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Vaccine in developing countries

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647170/the-complexity-and-cost-of-vaccine-manufacturing-an-overview
#1
REVIEW
Stanley Plotkin, James M Robinson, Gerard Cunningham, Robyn Iqbal, Shannon Larsen
As companies, countries, and governments consider investments in vaccine production for routine immunization and outbreak response, understanding the complexity and cost drivers associated with vaccine production will help to inform business decisions. Leading multinational corporations have good understanding of the complex manufacturing processes, high technological and R&D barriers to entry, and the costs associated with vaccine production. However, decision makers in developing countries, donors and investors may not be aware of the factors that continue to limit the number of new manufacturers and have caused attrition and consolidation among existing manufacturers...
June 21, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646964/global-advocacy-needed-for-sepsis-in-children
#2
Sagar Dugani, Niranjan Kissoon
Sepsis in children is a complex syndrome that develops from various infections and results in 15-30% mortality in high-income countries and up to 50% or higher in low-income countries. Worldwide, this represents an annual burden of 30 million cases resulting in 8 million deaths. Not surprisingly, there is a significantly higher burden in low-income countries with children there being 18 times more likely to die before the age of 5 years compared to high-income countries. Factors such as commercial air travel, climate change, and unchecked population growth have contributed to the growing burden of infectious diseases and ensuing sepsis...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646959/is-chickenpox-so-bad-what-do-we-know-about-immunity-to-varicella-zoster-virus-and-what-does-it-tell-us-about-the-future
#3
Anne A Gershon
Varicella and zoster continue to cause significant morbidity and even mortality in children and adults. Complications include bacterial superinfection, central nervous system manifestations such as meningitis, encephalitis, and cerebellar ataxia, and pain syndromes especially post herpetic neuralgia. Many developed countries but not all, are now administering live attenuated varicella vaccine routinely, with a decrease in the incidence of disease, providing personal and herd immunity. There is some controversy, however, in some countries concerning whether a decrease in the circulation of wild type virus will result in loss of immunity to VZV in persons who have already had varicella...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646956/clean-water-clean-hands-or-new-vaccines
#4
Stephen P Luby
Throughout human history, pathogens transmitted through feces from person to person have caused substantial mortality. Over a century ago civil engineers in high income countries developed approaches to collect and remove feces from the environment that in communities with high incomes and strong governments markedly reduced the burden of enteric disease. These approaches, however, have not been successfully extended to impoverished communities in low income countries. Water/sanitation/hygiene professionals have attempted, with only limited success, to reduce fecal exposure and human disease in the absence of definitive civil engineering approaches...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646885/comparison-of-the-protective-efficacy-between-single-and-combination-of-recombinant-adenoviruses-expressing-complete-and-truncated-glycoprotein-and-nucleoprotein-of-the-pathogenic-street-rabies-virus-in-mice
#5
Ha-Hyun Kim, Dong-Kun Yang, Jin-Ju Nah, Jae-Young Song, In-Soo Cho
BACKGROUND: Rabies is an important viral zoonosis that causes acute encephalitis and death in mammals. To date, several recombinant vaccines have been developed based on G protein, which is considered to be the main antigen, and these vaccines are used for rabies control in many countries. Most recombinant viruses expressing RABV G protein retain the G gene from attenuated RABV. Not enough is currently known about the protective effect against RABV of a combination of recombinant adenoviruses expressing the G and N proteins of pathogenic street RABV...
June 24, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645716/guide-to-active-vaccine-safety-surveillance-report-of-cioms-working-group-on-vaccine-safety-executive-summary
#6
U Heininger, K Holm, I Caplanusi, S R Bailey
In 2013, the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) created a Working Group on Vaccine Safety (WG) to address unmet needs in the area of vaccine pharmacovigilance. Generating reliable data about specific vaccine safety concerns is becoming a priority due to recent progress in the development and deployment of new vaccines of global importance, as well as novel vaccines targeting diseases specifically endemic to many resource-limited countries (RLCs), e.g. malaria, dengue. The WG created a Guide to Active Vaccine Safety Surveillance (AVSS) to assist national regulatory authorities and national immunization program officers in RLCs in determining the best course of action with regards to non-routine pharmacovigilance activities, when confronted with a launch of a new vaccine or a vaccine that is new to their country...
