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Vaccine in developing countries

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737189/-pertussis-vaccination-in-pregnancy-security-and-effectiveness-in-the-protection-of-the-infant
#1
Rodolfo Villena, Pamela Vidal, Felipe Carrillo, Mónica Salinas
Whooping cough is an immune preventable disease that can be life threatening. Despite infant immunization starting at 2 month of age, there are many cases and outbreaks in our country and also around the world, with a high risk of mortality specially in infants under 6 month of age. It has been proposed that antenatal vaccination with acellular pertussis component (Tdap) would be useful, safe and effective since it transfers a high antibody rate to the child, reducing the incidence of pertussis in this group by 85%...
June 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735965/safety-profile-and-immunologic-responses-of-a-novel-vaccine-against-shigella-sonnei-administered-intramuscularly-intradermally-and-intranasally-results-from-two-parallel-randomized-phase-1-clinical-studies-in-healthy-adult-volunteers-in-europe
#2
Odile Launay, David J M Lewis, Alessandra Anemona, Pierre Loulergue, Jo Leahy, Antonella Silvia Sciré, Anaïs Maugard, Elisa Marchetti, Stefano Zancan, Zhiming Huo, Simona Rondini, Rachid Marhaba, Oretta Finco, Laura B Martin, Jochen Auerbach, Daniel Cohen, Allan Saul, Christiane Gerke, Audino Podda
BACKGROUND: Approximately 164,000 deaths yearly are due to shigellosis, primarily in developing countries. Thus, a safe and affordable Shigella vaccine is an important public health priority. The GSK Vaccines Institute for Global Health (GVGH) developed a candidate Shigella sonnei vaccine (1790GAHB) using the Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA) technology. The paper reports results of 1790GAHB Phase 1 studies in healthy European adults. METHODS: To evaluate the safety and immunogenicity profiles of 1790GAHB, we performed two parallel, phase 1, observer-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose escalation studies in France ("study 1") and the United Kingdom ("study 2") between February 2014 and April 2015 (ClinicalTrials...
July 15, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734513/cryptosporidium-and-giardia-infections-in-children-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Blandina T Mmbaga, Eric R Houpt
Diarrheal disease remains the second leading cause of mortality in children in developing countries. Cryptosporidium is a leading cause and its importance stands to increase as rotavirus vaccine becomes used around the world. Cryptosporidium is particularly problematic in children younger than 2 years old and in the immunocompromised. Giardia lamblia is a common intestinal protozoan that is associated with diarrhea and, perhaps, growth faltering in impoverished settings. This review establishes the current prevalence of these infections in global settings and reviews current diagnosis and management approaches...
August 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734511/the-burden-and-etiology-of-diarrheal-illness-in-developing-countries
#4
REVIEW
Karen L Kotloff
Reductions in mortality from diarrheal diseases among young children have occurred in recent decades; however, approximately 500,000 children continue to die each year. Moreover, similar reductions in disease incidence have not been seen, episodes that impact the growth and development of young children. Two recent studies, MAL-ED and GEMS, have more clearly defined the burden and cause of diarrhea among young children, identifying four leading pathogens: rotavirus, CryptosporidiumShigella, and heat stable toxin-producing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli...
August 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733429/proteogenomic-analysis-and-discovery-of-immune-antigens-in-mycobacterium-vaccae
#5
Jianhua Zheng, Lihong Chen, Liguo Liu, Haifeng Li, Bo Liu, Dandan Zheng, Tao Liu, Jie Dong, Lilian Sun, Yafang Zhu, Jian Yang, Xiaobing Zhang, Qi Jin
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, especially in developing countries. Neonatal BCG vaccination occurs in various regions, but the level of protection varies in different populations. Recently, Mycobacterium vaccae is found to be an immunomodulating therapeutic agent that could confer a significant level of protection against TB. It is the only vaccine in a phase III trial from WHO to assess its efficacy and safety in preventing TB disease in people with latent TB infection. However, the mechanism of immunotherapy of M...
