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Vaccine in developing countries

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443981/mapping-the-dengue-scientific-landscape-worldwide-a-bibliometric-and-network-analysis
#1
Fabio Batista Mota, Bruna de Paula Fonseca E Fonseca, Andréia Cristina Galina, Roseli Monteiro da Silva
BACKGROUND: Despite the current global trend of reduction in the morbidity and mortality of neglected diseases, dengue's incidence has increased and occurrence areas have expanded. Dengue also persists as a scientific and technological challenge since there is no effective treatment, vaccine, vector control or public health intervention. Combining bibliometrics and social network analysis methods can support the mapping of dengue research and development (R&D) activities worldwide. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper is to map the scientific scenario related to dengue research worldwide...
May 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441361/immunization-strategies-targeting-newly-arrived-migrants-in-non-eu-countries-of-the-mediterranean-basin-and-black-sea
#2
Cristina Giambi, Martina Del Manso, Maria Grazia Dente, Christian Napoli, Carmen Montaño-Remacha, Flavia Riccardo, Silvia Declich, Network For The Control Of Cross-Border Health Threats In The Mediterranean Basin And Black Sea For The ProVacMed Project
Background: The World Health Organization recommends that host countries ensure appropriate vaccinations to refugees, asylum seekers and migrants. However, information on vaccination strategies targeting migrants in host countries is limited. Methods: In 2015-2016 we carried out a survey among national experts from governmental bodies of 15 non-EU countries of the Mediterranean and Black Sea in order to document and share national vaccination strategies targeting newly arrived migrants. Results: Four countries reported having regulations/procedures supporting the immunization of migrants at national level, one at sub-national level and three only targeting specific population groups...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439753/abating-mercury-exposure-in-young-children-should-include-thimerosal-free-vaccines
#3
REVIEW
José G Dórea
Pediatric immunization is essential to prevent, control and eradicate children`s infectious diseases. Newborns and infants in less developed countries have a concentrated schedule of Thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs); pregnant mothers are also immunized with TCVs. Metabolic changes during early development are demonstrably an important risk factor for ethylmercury (EtHg) effects on neurodevelopment, while exposure to Thimerosal sensitizes susceptible individuals to life-long contact dermatitis. Concerns regarding toxicity of Hg have moved rich nations to withdraw it from medicines and, in particular, Thimerosal from pediatric vaccines; it has been more than 20 years since rich countries started using Thimerosal-free vaccines...
April 24, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438410/vaccination-with-recombinant-modified-vaccinia-ankara-mva-viruses-expressing-single-african-horse-sickness-virus-vp2-antigens-induced-cross-reactive-virus-neutralising-antibodies-vnab-in-horses-when-administered-in-combination
#4
Nicola Mary Manning, Katarzyna Bachanek-Bankowska, Peter Paul Clement Mertens, Javier Castillo-Olivares
African horse sickness is a lethal viral disease of equids transmitted by biting midges of the Genus Culicoides. The disease is endemic to sub-Saharan Africa but outbreaks of high mortality and economic impact have occurred in the past in non-endemic regions of Africa, Asia and Southern Europe. Vaccination is critical for the control of this disease but only live attenuated vaccines are currently available. However, there are bio-safety concerns over the use of this type of vaccines, especially in non-endemic countries, and live attenuated vaccines do not have DIVA (Differentiation of Infected from Vaccinated Animals) capacity...
April 21, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438408/spray-dried-human-and-chimpanzee-adenoviral-vectored-vaccines-are-thermally-stable-and-immunogenic-in-vivo
#5
Sam Afkhami, Daniel A LeClair, Siamak Haddadi, Rocky Lai, Steven P Toniolo, Hildegund C Ertl, Emily D Cranston, Michael R Thompson, Zhou Xing
Cold chain-free vaccine technologies are needed to ensure effective vaccine delivery and coverage, particularly in resource-poor countries. However, the immunogenicity and thermostability of spray dried live viral vector-based vaccines such as recombinant adenoviral-vectored vaccines remain to be investigated. To address this issue, we have spray dried human adenoviral (AdHu5)- and chimpanzee adenoviral (AdCh68)-vectored tuberculosis vaccines in a mannitol and dextran matrix. Spray dried powders containing these two vaccines display the morphologic and chemical properties desired for long-term thermostability and vaccination...
April 21, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437708/primary-secondary-and-tertiary-prevention-of-human-papillomavirus-driven-head-and-neck-cancers
#6
REVIEW
Haïtham Mirghani, Alain C Jung, Carole Fakhry
Human papillomavirus (HPV)-driven oropharyngeal cancers (OPCs) represent an increasing proportion of head and neck cancers that could become, in the next few decades, a public health problem in certain western countries. This significant epidemiological change strongly calls for preventive measures. Prophylactic HPV vaccination and screening programmes for early identification and treatment of premalignant lesions are currently being used to reduce the incidence of uterine cervical cancer, which is the paradigm of HPV-driven malignancy...