June 20, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642611/engineered-newcastle-disease-virus-expressing-the-f-and-g-proteins-of-ampv-c-confers-protection-against-challenges-in-turkeys
#7
Haixia Hu, Jason P Roth, Laszlo Zsak, Qingzhong Yu
Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) infects the respiratory and reproductive tracts of domestic poultry, resulting in substantial economic losses for producers. Live attenuated vaccines appear to be the most effective in countries where the disease is prevalent. However, reversion to virulence has been demonstrated in several studies. Therefore, the development of a stable and safe next generation vaccine against the AMPV disease is needed. In the present study, we generated a recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vectoring the fusion (F) protein and glycoprotein (G) genes of AMPV subtype-C (AMPV-C) as a bivalent vaccine candidate using reverse genetics technology...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637001/a-novel-method-to-generate-salmonella-typhi-ty21a-ghosts-exploiting-the-%C3%AE-phage-holin-endolysin-system
#8
Gayeon Won, Boram Kim, John Hwa Lee
Human typhoid fever caused by Salmonella Typhi still poses a severe global disease burden in developing countries despite the availability of commercial vaccines. In this study, we constructed a non-living S. Typhi Ty21a vaccine candidate by employing a lambda (λ) phage-derived holin-endolysin system to efficiently construct bacterial ghosts. The lysis plasmid pJHL464 harbors an R lysis cassette that is stringently regulated by dual promoters containing cI857/λPR and ParaBAD/araC components. The plasmid was introduced into an asd gene-deleted S...
June 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636997/an-optimized-hmgb1-expressed-by-recombinant-rabies-virus-enhances-immunogenicity-through-activation-of-dendritic-cells-in-mice
#9
Zhao Wang, Qian Liang, Yajing Zhang, Jie Yang, Mingming Li, Kunlun Wang, Min Cui, Huanchun Chen, Zhen F Fu, Ling Zhao, Ming Zhou
Rabies remains an important public health threat, killing approximately 59,000 people worldwide annually, most of which are from the developing countries of Africa and Asia where dog rabies are endemic. Therefore, developing an affordable and efficacious vaccine for dog-mediated rabies control is needful in these countries. Our previous studies indicated that over-expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or macrophage inflammatory protein-1 (MIP-1α or CCL3) by recombinant rabies virus (rRABV) could enhance the immunogenicity by activating dendritic cells (DCs)...
June 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636142/clinical-development-of-immunotherapy-for-prostate-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Masanori Noguchi, Noriko Koga, Tsukasa Igawa, Kyogo Itoh
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men, and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in Western countries. Prostate cancer-related death occurs in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Although several new drugs for castration-resistant prostate cancer have been approved, each of these has prolonged survival by just a few months. Consequently, new therapies are sorely needed. Recently, it has been recognized that immunotherapy is an effective treatment for prostate cancer patients...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633302/mumps-clinical-diagnostic-uncertainty
#11
Fabio Magurano, Melissa Baggieri, Antonella Marchi, Paola Bucci, Giovanni Rezza, Loredana Nicoletti
During recent years, various mumps outbreaks have occurred among populations vaccinated for mumps worldwide. In Italy, improving routine coverage with two doses of measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine is one of the key strategies to eliminate measles and rubella. To monitor the effect of the vaccination programme on the population, the surveillance of these vaccine-preventable diseases has been implemented. This provided the opportunity to evaluate the accuracy of the clinical diagnosis of those diseases, including mumps...
June 12, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623146/an-update-of-the-global-burden-of-pertussis-in-children-younger-than-5-years-a-modelling-study
#12
Karene Hoi Ting Yeung, Philippe Duclos, E Anthony S Nelson, Raymond Christiaan W Hutubessy
BACKGROUND: Since the publication in 2003 of a model to estimate the disease burden of pertussis, new evidence of the protective effect of incomplete pertussis vaccination against severe pertussis has been reported. We revised the model to provide new estimates of regional and global pertussis cases and deaths for children younger than 5 years. METHODS: We developed a revised model with data from 2014 to estimate pertussis cases and deaths. Pertussis cases were defined according to the WHO clinical case definition, as a coughing illness lasting at least 2 weeks with paroxysms of coughing, inspiratory whooping, or post-tussive vomiting...
June 13, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622852/efficacy-of-e2-glycoprotein-fused-to-porcine-cd154-as-a-novel-chimeric-subunit-vaccine-to-prevent-classical-swine-fever-virus-vertical-transmission-in-pregnant-sows
#13
Sara Muñoz-González, Yusmel Sordo, Marta Pérez-Simó, Marisela Suárez, Albert Canturri, Maria Pilar Rodriguez, María Teresa Frías-Lepoureau, Mariano Domingo, Mario Pablo Estrada, Llilianne Ganges
Here we evaluated the effect of double vaccination with a novel subunit marker vaccine candidate based in the CSFV E2 glycoprotein fused to the porcine CD154 to prevent CSFV vertical transmission. A lentivirus-based gene delivery system was used to obtain a stable recombinant HEK 293 cell line for the expression of E2 fused to porcine CD154 molecule. Six pregnant sows were distributed in two groups and at 64days of gestation animals numbered 1-4 (group 1) were vaccinated via intramuscular inoculation with 50μg of E2-CD154 subunit vaccine...
June 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622429/synthesis-and-antigenic-evaluation-of-oligosaccharide-mimics-of-vi-antigen-from-salmonella-typhi
#14
Xinshan Ye, Gao-Lan Zhang, Lin Yang, Jingjing Zhu
Salmonella typhi is responsible for typhoid fever, which is a serious health threat in developing countries. As a virulent factor of Salmonella typhi, the purified Vi polysaccharide (Vi PS) has become an effective vaccine to combat typhoid fever. The chemical synthesis can provide homogeneous and well-defined molecules for the development of Vi-based vaccines. However, the synthesis of Vi oligosaccharides in high yields and with exclusive α-stereoselectivities remains very challenging. In this paper, a series of Vi pseudooligosaccharides, including pseudo tetra-, hexa-, and octa-saccharides were efficiently synthesized...
