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Vaccine in developing countries

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909582/ebola-research-funding-a-systematic-analysis-1997-2015
#1
Joseph Ra Fitchett, Amos Lichtman, Damilola T Soyode, Ariel Low, Jimena Villar de Onis, Michael G Head, Rifat Atun
BACKGROUND: The latest outbreak of Ebola in West Africa overwhelmed the affected countries, with the impact on health extending far beyond Ebola-related deaths that have exceeded 11 000. The need to promptly mobilise resources to control emerging infections is widely recognized. Yet, data on research funding for emerging infections remains inadequately documented. METHODS: We defined research investment as all funding flows for Ebola and/or Marburg virus from 1997 to April 2015 whose primary purpose was to advance knowledge and new technologies to prevent or cure disease...
December 2016: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908830/protective-efficacy-of-fc-targeting-conserved-influenza-virus-m2e-antigen-expressed-by-lactobacillus-plantarum
#2
Wen-Tao Yang, Gui-Lian Yang, Qian Wang, Hai-Bin Huang, Yan-Long Jiang, Chun-Wei Shi, Jian-Zhong Wang, Ke-Yan Huang, Yu-Bei Jin, Chun-Feng Wang
The influenza A (H1N1) virus is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease affecting pigs and humans. This disease causes severe economic loss in many countries, and developing mucosal vaccines is an efficient strategy to control the influenza virus. The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) plays an important role in transferring IgG across polarized epithelial cells. In the present study, an oral vaccine was developed using Lactobacillus plantarum to deliver the internal influenza viral protein M2e fused to an IgG Fc fragment...
November 28, 2016: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905628/-virulence-mechanisms-of-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#3
Ana Elvira Farfán-García, Sandra Catherine Ariza-Rojas, Fabiola Andrea Vargas-Cárdenas, Lizeth Viviana Vargas-Remolina
Acute diarrheal disease (ADD) is a global public health problem, especially in developing countries and is one of the causes of mortality in children under five. ADD etiologic agents include viruses, bacteria and parasites in that order. Escherichia coli bacteria it is classified as a major diarrheagenic agent and transmitted by consuming contaminated water or undercooked foods. This review compiled updates on information virulence factors and pathogenic mechanisms involved in adhesion and colonization of seven pathotypes of E...
August 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902409/prevention-of-herpes-zoster-and-its-complications-from-the-clinic-to-the-real-life-experience-with-the-vaccine
#4
Giovanni Gabutti, Nicoletta Valente, Parvanè Kuhdari, Silvia Lupi, Armando Stefanati
The Herpes Zoster (HZ) is an acute viral illness characterized by a vesicular rash, with unilateral distribution, which can eventually cause severe complications, such as the post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN), the ophthalmic zoster, stroke or other neurological complications. In Europe, an incidence between 2.0 and 4.6 cases per 1,000 persons-year is estimated, with an increase after 50 years of age. Currently, the therapeutic options for HZ are only partially effective to limit the acute phase, while the management of complications is frequently complex and not satisfactory...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895595/moving-from-histopathology-to-molecular-tools-in-the-diagnosis-of-molluscs-diseases-of-concern-under-eu-legislation
#5
REVIEW
Raquel Aranguren, Antonio Figueras
One of the main factors limiting molluscs production is the presence of pathogens and diseases. Disease agent transfer via transfers of live molluscs has been a major cause of disease outbreaks and epizootics. Because of that, the European Union has adopted several decisions and directives, the last in 2006 (2006/88/EC) to control movements of marine organisms over the European countries. Once the disease is established in a determined area its eradication is a complicated task because life cycle of pathogens are not completely known and only a good and early diagnosis of the disease could be the most appropriate way to deal with it...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890448/vaccines-against-pseudorabies-virus-prv
#6
C M Freuling, T F Müller, T C Mettenleiter
Aujeszkýs disease (AD, pseudorabies) is a notifiable herpesvirus infection of pigs causing substantial economic losses to swine producers. AD in pigs is controlled by the use of vaccination with inactivated and attenuated live vaccines. Starting with classically attenuated live vaccines derived from low virulent field isolates, AD vaccination has pioneered novel strategies in animal disease control by the first use of genetically engineered live virus vaccines lacking virulence-determining genes, and the concept of DIVA, i...