April 19, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435908/development-of-a-japanese-encephalitis-virus-like-particle-vaccine-in-silkworms-using-codon-optimised-prm-and-envelope-genes
#7
Sayaka Matsuda, Reiko Nerome, Kenichi Maegawa, Akira Kotaki, Shigeo Sugita, Kazunori Kawasaki, Kazumichi Kuroda, Ryoji Yamaguchi, Tomohiko Takasaki, Kuniaki Nerome
We have successfully prepared a Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) - Nakayama virus like particle (NVLP) vaccine using synthetic codon-optimized prM and E genes. The expression of the recombinant JEV Nakayama-BmNPV (JEV-NNPV) virus was determined in infected silkworm Bm-N cells by fluorescence and Western blot analysis. The recombinant was inoculated into silkworm pupae and the yield of Nakayama VLP (NVLP) reached a peak in the homogenates after 3 days. Additionally, in the peptide analysis of infected pupae homogenate, it appeared approximately 300-500 μg E protein/pupa were produced...
April 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434688/stability-of-heat-stable-live-attenuated-rotavirus-vaccine-rotasiil%C3%A2
#8
Sameer P Naik, Jagdish K Zade, Rajendra N Sabale, Sambhaji S Pisal, Ravi Menon, Subhash G Bankar, Sunil Gairola, Rajeev M Dhere
Vaccines currently available across the globe are stored and transported in a continuous cold-chain at 2-8°C or below -20°C. A temperature excursion outside this range affects the potency of the vaccines. Such vaccines need to be discarded leading wastage. The Rotavirus disease burden is predominantly reported in developing and low-income countries and therefore, has entered or poised to enter their national immunization programs. These countries already have several limitations for effective storage, maintenance and distribution of vaccines in a cold-chain and this introduction is expected to further stress this fragile ecosystem...
April 20, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434651/neonatal-sepsis
#9
REVIEW
Andi L Shane, Pablo J Sánchez, Barbara J Stoll
Neonatal sepsis is the cause of substantial morbidity and mortality. Precise estimates of neonatal sepsis burden vary by setting. Differing estimates of disease burden have been reported from high-income countries compared with reports from low-income and middle-income countries. The clinical manifestations range from subclinical infection to severe manifestations of focal or systemic disease. The source of the pathogen might be attributed to an in-utero infection, acquisition from maternal flora, or postnatal acquisition from the hospital or community...
April 20, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433944/evaluation-of-vaccinal-effectiveness-of-preparations-containing-membrane-antigens-of-leishmania-l-amazonensis-in-experimental-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-model
#10
João G Ribeiro, Amália S Ferreira, Sharon R A Macedo, Norton R D L P Rossi, Mayara C P da Silva, Rosane N M Guerra, Neuza B de Barros, Roberto Nicolete
American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is considered a neglected disease, for which an effective vaccine or an efficient diagnosis is not yet available and whose chemotherapeutic arsenal is threatened by the emergence of resistance by etiological agents such as Leishmania amazonensis. ATL is endemic in poor countries and has a high incidence in Brazil. Vaccines developed from native parasite fractions have led to the identification of defined antigenic subunits and the development of vaccine adjuvant technology...
April 20, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433704/pertussis-and-influenza-immunisation-during-pregnancy-a-landscape-review
#11
REVIEW
Bahaa Abu Raya, Kathryn M Edwards, David W Scheifele, Scott A Halperin
Immunisation during pregnancy is a relatively new strategy, and is currently limited to tetanus, pertussis, and influenza vaccines. None of these vaccines were developed specifically for use in pregnancy, but they provide an effective method of protecting mothers and young infants. In response to increases in pertussis morbidity and mortality among young infants, several countries have recommended universal tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis immunisation during pregnancy. Similarly, many countries recommend influenza immunisation during pregnancy to reduce the risk of disease for mother and infant...
April 19, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425834/rift-valley-fever-vaccines-an-overview-of-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-the-live-attenuated-mp-12-vaccine-candidate
#12
Tetsuro Ikegami
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic viral disease endemic to Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. High rates of abortion among infected ruminants and hemorrhagic fever in infected humans are major public health concerns. Commercially available veterinary RVF vaccines are important for preventing the spread of the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in endemic countries; however, RVFV outbreaks continue to occur frequently in endemic countries in the 21(st) century. In the U.S., the live-attenuated MP-12 vaccine has been developed for both animal and human vaccination...
April 20, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414993/chikungunya-virus-infections-time-to-act-time-to-treat
#13
REVIEW
Rana Abdelnabi, Johan Neyts, Leen Delang
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging alphavirus that caused massive outbreaks of Chikungunya fever in several countries and regions in Africa, Asia and more recently in Central and South America. An acute CHIKV infection is usually associated with fever and arthritis and it is rarely fatal. However, 15-60% of patients suffer from chronic polyarthralgia for weeks, months or even for several years after the acute infection. There are currently no vaccines or antivirals available for the prevention or treatment of CHIKV infections...
April 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410815/advancing-new-vaccines-against-pandemic-influenza-in-low-resource-countries
#14
Francesco Berlanda Scorza
With the support of the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA), PATH is working with governments and vaccine manufacturers to strengthen their influenza vaccine manufacturing capacity and improve their ability to respond to emerging pandemic influenza viruses. Vaccines directed against influenza A/H5N1 and A/H7N9 strains are a particular focus, given the potential for these viruses to acquire properties that may lead to a pandemic. This paper will review influenza vaccine development from a developing country perspective and PATH's support of this effort...