June 16, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620682/infectious-bursal-disease-outbreak-investigation-molecular-characterization-and-vaccine-immunogenicity-trial-in-ethiopia
#15
Aregitu Mekuriaw, Molalegne Bitew, Esyas Gelaye, Bedaso Mamo, Gelagay Ayelet
The study was conducted with the objective of isolation and molecular characterization of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) circulating in Ethiopia and to assess the immunogenicity of different commercially available live attenuated IBD vaccines and finally to select the appropriate vaccine strain for the existing IBDV. Outbreak samples collected from different poultry farms with IBD infection between 2013 and 2015 were used for the virus isolation and molecular characterization. IBD vaccine immunogenicity test was conducted using four different commercially available live attenuated IBD vaccine strains: namely D78, B2K, LC75, and EXTREM...
June 15, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619230/innovative-financing-instruments-for-global-health-2002-15-a-systematic-analysis
#16
Rifat Atun, Sachin Silva, Felicia M Knaul
Development assistance for health (DAH), the value of which peaked in 2013 and fell in 2015, is unlikely to rise substantially in the near future, increasing reliance on domestic and innovative financing sources to sustain health programmes in low-income and middle-income countries. We examined innovative financing instruments (IFIs)-financing schemes that generate and mobilise funds-to estimate the quantum of financing mobilised from 2002 to 2015. We identified ten IFIs, which mobilised US$8·9 billion (2·3% of overall DAH) in 2002-15...
July 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617781/-the-italian-immunization-plan-2017-analysis-and-starting-point-for-the-regional-plans
#17
Viviana Santoro, Luca Morucci, Marco Ciabattini, Gian Loreto D'Alò, Maurizio D'Ercole, Rosaria Gallo, Roberto Mastrosanti, Alessio Russomanno, Elisa Terracciano, Laura Zaratti, Elisabetta Franco
The National Immunization Plan 2017-2019 has been approved on January 2017. This official document contains the new Italian guidelines to improve vaccination coverage in the country. We conducted an accurate and critical analysis of the document, highlighting its key points and critical issues, in order to offer an practical tool for writing the Regional Plans. The new immunization schedule and the establishment of a restricted panel for the vaccine vigilance are the most significant innovations of the Plan...
March 2017: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616501/searching-for-animal-models-and-potential-target-species-for-emerging-pathogens-experience-gained-from-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-mers-coronavirus
#18
REVIEW
Júlia Vergara-Alert, Enric Vidal, Albert Bensaid, Joaquim Segalés
Emerging and re-emerging pathogens represent a substantial threat to public health, as demonstrated with numerous outbreaks over the past years, including the 2013-2016 outbreak of Ebola virus in western Africa. Coronaviruses are also a threat for humans, as evidenced in 2002/2003 with infection by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), which caused more than 8000 human infections with 10% fatality rate in 37 countries. Ten years later, a novel human coronavirus (Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, MERS-CoV), associated with severe pneumonia, arose in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia...
June 2017: One Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614466/prevalence-of-high-risk-human-papillomavirus-among-women-in-two-english-speaking-caribbean-countries
#19
Glennis Andall-Brereton, Eulynis Brown, Sherian Slater, Yvette Holder, Silvana Luciani, Merle Lewis, Beryl Irons
Objective: To characterize high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in a sample of women in two small English-speaking Caribbean countries: Saint Kitts and Nevis and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Methods: Sexually active women ≥ 30 years old attending primary care health facilities participated in the study. Each participant had a gynecological examination, and two cervical specimens were collected: (1) a specimen for a Papanicolaou (Pap) test and (2) a sample of exfoliated cervical cells for HPV DNA testing, using the HPV High Risk Screen Real-TM (Sacace)...
June 8, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612189/the-inclusion-of-chitosan-in-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-nanoparticles-impact-on-the-delivery-system-characteristics-and-on-the-adsorbed-ovalbumin-secondary-structure
#20
Sandra Jesus, Elizangela H Fragal, Adley F Rubira, Edvani C Muniz, Artur J M Valente, Olga Borges
This report extensively explores the benefits of including chitosan into poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) nanoparticles (NPs) to obtain an improved protein/antigen delivery system. Blend NPs (PCL/chitosan NPs) showed improved protein adsorption efficacy (84%) in low shear stress and aqueous environment, suggesting that a synergistic effect between PCL hydrophobic nature and the positive charges of chitosan present at the particle surface was responsible for protein interaction. Additionally, thermal analysis suggested the blend NPs were more stable than the isolated polymers and cytotoxicity assays in a primary cell culture revealed chitosan inclusion in PCL NPs reduced the toxicity of the delivery system...
June 13, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
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