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Vaccine in developing countries

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337492/flock-based-surveillance-for-low-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus-in-commercial-breeders-and-layers-southwest-nigeria
#1
Daniel Oladimeji Oluwayelu, Ayoyimika Omolanwa, Adebowale Idris Adebiyi, Oluladun Comfort Aiki-Raji
BACKGROUND: Flock surveillance systems for avian influenza (AI) virus play a critical role in countries where vaccination is not practiced so as to establish the epidemiological characteristics of AI needed for the development of prevention and control strategies in such countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: As part of routine AI monitoring in southwest Nigeria, a competitive ELISA was used for detecting influenza A virus antibodies in the sera of 461 commercial breeder and layer birds obtained from different flocks in Oyo State, Nigeria while haemagglutination inhibiting antibodies against low pathogenic AI viruses (LPAIVs) were detected using H5N2, H7N7 and H9N2 subtype-specific antigens...
2017: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337440/rabies-control-could-innovative-financing-break-the-deadlock
#2
REVIEW
Susan C Welburn, Paul G Coleman, Jakob Zinsstag
The neglected zoonotic diseases (NZDs) have been all but eradicated in wealthier countries but remain major causes of ill-health and mortality in over 80 countries across Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The nature of neglect for the NZDs has been ascribed, in part, to underreporting resulting in an underestimation of their global burden that, together with a lack of advocacy, downgrades their relevance to policy-makers and funding agencies. While this may be the case for many NZDs, for rabies this is not the case...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333929/the-rise-and-fall-of-rabies-in-japan-a-quantitative-history-of-rabies-epidemics-in-osaka-prefecture-1914-1933
#3
Aiko Kurosawa, Kageaki Tojinbara, Hazumu Kadowaki, Katie Hampson, Akio Yamada, Kohei Makita
Japan has been free from rabies since the 1950s. However, during the early 1900s several large-scale epidemics spread throughout the country. Here we investigate the dynamics of these epidemics between 1914 and 1933 in Osaka Prefecture, using archival data including newspapers. The association between dog rabies cases and human population density was investigated using Mixed-effects models and epidemiological parameters such as the basic reproduction number (R0), the incubation and infectious period and the serial interval were estimated...
March 23, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333617/yellow-fever-in-a-traveller-returning-from-suriname-to-the-netherlands-march-2017
#4
Marjan Wouthuyzen-Bakker, Marjolein Knoester, Aad P van den Berg, Corine H GeurtsvanKessel, Marion Pg Koopmans, Coretta Van Leer-Buter, Bob Oude Velthuis, Suzan D Pas, Wilhelmina Lm Ruijs, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit, Stephen Gs Vreden, Tjip S van der Werf, Chantal Bem Reusken, Wouter Fw Bierman
A Dutch traveller returning from Suriname in early March 2017, presented with fever and severe acute liver injury. Yellow fever was diagnosed by (q)RT-PCR and sequencing. During hospital stay, the patient's condition deteriorated and she developed hepatic encephalopathy requiring transfer to the intensive care. Although yellow fever has not been reported in the last four decades in Suriname, vaccination is recommended by the World Health Organization for visitors to this country.
