testing for cervical screening in response to the introduction of HPV vaccination and evidence indicating that HPV screening is more effective than cytology. In Australia, a 2017 transition from 2-yearly conventional cytology in 18-20 to 69 years to 5-yearly primary HPV screening in 25 to 74 years will involve partial genotyping for HPV 16/18 with direct referral to colposcopy for this higher risk group. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal management of women positive for other high-risk HPV types (not 16/18) ('OHR HPV')...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092419/improving-access-to-health-care-for-chronic-hepatitis-b-among-migrant-chinese-populations-a-systematic-mixed-methods-review-of-barriers-and-enablers
#5
Alicia Vedio, Eva Zhi Hong Liu, Andrew Ck Lee, Sarah Salway
Migrant Chinese populations in Western countries have a high prevalence of chronic hepatitis B but often experience poor access to healthcare and late diagnosis. This systematic review aimed to identify obstacles and supports to timely and appropriate health service use among these populations. Systematic searches resulted in 48 relevant studies published between 1996 and 2015. Data extraction and synthesis were informed by models of healthcare access that highlight the interplay of patient, provider and health system factors...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091778/hospital-based-surveillance-of-congenital-rubella-syndrome-in-indonesia
#6
Elisabeth Siti Herini, Gunadi, Agung Triono, Asal Wahyuni Erlin Mulyadi, Niprida Mardin, Rusipah, Yati Soenarto, Susan E Reef
: Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) has serious consequences, such as miscarriage, stillbirth, and severe birth defects in infants, resulting from rubella virus infection during pregnancy. However, rubella vaccine has not yet been implemented in Indonesia. This study aimed (1) to estimate the incidence of CRS in Indonesia, (2) describe the clinical features of CRS at our referral hospital, and (3) pilot a CRS surveillance system to be extended to other hospitals. We conducted a 4-month prospective surveillance study of infants aged <1 year with suspected CRS in 2013 at an Indonesian hospital...
January 13, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088130/vaccine-candidates-against-nontypeable-haemophilus-influenzae-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Ava Behrouzi, Farzam Vaziri, Fatemeh Rahimi-Jamnani, Parviz Afrough, Mohammad Rahbar, Fereshteh Satarian, Seyed Davar Siadat
Nonencapsulated, nontypeable Hemophilus influenzae (NTHi) remains an important cause of acute otitis and respiratory diseases in children and adults. NTHi bacteria are one of the major causes of respiratory tract infections, including acute otitis media, cystic fibrosis, and community-acquired pneumonia among children, especially in developing countries. The bacteria can also cause chronic diseases such as chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the lower respiratory tract of adults...
2017: Iranian Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086819/efficacy-safety-and-effectiveness-of-licensed-rotavirus-vaccines-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-for-latin-america-and-the-caribbean
#8
Raúl F Velázquez, Alexandre C Linhares, Sergio Muñoz, Pamela Seron, Pedro Lorca, Rodrigo DeAntonio, Eduardo Ortega-Barria
BACKGROUND: RotaTeq™ (RV5; Merck & Co. Inc., USA) and Rotarix™ (RV1, GlaxoSmithKline, Belgium) vaccines, developed to prevent rotavirus diarrhea in children under five years old, were both introduced into national immunization programs in 2006. As many countries in Latin America and the Caribbean have included either RV5 or RV1 in their routine childhood vaccination programs, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to analyze efficacy, safety and effectiveness data from the region...
January 13, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086810/genotypic-characterization-of-orientia-tsutsugamushi-from-patients-in-two-geographical-locations-in-sri-lanka
#9
Ranjan Premaratna, Lucas S Blanton, Dilhar N Samaraweera, G Nalika N de Silva, Nilmini T G A Chandrasena, David H Walker, H J de Silva
BACKGROUND: To date more than 20 antigenically distinct strains of Orientia tsutsugamushi (OT) reported within the tsutsugamushi triangle that cause an undifferentiated acute febrile illness in humans. Genotypic characterization of OT in different geographic regions or within the same country, is important in order to establish effective diagnostics, clinical management and to develop effective vaccines. Genetic and antigenic characterization of OT causing human disease in OT-endemic regions is not known for Sri Lanka...