April 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407058/access-to-healthcare-for-undocumented-migrants-analysis-of-avoidable-hospital-admissions-in-sicily-from-2003-to-2013
#15
Daniele Mipatrini, Sebastiano Pollina Addario, Roberto Bertollini, Mario Palermo, Alice Mannocci, Giuseppe La Torre, Kate Langley, Matteo Dembech, Sara Barragan Montes, Santino Severoni
Access to healthcare services for undocumented migrants is one of the main public health issues currently being debated among European countries. Exclusion from primary healthcare services may lead to serious consequences for migrants' health. We analyzed the risk among undocumented migrants, in comparison with regular migrants, of being hospitalized for preventable conditions in the Region of Sicily (Italy). We performed a hospital-based cross-sectional study of the foreign population hospitalized in the Sicily region between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2013...
April 11, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406406/cervical-cancer-in-sub-saharan-africa-an-emerging-and-preventable-disease-associated-with-oncogenic-human-papillomavirus
#16
R S Mboumba Bouassa, T Prazuck, T Lethu, J F Meye, L Bélec
Highly oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are responsible for 7.7 % of cancers in developing countries, mainly cervical cancer. The incidence of this emerging cancer is steadily increasing in sub-Saharan Africa, with more than 75,000 new cases and close to 50,000 deaths a year, a toll further increased by HIV infection. According to the World Health Organization, cervical cancer will kill more than 443,000 women per year worldwide by 2030, nearly 90 % of them in sub-Saharan Africa. This increase in cervical cancer incidence in Africa is now counteracting the progress made by African women in reducing maternal mortality and increasing longevity...
February 1, 2017: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404856/a-dose-dependent-plasma-signature-of-the-safety-and-immunogenicity-of-the-rvsv-ebola-vaccine-in-europe-and-africa
#17
Angela Huttner, Christophe Combescure, Stéphane Grillet, Mariëlle C Haks, Edwin Quinten, Christine Modoux, Selidji Todagbe Agnandji, Jessica Brosnahan, Julie-Anne Dayer, Ali M Harandi, Laurent Kaiser, Donata Medaglini, Tom Monath, Pascale Roux-Lombard, Peter G Kremsner, Tom H M Ottenhoff, Claire-Anne Siegrist
The 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic affected several African countries, claiming more than 11,000 lives and leaving thousands with ongoing sequelae. Safe and effective vaccines could prevent or limit future outbreaks. The recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-vectored Zaire Ebola (rVSV-ZEBOV) vaccine has shown marked immunogenicity and efficacy in humans but is reactogenic at higher doses. To understand its effects, we examined plasma samples from 115 healthy volunteers from Geneva who received low-dose (LD) or high-dose (HD) vaccine or placebo...
April 12, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400594/histo-blood-group-antigens-as-receptors-for-rotavirus-new-understanding-on-rotavirus-epidemiology-and-vaccine-strategy
#18
REVIEW
Xi Jiang, Yang Liu, Ming Tan
The success of the two rotavirus (RV) vaccines (Rotarix and RotaTeq) in many countries endorses a live attenuated vaccine approach against RVs. However, the lower efficacies of both vaccines in many low- and middle-income countries indicate a need to improve the current RV vaccines. The recent discovery that RVs recognize histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) as potential receptors has significantly advanced our understanding of RV diversity, evolution and epidemiology, providing important new insights into the performances of current RV vaccines in different populations and emphasizing a P-type-based vaccine approach...
April 12, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399801/is-the-impact-of-childhood-influenza-vaccination-less-than-expected-a-transmission-modelling-study
#19
Felix Weidemann, Cornelius Remschmidt, Silke Buda, Udo Buchholz, Bernhard Ultsch, Ole Wichmann
BACKGROUND: To reduce the burden of severe influenza, most industrialized countries target specific risk-groups with influenza vaccines, e.g. the elderly or individuals with comorbidities. Since children are the main spreaders, some countries have recently implemented childhood vaccination programs to reduce overall virus transmission and thereby influenza disease in the whole population. The introduction of childhood vaccination programs was often supported by modelling studies that predicted substantial incidence reductions...
April 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396207/the-rotavirus-vaccine-development-pipeline
#20
Carl D Kirkwood, Lyou-Fu Ma, Megan E Carey, A Duncan Steele
Rotavirus disease is a leading global cause of mortality and morbidity in children under 5years of age. The effectiveness of the two globally used oral rotavirus vaccines quickly became apparent when introduced into both developed and developing countries, with significant reductions in rotavirus-associated mortality and hospitalizations. However, the effectiveness and impact of the vaccines is reduced in developing country settings, where the burden and mortality is highest. New rotavirus vaccines, including live oral rotavirus candidates and non-replicating approaches continue to be developed, with the major aim to improve the global supply of rotavirus vaccines and for local implementation, and to improve vaccine effectiveness in developing settings...
April 7, 2017: Vaccine
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