March 16, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332568/immunogenicity-of-candidate-mers-cov-dna-vaccines-based-on-the-spike-protein
#5
Sawsan S Al-Amri, Ayman T Abbas, Loai A Siddiq, Abrar Alghamdi, Mohammad A Sanki, Muhanna K Al-Muhanna, Rowa Y Alhabbab, Esam I Azhar, Xuguang Li, Anwar M Hashem
MERS-coronavirus is a novel zoonotic pathogen which spread rapidly to >25 countries since 2012. Its apparent endemicity and the wide spread of its reservoir host (dromedary camels) in the Arabian Peninsula highlight the ongoing public health threat of this virus. Therefore, development of effective prophylactic vaccine needs to be urgently explored given that there are no approved prophylactics or therapeutics for humans or animals to date. Different vaccine candidates have been investigated but serious safety concerns remain over protein or full-length spike (S) protein-based vaccines...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332371/relationship-between-pentavalent-rotavirus-vaccine-and-intussusception-a-retrospective-study-at-a-single-center-in-korea
#6
Kyu Yeun Kim, Dong Soo Kim
PURPOSE: Despite withdrawal of RotaShield® and the development of second generation live attenuated rotavirus vaccines, concerns remain regarding the relationship between rotavirus vaccine and intussusception. Nevertheless, since there is no study in Korea, we reviewed data from cases at Severance Children's Hospital to determine the association between rotavirus vaccine and intussusception. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients coded as intussusception and following a prescription of RotaTeq® from 2007 to 2013 were reviewed...
May 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331077/novel-mechanisms-revealed-in-the-trachea-transcriptome-of-resistant-and-susceptible-chicken-lines-following-infection-with-newcastle-disease-virus
#7
Melissa S Deist, Rodrigo A Gallardo, David A Bunn, Terra R Kelly, Jack C M Dekkers, Huaijun Zhou, Susan J Lamont
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has a devastating impact on poultry production in developing countries. This study examined the transcriptome of tracheal epithelial cells from two inbred chicken lines that differ in NDV susceptibility after challenge with a high-titer inoculum of lentogenic NDV. The Fayoumi line had a significantly lower NDV load post-challenge relative to the Leghorn line, demonstrating the Fayoumi's classification as a relatively NDV resistant breed. Examining the trachea transcriptome showed a large increase in immune cell infiltration in the trachea in both lines at all times post-infection...
March 22, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329234/revaccination-of-guinea-pigs-with-the-live-attenuated-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-vaccine-mtbvac-improves-bcg-s-protection-against-tuberculosis
#8
Simon Clark, Faye Lanni, Dessislava Marinova, Emma Rayner, Carlos Martin, Ann Williams
Background.: The need for an effective vaccine against human tuberculosis has driven the development of different candidates and vaccination strategies. Novel live attenuated vaccines are being developed that promise greater safety and efficacy than BCG against tuberculosis. We combined BCG with the vaccine MTBVAC to evaluate whether the efficacy of either vaccine would be affected upon revaccination. Methods.: In a well-established guinea pig model of aerosol infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, BCG and MTBVAC delivered via various prime-boost combinations or alone were compared...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320938/effectiveness-of-unaids-targets-and-hiv-vaccination-across-127-countries
#9
Jan Medlock, Abhishek Pandey, Alyssa S Parpia, Amber Tang, Laura A Skrip, Alison P Galvani
The HIV pandemic continues to impose enormous morbidity, mortality, and economic burdens across the globe. Simultaneously, innovations in antiretroviral therapy, diagnostic approaches, and vaccine development are providing novel tools for treatment-as-prevention and prophylaxis. We developed a mathematical model to evaluate the added benefit of an HIV vaccine in the context of goals to increase rates of diagnosis, treatment, and viral suppression in 127 countries. Under status quo interventions, we predict a median of 49 million [first and third quartiles 44M, 58M] incident cases globally from 2015 to 2035...
March 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320411/human-rotavirus-strains-circulating-in-venezuela-after-vaccine-introduction-predominance-of-g2p-4-and-reemergence-of-g1p-8
#10
Esmeralda Vizzi, Oscar A Piñeros, M Daniela Oropeza, Laura Naranjo, José A Suárez, Rixio Fernández, José L Zambrano, Argelia Celis, Ferdinando Liprandi
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus (RV) is the most common cause of severe childhood diarrhea worldwide. Despite Venezuela was among the first developing countries to introduce RV vaccines into their national immunization schedules, RV is still contributing to the burden of diarrhea. Concerns exist about the selective pressure that RV vaccines could exert on the predominant types and/or emergence of new strains. RESULTS: To assess the impact of RV vaccines on the genotype distribution 1 year after the vaccination was implemented, a total of 912 fecal specimens, collected from children with acute gastroenteritis in Caracas from February 2007 to April 2008, were screened, of which 169 (18...