July 21, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731899/current-perspectives-on-invasive-nontyphoidal-salmonella-disease
#6
Andrea H Haselbeck, Ursula Panzner, Justin Im, Stephen Baker, Christian G Meyer, Florian Marks
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We searched PubMed for scientific literature published in the past 2 years for relevant information regarding the burden of invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella disease and host factors associated with nontyphoidal Salmonella infection and discuss current knowledge on vaccine development. The following search terms were used: Salmonella, non typhoidal/nontyphoidal, NTS, disease, bloodstream infection, invasive, sepsis/septicaemia/septicemia, bacteraemia/bacteremia, gastroenteritis, incidence, prevalence, morbidity, mortality, case fatality, host/risk factor, vaccination, and prevention/control...
July 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730615/vulvar-cancer-in-high-income-countries-increasing-burden-of-disease
#7
Yoon-Jung Kang, Megan Smith, Ellen Barlow, Kate Coffey, Neville Hacker, Karen Canfell
The aim of this study was to assess trends in the age-specific incidence of vulvar cancer in 13 high-income countries satisfying a priori conditions regarding the availability of cancer registry data over a 20 year period; these were Canada, USA, 9 European countries, Australia and Japan. Five-yearly incidence and population at risk were obtained from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents for the years 1988-1992 (Volume 7) to 2003-2007 (Volume 10). The 5-yearly average percent change (AvPC) over the 20-year period and standardised rate ratios (SRRs) for 2003-2007 vs...
July 21, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729922/meningococcal-disease-outbreak-related-to-the-world-scout-jamboree-in-japan-2015
#8
Mizue Kanai, Hajime Kamiya, Alison Smith-Palmer, Hideyuki Takahashi, Yushi Hachisu, Munehisa Fukusumi, Takehito Saitoh, Makoto Ohnishi, Tomimasa Sunagawa, Tamano Matsui, Kazunori Oishi
PROBLEM: Six invasive meningococcal disease cases occurred among Scottish and Swedish nationals associated with the World Scout Jamboree (WSJ), an international mass gathering, held in Japan. The index case developed symptoms while returning home. The strains from all six cases were identical and seldom seen in Japan. CONTEXT: Over 33 000 participants from 155 countries attended WSJ. At the Jamboree site, participants of the North of Scotland's and Sweden's units camped within the same subcamp and kept the same schedule of events...
April 2017: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727678/progress-toward-measles-elimination-bangladesh-2000-2016
#9
Sudhir Khanal, Rajendra Bohara, Stephen Chacko, Mohammad Sharifuzzaman, Mohammad Shamsuzzaman, James L Goodson, Alya Dabbagh, Katrina Kretsinger, Deepak Dhongde, Jayantha Liyanage, Sunil Bahl, Arun Thapa
In 2013, at the 66th session of the Regional Committee of the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region (SEAR), a regional goal was established to eliminate measles and control rubella and congenital rubella syndrome* by 2020 (1). WHO-recommended measles elimination strategies in SEAR countries include 1) achieving and maintaining ≥95% coverage with 2 doses of measles-containing vaccine (MCV) in every district, delivered through the routine immunization program or through supplementary immunization activities (SIAs)(†); 2) developing and sustaining a sensitive and timely measles case-based surveillance system that meets targets for recommended performance indicators; and 3) developing and maintaining an accredited measles laboratory network (2)...