January 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077609/travellers-and-influenza-risks-and-prevention
#10
REVIEW
M Goeijenbier, P van Genderen, B J Ward, A Wilder-Smith, R Steffen, A D M E Osterhaus
BACKGROUND: Influenza viruses are among the major causes of serious human respiratory tract infection worldwide. In line with the high disease burden attributable to influenza, these viruses play an important, but often neglected, role in travel medicine. Guidelines and recommendations regarding prevention and management of influenza in travellers are scarce. Of special interest for travel medicine are risk populations and also circumstances that facilitate influenza virus transmission and spread, like travel by airplane or cruise ship and mass gatherings...
January 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075249/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-as04-adjuvanted-human-papillomavirus-16-18-vaccine-compared-with-human-papillomavirus-6-11-16-18-vaccine-in-the-philippines-with-the-new-2-dose-schedule
#11
Maria Julieta Germar, Carrie Purugganan, Ma Socorro Bernardino, Benjamin Cuenca, Y-Chen Chen, Xiao Li, Georges Van Kriekinge, I-Heng Lee
Cervical cancer (CC) is the second leading cause of cancer death among Filipino women. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination protects against CC. Two vaccines (AS04-HPV-16/18 and 4vHPV) are approved in the Philippines; they were originally developed for a 3-dose (3 D) administration and have recently been approved in a 2-dose schedule (2 D). This study aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of HPV vaccination of 13-year-old Filipino girls, in addition to current screening, in the new 2 D schedule...
January 11, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073985/population-based-pertussis-incidence-and-risk-factors-in-infants-less-than-6-months-in-nepal
#12
Michelle M Hughes, Janet A Englund, Jane Kuypers, James M Tielsch, Subarna K Khatry, Laxman Shrestha, Steven C LeClerq, Mark Steinhoff, Joanne Katz
BACKGROUND: Pertussis is estimated to cause 2 percent of childhood deaths globally and is a growing public health problem in developed countries despite high vaccination coverage. Infants are at greatest risk of morbidity and mortality. Maternal vaccination during pregnancy may be effective to prevent pertussis in young infants, but population-based estimates of disease burden in infants are lacking, particularly in low-income countries. The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence of pertussis in infants less than 6 months of age in Sarlahi District, Nepal...
January 10, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069359/monitoring-equity-in-vaccination-coverage-a-systematic-analysis-of-demographic-and-health-surveys-from-45-gavi-supported-countries
#13
Catherine Arsenault, Sam Harper, Arijit Nandi, José M Mendoza Rodríguez, Peter M Hansen, Mira Johri
OBJECTIVES: (1) To conduct a systematic analysis of inequalities in childhood vaccination coverage in Gavi-supported countries; (2) to comparatively assess alternative measurement approaches and how they may affect cross-country comparisons of the level of inequalities. METHODS: Using the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys (2005-2014) in 45 Gavi-supported countries, we measured inequalities in vaccination coverage across seven dimensions of social stratification and of vulnerability to poor health outcomes...
January 6, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069075/domestic-trends-in-malaria-research-and-development-in-china-and-its-global-influence
#14
Yang-Mu Huang, Lu-Wen Shi, Rui She, Jing Bai, Shi-Yong Jiao, Yan Guo
BACKGROUND: Though many countries, including China, are moving towards malaria elimination, malaria remains a major global health threat. Due to the spread of antimalarial drug resistance and the need for innovative medical products during the elimination phase, further research and development (R&D) of innovative tools in both epidemic and elimination areas is needed. This study aims to identify the trends and gaps in malaria R&D in China, and aims to offer suggestions on how China can be more effectively involved in global malaria R&D...
January 10, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061953/advances-in-basic-and-translational-tuberculosis-research-proceedings-of-the-first-meeting-of-report-international
#15
REVIEW
Carolina Geadas, Sonia K Stoszek, David Sherman, Bruno B Andrade, Sudha Srinivasan, Carol D Hamilton, Jerrold Ellner
RePORT International is a collaborative research network of investigators from multiple countries and institutions with the goal of establishing a bio-repository of specimens and clinical data for the study of active TB and latent TB infection (LTBI). During the first meeting of RePORT International in Boston, Massachusetts, the results of research pertinent to TB control and eradication were presented, including advances in the research of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) persistence and drug resistance, TB diagnostics, drug and vaccine development...