March 21, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315708/2016-international-meeting-of-the-global-virus-network
#11
REVIEW
Ramesh Akkina, Heinz Ellerbrok, William Hall, Hideki Hasegawa, Yasushi Kawaguchi, Harold Kleanthous, Edward McSweegan, Natalia Mercer, Victor Romanowski, Hirofumi Sawa, Anders Vahlne
The Global Virus Network (GVN) was established in 2011 in order to strengthen research and responses to current viral causes of human disease and to prepare against new viral pandemic threats. There are now 38 GVN Centers of Excellence and 6 Affiliate laboratories in 24 countries. GVN scientists meet annually to learn about each other's current research, address collaborative priorities and plan future programs. The 2016 meeting was held from October 23-25 in Hokkaido, Japan, in partnership with the Japanese Society for Virology, the National Institute of Infectious Diseases of Japan and the Research Center for Zoonosis Control of Hokkaido University...
March 16, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314493/beyond-visas-and-vaccines-preparing-students-for-domestic-and-global-health-engagement
#12
EDITORIAL
Lisa V Adams, Anne N Sosin
At campuses across the United States, scores of students are embarking on global health experiences in low- and middle-income countries. The desire to improve the health of poor communities while preparing for future health careers is often the main driver. The spotlight on domestic health issues also has fueled a resurgence of interest in underserved communities in the United States. Regardless of the destination, rigorous preparation is needed to ensure that the students' presence benefits the communities they aim to serve...
November 2016: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302410/meeting-report-who-consultation-on-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-vaccine-development-geneva-25-26-april-2016
#13
Birgitte K Giersing, Ruth A Karron, Johan Vekemans, David C Kaslow, Vasee S Moorthy
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading viral cause of respiratory morbidity and mortality in infants and young children worldwide. Low and middle income countries (LMICs) account for approximately 99% of the global mortality estimates in this population, with up to 200,000 RSV deaths per year. The vaccine product development pipeline is diverse with the most advanced clinical candidate currently in phase III efficacy testing in pregnant women. In addition, a long-acting RSV-neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb) to be administered at birth to prevent serious RSV-related respiratory disease is in late stage clinical development, as are additional conventional mAb for use in high-risk infants...
March 14, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302312/cholera
#14
REVIEW
John D Clemens, G Balakrish Nair, Tahmeed Ahmed, Firdausi Qadri, Jan Holmgren
Cholera is an acute, watery diarrhoeal disease caused by Vibrio cholerae of the O1 or O139 serogroups. In the past two centuries, cholera has emerged and spread from the Ganges Delta six times and from Indonesia once to cause global pandemics. Rational approaches to the case management of cholera with oral and intravenous rehydration therapy have reduced the case fatality of cholera from more than 50% to much less than 1%. Despite improvements in water quality, sanitation, and hygiene, as well as in the clinical treatment of cholera, the disease is still estimated to cause about 100 000 deaths every year...
March 10, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301479/ligb-subunit-vaccine-confers-sterile-immunity-against-challenge-in-the-hamster-model-of-leptospirosis
#15
Neida L Conrad, Flávia W Cruz McBride, Jéssica D Souza, Marcelle M Silveira, Samuel Félix, Karla S Mendonça, Cleiton S Santos, Daniel A Athanazio, Marco A Medeiros, Mitermayer G Reis, Odir A Dellagostin, Alan J A McBride
Neglected tropical diseases, including zoonoses such as leptospirosis, have a major impact on rural and poor urban communities, particularly in developing countries. This has led to major investment in antipoverty vaccines that focus on diseases that influence public health and thereby productivity. While the true, global, impact of leptospirosis is unknown due to the lack of adequate laboratory diagnosis, the WHO estimates that incidence has doubled over the last 15 years to over 1 million cases that require hospitalization every year...