July 21, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720851/microneedle-patch-delivery-of-influenza-vaccine-during-pregnancy-enhances-maternal-immune-responses-promoting-survival-and-long-lasting-passive-immunity-to-offspring
#10
E Stein Esser, Joanna A Pulit-Penaloza, Haripriya Kalluri, Devin McAllister, Elena V Vassilieva, Elizabeth Q Littauer, Nadia Lelutiu, Mark R Prausnitz, Richard W Compans, Ioanna Skountzou
Influenza virus causes life-threatening infections in pregnant women and their newborns. Immunization during pregnancy is the most effective means of preventing maternal and infant mortality/morbidity; however, influenza vaccination rates of pregnant women remain under 50%. Furthermore, the availability of vaccines in low-resource populations is limited. Skin immunization with microneedle patches (MN) is a novel and safe vaccination platform featuring thermostable vaccine formulations. Cold-chain independence and the potential for self-administration can expand influenza vaccination coverage in developing countries...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720444/characterization-of-a-spray-dried-candidate-hpv-l2-vlp-vaccine-stored-for-multiple-years-at-room-temperature
#11
Julianne Peabody, Pavan Muttil, Bryce Chackerian, Ebenezer Tumban
HPV infections are associated with human cancers. Although three prophylactic vaccines have been approved to protect against HPV infections, the vaccines require cold-chain storage and may not be suitable for third world countries with less developed refrigeration facilities. We previously developed a bacteriophage L2 virus-like particle (VLP)-based candidate vaccine, which elicited broadly protective antibodies against diverse HPV types. Spray-drying of MS2-16L2 VLPs into a dry powder enhanced the stability of these VLPs...
June 2017: Papillomavirus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720089/analysis-of-the-association-between-millennium-development-goals-4-5-and-the-physician-workforce-across-international-economic-strata
#12
Christopher P Morley, Dongliang Wang, Emily M Mader, Kyle P Plante, Lindsey N Kingston, Azadeh Rabiei
BACKGROUND: The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are 8 international development goals voluntarily adopted by 189 nations. The goals included health related aims to reduce the under-five child mortality rate by two-thirds (MDG4), and to reduce the maternal mortality ratio by three-quarters (MDG5). To assess the relationship between the healthcare workforce and MDGs 4-5, we examined the physician workforces of countries around the globe, in terms of the Physician Density Level (PDL, or number of physicians per 1000 population), and compared this rate across a number of years to several indicator variables specified as markers of progress towards MDG4 and MDG5...
July 18, 2017: BMC International Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719253/cost-effectiveness-evaluation-of-a-novel-integrated-bite-case-management-program-for-the-control-of-human-rabies-haiti-2014-2015
#13
Eduardo A Undurraga, Martin I Meltzer, Cuc H Tran, Charisma Y Atkins, Melissa D Etheart, Max F Millien, Paul Adrien, Ryan M Wallace
AbstractHaiti has the highest burden of rabies in the Western hemisphere, with 130 estimated annual deaths. We present the cost-effectiveness evaluation of an integrated bite case management program combining community bite investigations and passive animal rabies surveillance, using a governmental perspective. The Haiti Animal Rabies Surveillance Program (HARSP) was first implemented in three communes of the West Department, Haiti. Our evaluation encompassed all individuals exposed to rabies in the study area (N = 2,289) in 2014-2015...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716913/antibody-based-assay-discriminates-zika-virus-infection-from-other-flaviviruses
#14
Angel Balmaseda, Karin Stettler, Raquel Medialdea-Carrera, Damaris Collado, Xia Jin, José Victor Zambrana, Stefano Jaconi, Elisabetta Cameroni, Saira Saborio, Francesca Rovida, Elena Percivalle, Samreen Ijaz, Steve Dicks, Ines Ushiro-Lumb, Luisa Barzon, Patricia Siqueira, David W G Brown, Fausto Baldanti, Richard Tedder, Maria Zambon, A M Bispo de Filippis, Eva Harris, Davide Corti
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that emerged recently as a global health threat, causing a pandemic in the Americas. ZIKV infection mostly causes mild disease, but is linked to devastating congenital birth defects and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. The high level of cross-reactivity among flaviviruses and their cocirculation has complicated serological approaches to differentially detect ZIKV and dengue virus (DENV) infections, accentuating the urgent need for a specific and sensitive serological test...