November 18, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889225/cost-estimate-and-proposal-for-a-development-impact-bond-for-canine-rabies-elimination-by-mass-vaccination-in-chad
#7
Franziska Anyiam, Monique Lechenne, Rolande Mindekem, Assandi Oussigéré, Service Naissengar, Idriss Oumar Alfaroukh, Celine Mbilo, Daugla Doumagoum Moto, Paul G Coleman, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Jakob Zinsstag
Close to 960,000 humans humans die of rabies each year, most of them in Africa and Asia. Clinical rabies can be prevented by post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). However, PEP is commonly not available or not affordable in developing countries. Another strategy besides treating exposed humans is the vaccination of vector species. In developing countries, 8.36 vector is the domestic canine, that, once infected, is a serious threat to humans. After a successful mass vaccination of 70% of the dogs in N'Djaména, we report here a cost-estimate for a national rabies elimination campaign for Chad...
November 23, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888023/integrated-process-for-the-purification-and-immobilization-of-the-envelope-protein-domain-iii-of-dengue-virus-type-2-expressed-in-rachiplusia-nu-larvae-and-its-potential-application-in-a-diagnostic-assay
#8
María Emilia Smith, Alexandra Marisa Targovnik, Julieta Cerezo, María Alejandra Morales, María Victoria Miranda, Julián Rodríguez Talou
Dengue incidence has grown dramatically in the last years, with about 40% of the world population at risk of infection. Recently, a vaccine developed by Sanofi Pasteur has been registered, but only in a few countries. Moreover, specific antiviral drugs are not available. Thus, an efficient and accurate diagnosis is important for disease management. To develop a low-cost immunoassay for dengue diagnosis, in the present study we expressed the envelope protein domain III of dengue virus type 2 in Rachiplusia nu larvae by infection with a recombinant baculovirus...
November 22, 2016: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887796/vaccine-strategies-optimising-outcomes
#9
Karin Hardt, Paolo Bonanni, Susan King, Jose Ignacio Santos, Mostafa El-Hodhod, Gregory D Zimet, Scott Preiss
Successful immunisation programmes generally result from high vaccine effectiveness and adequate uptake of vaccines. In the development of new vaccination strategies, the structure and strength of the local healthcare system is a key consideration. In high income countries, existing infrastructures are usually used, while in less developed countries, the capacity for introducing new vaccines may need to be strengthened, particularly for vaccines administered beyond early childhood, such as the measles or human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine...
November 22, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876197/vaccination-of-special-populations-protecting-the-vulnerable
#10
REVIEW
Mark Doherty, Ruprecht Schmidt-Ott, Jose Ignacio Santos, Lawrence R Stanberry, Annika M Hofstetter, Susan L Rosenthal, Anthony L Cunningham
One of the strategic objectives of the 2011-2020 Global Vaccine Action Plan is for the benefits of immunisation to be equitably extended to all people. This approach encompasses special groups at increased risk of vaccine-preventable diseases, such as preterm infants and pregnant women, as well as those with chronic and immune-compromising medical conditions or at increased risk of disease due to immunosenescence. Despite demonstrations of effectiveness and safety, vaccine uptake in these special groups is frequently lower than expected, even in developed countries with vaccination strategies in place...