March 16, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301274/neutralizing-antibodies-against-adenovirus-type-2-in-normal-and-hiv-1-infected-subjects-implications-for-use-of-ad2-vectors-in-vaccines
#16
Qianqian Li, Qiang Liu, Weijing Huang, Aijing Song, Chenyan Zhao, Jiajing Wu, Youchun Wang
Pre-existing neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) directed against vaccine vectors have attracted considerable research attention. Therefore, our aim was to establish a high-throughput economical neutralization assay to investigate the epidemiology of adenovirus type 2 (Ad2)-specific immunity in China and developed countries, including in a Chinese Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-infected population, and to guide the application of Ad2-vectored vaccines. We established a FluoroSpot-based anti-Ad2-virus neutralization assay using a recombinant replication-deficient Ad2 that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein and standardized the critical parameters, including the choice of cell line, cell concentration, viral infective dose, and incubation time...
March 16, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301270/japanese-encephalitis-vaccines-immunogenicity-protective-efficacy-effectiveness-and-impact-on-the-burden-of-disease
#17
Nagendra R Hegde, Milind M Gore
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a serious public health concern in most of Asia. The disease is caused by JE virus (JEV), a flavivirus transmitted by Culex mosquitoes. Several vaccines have been developed to control JE in endemic areas as well as to protect travelers and military personnel who visit or are commissioned from non-endemic to endemic areas. The vaccines include inactivated vaccines produced in mouse brain or cell cultures, live attenuated vaccines, and a chimeric vaccine based on the live attenuated yellow fever virus 17D vaccine strain...
February 22, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301239/pathotyping-and-phylogenetic-characterization-of-newcastle-disease-viruses-isolated-in-peru-defining-two-novel-subgenotypes-within-genotype-xii
#18
Ana Chumbe, Ray Izquierdo-Lara, Luis Tataje, Rosa Gonzalez, Giovana Cribillero, Armando E González, Manolo Fernández-Díaz, Eliana Icochea
Infections of poultry with virulent strains of avian paramyxovirus 1 (APMV-1), also known as Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs), cause Newcastle disease (ND). This highly contagious disease affects poultry and many other species of birds worldwide. In countries where the disease is prevalent, constant monitoring and characterization of isolates causing outbreaks are necessary. In this study, we report the results of pathogenicity testing and phylogenetic analyses of seven NDVs isolated from several regions of Peru between 2004 and 2015...
March 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300047/knowledge-attitude-and-experience-of-cervical-cancer-and-screening-among-sub-saharan-african-female-students-in-a-uk-university
#19
Faith Sopuruchukwu Ogbonna
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is one of the major diseases that affect women of child bearing age. Its main cause is the human papilloma virus; although, other associated factors have been evidenced to increase its risk. Pap-smear screening and vaccination which has been shown to be successful in reducing the incidence and prevalence of the disease in developed countries, has been neglected in developing countries due to lack of knowledge, misconceptions, and cultural beliefs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving only female Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) students in a UK university setting...
January 2017: Annals of African Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299201/lyssaviruses-and-rabies-current-conundrums-concerns-contradictions-and-controversies
#20
REVIEW
Charles Rupprecht, Ivan Kuzmin, Francois Meslin
Lyssaviruses are bullet-shaped, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA viruses and the causative agents of the ancient zoonosis rabies. Africa is the likely home to the ancestors of taxa residing within the Genus Lyssavirus, Family Rhabdoviridae. Diverse lyssaviruses are envisioned as co-evolving with bats, as the ultimate reservoirs, over seemingly millions of years. In terms of relative distribution, overt abundance, and resulting progeny, rabies virus is the most successful lyssavirus species today, but for unknown reasons...
2017: F1000Research
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