July 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716892/which-dengue-vaccine-approach-is-the-most-promising-and-should-we-be-concerned-about-enhanced-disease-after-vaccination-questions-raised-by-the-development-and-implementation-of-dengue-vaccines-example-of-the-sanofi-pasteur-tetravalent-dengue-vaccine
#15
Bruno Guy
Dengue is a still-growing public health concern in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The development and implementation of an effective dengue vaccine in these regions is a high priority. This insight focuses on the expected characteristics of a safe and efficacious vaccine, referring to the clinical experience obtained during the development of the first tetravalent dengue vaccine from Sanofi Pasteur, now licensed in several endemic countries. Safety and efficacy data from both short- and long-term follow-up of large-scale efficacy studies will be discussed, as well as the next steps following vaccine introduction...
July 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716350/progress-and-priorities-for-reproductive-maternal-newborn-and-child-health-in-kenya-a-countdown-to-2015-country-case-study
#16
Emily C Keats, Anthony Ngugi, William Macharia, Nadia Akseer, Emma Nelima Khaemba, Zaid Bhatti, Arjumand Rizvi, John Tole, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: Progress in reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH) in Kenya has been inconsistent over the past two decades, despite the global push to foster accountability, reduce child mortality, and improve maternal health in an equitable manner. Although several cross-sectional assessments have been done, a systematic analysis of RMNCH in Kenya was needed to better understand the push and pull factors that govern intervention coverage and influence mortality trends...
August 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715423/antibody-trapping-a-novel-mechanism-of-parasite-immune-evasion-by-the-trematode-echinostoma-caproni
#17
Alba Cortés, Javier Sotillo, Carla Muñoz-Antolí, Javier Molina-Durán, J Guillermo Esteban, Rafael Toledo
BACKGROUND: Helminth infections are among the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases, causing an enormous impact in global health and the socioeconomic growth of developing countries. In this context, the study of helminth biology, with emphasis on host-parasite interactions, appears as a promising approach for developing new tools to prevent and control these infections. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The role that antibody responses have on helminth infections is still not well understood...
July 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712191/assessing-the-role-of-education-in-adult-women-s-knowledge-and-awareness-of-human-papillomavirus-and-human-papillomavirus-vaccine
#18
Humera Ismail, Sarah Rafiq, Shafia Shakoor, Muhammad Tariq Karim, Rabia Raheel
BACKGROUND: Awareness and knowledge of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and HPV vaccine among women are not satisfactory in developing countries. The aim of this study was to assess the role of education in adult women about knowledge and awareness of human papillomavirus (HPV) and HPV vaccine. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out in women aged 19- 50 years attending the out-patient waiting area of a tertiary care hospital in Karachi from August 2014 to August 2015...
January 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711695/identification-of-a-conformational-neutralizing-epitope-on-the-vp1-protein-of-type-a-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus
#19
Wenming Liu, Baolin Yang, Mingxia Wang, Haiwei Wang, Decheng Yang, Wenge Ma, Guohui Zhou, Li Yu
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), is a highly contagious infectious disease that affects domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals worldwide. In recent years, outbreaks of serotype A FMD have occurred in many countries. High-affinity neutralizing antibodies against a conserved epitope could provide protective immunity against diverse subtypes of FMDV serotype A and protect against future pandemics. In this study, we generated a serotype A FMDV-specific potent neutralizing monoclonal antibody (MAb), 6C9, which recognizes a conformation-dependent epitope...
July 8, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711387/serotype-distribution-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-pattern-in-children%C3%A2-5years-with-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-india-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Jyotsana Singh, Suba Sundaresan, Anand Manoharan, Anita Shet
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of childhood diseases that result in significant morbidity and mortality in India. Commercially licensed and available pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) include ten (PCV-10) and 13 (PCV-13) pneumococcal serotypes. Vaccines with other serotype combinations are under development. Reviewing and reporting trends and distribution of pneumococcal serotypes causing invasive pneumococcal disease in India will be useful for policy making as PCV is being introduced into India's universal immunization program...
July 12, 2017: Vaccine
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