January 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059610/readyvax-a-new-mobile-vaccine-information-app
#16
Robert A Bednarczyk, Paula M Frew, Daniel A Salmon, Ellen Whitney, Saad B Omer
Vaccine information of varying quality is available through many different sources. We describe the creation, release and utilization of ReadyVax, a new mobile smartphone app providing access to trustworthy, evidence-based vaccine information for a target audience of healthcare providers, pharmacists, and patients (including parents of children). We describe the information content and technical development of ReadyVax. Between the hard launch of the app on February 12, 2015 and October 8, 2016, the app has been downloaded by 5,142 unique users, with 6,841 total app sessions initiated, comprising a total of 15,491 screen views (2...
January 6, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059609/rotavirus-specific-maternal-antibodies-and-immune-response-to-rv3-bb-neonatal-rotavirus-vaccine-in-new-zealand
#17
Mee-Yew Chen, Carl D Kirkwood, Julie Bines, Daniel Cowley, Daniel Pavlic, Katherine J Lee, Francesca Orsini, Emma Watts, Graeme Barnes, Margaret Danchin
Background Maternal antibodies, acquired passively via placenta and/or breast milk, may contribute to the reduced efficacy of oral rotavirus vaccine observed in children in developing countries. This study aimed to investigate the effect of rotavirus specific maternal antibodies on the serum IgA response or stool excretion of vaccine virus after any dose of an oral rotavirus vaccine, RV3-BB, in parallel to a Phase IIa clinical trial conducted at Dunedin Hospital, New Zealand. At the time of the study rotavirus vaccines had not been introduced in New Zealand and the burden of rotavirus disease was evident...
January 6, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056035/a-systematic-review-of-the-incidence-risk-factors-and-case-fatality-rates-of-invasive-nontyphoidal-salmonella-ints-disease-in-africa-1966-to-2014
#18
Ifeanyi Valentine Uche, Calman A MacLennan, Allan Saul
This study systematically reviews the literature on the occurrence, incidence and case fatality rate (CFR) of invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease in Africa from 1966 to 2014. Data on the burden of iNTS disease in Africa are sparse and generally have not been aggregated, making it difficult to describe the epidemiology that is needed to inform the development and implementation of effective prevention and control policies. This study involved a comprehensive search of PubMed and Embase databases...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053505/spotlight-on-the-9-valent-hpv-vaccine
#19
REVIEW
Pier Luigi Lopalco
Starting in 2006, vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) has been progressively implemented in most developed countries. Two vaccines have been successfully used, a bivalent vaccine targeting HPV-related cancers (bHPV) and a quadrivalent vaccine (qHPV) targeting both HPV-related cancers and genital warts. Between December 2014 and June 2015, a new nonavalent HPV vaccine (9vHPV) was granted marketing authorization in the USA and Europe. The 9vHPV was developed from the qHPV and includes five additional HPV types that should increase the level of protection toward HPV-related cancers...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050021/systematic-active-surveillance-for-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-in-camels-in-egypt
#20
Mohamed A Ali, Mahmoud M Shehata, Mokhtar R Gomaa, Ahmed Kandeil, Rabeh El-Shesheny, Ahmed S Kayed, Ahmed N El-Taweel, Mohamed Atea, Nagla Hassan, Ola Bagato, Yassmin Moatasim, Sara H Mahmoud, Omnia Kutkat, Asmaa M Maatouq, Ahmed Osman, Pamela P McKenzie, Richard J Webby, Ghazi Kayali
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe human infections and dromedary camels are considered an intermediary host. The dynamics of natural infection in camels are not well understood. Through systematic surveillance in Egypt, nasal, rectal, milk, urine and serum samples were collected from camels between June 2014 and February 2016. Locations included quarantines, markets, abattoirs, free-roaming herds and farmed breeding herds. The overall seroprevalence was 71% and RNA detection rate was 15%...
January 4, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
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