November 18, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872300/estimating-enhanced-prevaccination-measles-transmission-hotspots-in-the-context-of-cross-scale-dynamics
#11
Alexander D Becker, Ruthie B Birger, Aude Teillant, Paul A Gastanaduy, Gregory S Wallace, Bryan T Grenfell
A key question in clarifying human-environment interactions is how dynamic complexity develops across integrative scales from molecular to population and global levels. Apart from its public health importance, measles is an excellent test bed for such an analysis. Simple mechanistic models have successfully illuminated measles dynamics at the city and country levels, revealing seasonal forcing of transmission as a major driver of long-term epidemic behavior. Seasonal forcing ties closely to patterns of school aggregation at the individual and community levels, but there are few explicit estimates of school transmission due to the relative lack of epidemic data at this scale...
November 21, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871252/age-patterns-and-transmission-characteristics-of-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-in-china
#12
Jijun Zhao, Fachun Jiang, Lianfa Zhong, Jianping Sun, Junhang Ding
BACKGROUND: Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) has circulated in China and caused yearly outbreak. To understand the transmission of the disease and to assess the spatial variation in cases reported, we examined age-specific transmission characteristics and reporting rates of HFMD for 31 provinces in mainland China. METHODS: We first analyzed incidence spatial patterns and age-specific incidence patterns using dataset from 2008 to 2012. Transmission characteristics were estimated based on catalytic model...
November 21, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869415/a-new-challenge-for-the-world-the-eradication-of-polio
#13
Ángela Gentile, Héctor Abate
Poliovirus infects 100% of susceptible individuals and causes acute flaccid paralysis in one out of200 infections. Type 1 causes epidemic poliomyelitis; type 2 has been eradicated worldwide; and type 3 is close to being eradicated. In this region, the last case of wild poliovirus occurred in Peru in 1991. There are still two endemic countries: Afghanistan and Pakistan, but countries where there is no circulation of the wild poliovirus have also reported imported cases of polio. In May 2012, the World Health Assembly declared the polio eradication a programmatic emergency for global public health and, as a result, developed the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018...
December 1, 2016: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866769/modular-virus-like-particles-for-sublingual-vaccination-against-group-a-streptococcus
#14
Arjun Seth, Il Gyu Kong, Su-Hyun Lee, Jin-Young Yang, Yong-Soo Lee, Yeji Kim, Nani Wibowo, Anton P J Middelberg, Linda H L Lua, Mi-Na Kweon
Infection with Group A streptococcus (GAS)-an oropharyngeal pathogen-leads to mortality and morbidity, primarily among developing countries and indigenous populations in developed countries. The development of safe and affordable GAS vaccines is challenging, due to the presence of various unique GAS serotypes, antigenic variation within the same serotype, and potential auto-immune responses. In the present study, we evaluated the use of a sublingual freeze-dried (FD) formulation based on immunogenic modular virus-like particles (VLPs) carrying the J8 peptide (J8-VLPs) as a potential safe and cost-effective GAS vaccine for inducing protective systemic and mucosal immunity...
December 12, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866265/proteomic-analysis-of-fasciola-hepatica-excretory-and-secretory-products-fhesps-involved-in-interacting-with-host-pbmcs-and-cytokines-by-shotgun-lc-ms-ms
#15
Qing Liu, Si-Yang Huang, Dong-Mei Yue, Jin-Lei Wang, Yujian Wang, Xiangrui Li, Xing-Quan Zhu
Fasciola hepatica is a helminth parasite with a worldwide distribution, which can cause chronic liver disease, fasciolosis, leading to economic losses in the livestock and public health in many countries. Control is mostly reliant on the use of drugs, and as a result, drug resistance has now emerged. The identification of F. hepatica genes involved in interaction between the parasite and host immune system is utmost important to elucidate the evasion mechanisms of the parasite and develop more effective strategies against fasciolosis...
November 19, 2016: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865395/innovative-tuberculosis-symposium-held-during-cuba-salud-2015
#16
EDITORIAL
Helena J Chapman, Luisa Armas Pérez
The fourth Tuberculosis (TB) Symposium, held during the Cuba Salud 2015 International Convention, highlighted advancements in research on TB and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) by interdisciplinary teams from academic and federal institutions in Cuba, Colombia, Mexico, and the Dominican Republic. Delegates focused on the targets presented in the World Health Organization End TB Strategy for 2016-2035 and elaborated on four primary themes: 1) attention to vulnerable populations such as immunocompromised individuals, health care workers, and residents of long-term institutions such as prisons and nursing homes; 2) identification of active and latent TB cases through contact investigations; 3) spread and control of drug-resistant Mtb strains; and 4) advancements in the development of novel vaccines or "booster" immunizations...
December 2016: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863623/tuberculous-lymphadenitis-of-the-head-and-neck-in-canadian-children-experience-from-a-low-burden-region
#17
Jason J Xu, Shazia Peer, Blake C Papsin, Ian Kitai, Evan J Propst
BACKGROUND: Children are more likely than adults to develop extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB), which often presents as cervical lymphadenopathy. The role of surgery in management is uncertain. We reviewed all head and neck EPTB cases presenting to our tertiary care pediatric institution over a twelve-year period. METHODS: All children 18 years of age and younger with EPTB involving the head and neck were included. We recorded clinical data and age at diagnosis, birth country, BCG vaccination status, as well as radiographic, surgical, histological, and microbiological results...
December 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853989/proposed-recommendations-for-diagnosing-and-managing-individuals-with-glutaric-aciduria-type-i-second-revision
#18
REVIEW
Nikolas Boy, Chris Mühlhausen, Esther M Maier, Jana Heringer, Birgit Assmann, Peter Burgard, Marjorie Dixon, Sandra Fleissner, Cheryl R Greenberg, Inga Harting, Georg F Hoffmann, Daniela Karall, David M Koeller, Michael B Krawinkel, Jürgen G Okun, Thomas Opladen, Roland Posset, Katja Sahm, Johannes Zschocke, Stefan Kölker
Glutaric aciduria type I (GA-I; synonym, glutaric acidemia type I) is a rare inherited metabolic disease caused by deficiency of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase located in the catabolic pathways of L-lysine, L-hydroxylysine, and L-tryptophan. The enzymatic defect results in elevated concentrations of glutaric acid, 3-hydroxyglutaric acid, glutaconic acid, and glutaryl carnitine in body tissues, which can be reliably detected by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (organic acids) and tandem mass spectrometry (acylcarnitines)...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852854/a-novel-rabies-vaccine-expressing-cxcl13-enhances-humoral-immunity-by-recruiting-both-t-follicular-helper-and-germinal-center-b-cells
#19
Zhao Wang, Mingming Li, Ming Zhou, Yajing Zhang, Jie Yang, Yandi Cao, Kunlun Wang, Min Cui, Huanchun Chen, Zhen F Fu, Ling Zhao
: Rabies still remains a public health threat in most parts of the world, and approximately 99% of the cases are transmitted by dogs. There is an urgent need to develop an efficacious and affordable vaccine to control canine-transmitted rabies in developing countries. Our previous studies demonstrate that overexpression of chemokines/cytokines such as CCL-3 (MIP-1α) and GM-CSF can enhance the immunogenicity of rabies vaccines. In the present study, the chemokine CXCL13 was inserted into the genome of the recombinant rabies virus (rRABV) strain LBNSE, and the effect of the chemokine CXCL13 on the immunogenicity of the RABV was investigated...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851831/speeding-access-to-vaccines-and-medicines-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-case-for-change-and-a-framework-for-optimized-product-market-authorization
#20
Vincent Ahonkhai, Samuel F Martins, Alexandre Portet, Murray Lumpkin, Dan Hartman
BACKGROUND: The United Nations Millennium Development Goals galvanized global efforts to alleviate suffering of the world's poorest people through unprecedented public-private partnerships. Donor aid agencies have demonstrably saved millions of lives that might otherwise have been lost to disease through increased access to quality-assured vaccines and medicines. Yet, the introduction of these health interventions in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) continues to face a time lag due to factors which remain poorly understood...
2016: PloS One
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