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Vaccine in developing countries

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164393/bordetella-pertussis-virulence-factors-in-the-continuing-evolution-of-whooping-cough-vaccines-for-improved-performance
#1
REVIEW
Dorji Dorji, Frits Mooi, Osvaldo Yantorno, Rajendar Deora, Ross M Graham, Trilochan K Mukkur
Despite high vaccine coverage, whooping cough caused by Bordetella pertussis remains one of the most common vaccine-preventable diseases worldwide. Introduction of whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccines in the 1940s and acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines in 1990s reduced the mortality due to pertussis. Despite induction of both antibody and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses by aP and wP vaccines, there has been resurgence of pertussis in many countries in recent years. Possible reasons hypothesised for resurgence have ranged from incompliance with the recommended vaccination programmes with the currently used aP vaccine to infection with a resurged clinical isolates characterised by mutations in the virulence factors, resulting in antigenic divergence with vaccine strain, and increased production of pertussis toxin, resulting in dampening of immune responses...
November 21, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162935/hepatitis-e-virus-advances-and-challenges
#2
REVIEW
Ila Nimgaonkar, Qiang Ding, Robert E Schwartz, Alexander Ploss
At least 20 million hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections occur annually, with >3 million symptomatic cases and ∼60,000 fatalities. Hepatitis E is generally self-limiting, with a case fatality rate of 0.5-3% in young adults. However, it can cause up to 30% mortality in pregnant women in the third trimester and can become chronic in immunocompromised individuals, such as those receiving organ transplants or chemotherapy and individuals with HIV infection. HEV is transmitted primarily via the faecal-oral route and was previously thought to be a public health concern only in developing countries...
November 22, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162320/controlled-human-infections-a-report-from-the-controlled-human-infection-models-workshop-leiden-university-medical-centre-4-6-may-2016
#3
Meta Roestenberg, Annie Mo, Peter G Kremsner, Maria Yazdanbakhsh
The principle of deliberately infecting humans with infectious agents in a controlled setting, so-called controlled human infections (CHI), is not novel. Many CHI models have a long history and were established decades ago such as the intentional exposure to yellow fever and dengue performed in the 1900's (Reed, 1902) [2]. In these times bioethics and scientific reasoning were in their infancy. Nowadays, clinical trials are highly regulated and CHI are executed worldwide. Controlled human malaria infections and influenza infections are the two most frequently practiced...
November 18, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162319/impact-of-rotavirus-vaccine-on-acute-gastroenteritis-in-children-under-5-years-in-senegal-experience-of-sentinel-site-of-the-albert-royer-children-s-hospital-in-dakar
#4
Amadou Diop, Aliou Thiongane, Jason M Mwenda, Negar Aliabadi, Mouhamadou A Sonko, Aliou Diallo, Babacar Ndoye, Papa M Faye, Idrissa D Ba, Umesh D Parashar, Jacqueline E Tate, Ousmane Ndiaye, Moussa F Cissé, Mamadou Ba
BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children <5 years of age in developing countries, with rotavirus being the most common infectious etiology. In November 2014, monovalent rotavirus vaccine was introduced in Senegal. We determined the impact of rotavirus vaccine on hospitalizations for all-cause and rotavirus related AGE in children <60 months of age. METHODS: We examined two data sources from the national referral hospital...
November 18, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161839/the-potential-impact-of-a-prophylactic-vaccine-for-ebola-in-sierra-leone
#5
Erin N Bodine, Connor Cook, Mikayla Shorten
The 2014 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa was multinational and of an unprecedented scale primarily affecting the countries of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. One of the qualities that makes EVD of high public concern is its potential for extremely high mortality rates (up to 90%). A prophylactic vaccine for ebolavirus (rVSV-ZEBOV) has been developed, and clinical trials show near-perfect efficacy. We have developed an ordinary differential equations model that simulates an EVD epidemic and takes into account (1) transmission through contact with infectious EVD individuals and deceased EVD bodies, (2) the heterogeneity of the risk of becoming infected with EVD, and (3) the increased survival rate of infected EVD patients due to greater access to trained healthcare providers...
April 1, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159414/hepatitis-b-vaccination-screening-and-linkage-to-care-best-practice-advice-from-the-american-college-of-physicians-and-the-centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention
#6
Winston E Abara, Amir Qaseem, Sarah Schillie, Brian J McMahon, Aaron M Harris
Background: Vaccination, screening, and linkage to care can reduce the burden of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, recommendations vary among organizations, and their implementation has been suboptimal. The American College of Physicians' High Value Care Task Force and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed this article to present best practice statements for hepatitis B vaccination, screening, and linkage to care. Methods: A narrative literature review of clinical guidelines, systematic reviews, randomized trials, and intervention studies on hepatitis B vaccination, screening, and linkage to care published between January 2005 and June 2017 was conducted...
November 21, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157377/analyzing-the-foot-and-mouth-disease-outbreak-as-from-2008-to-2014-in-cattle-and-buffaloes-in-sri-lanka
#7
Umanga C Gunasekera, Arumugumam Sivasothy, Nihal Wedasingha, Sivapiragasam Thayaparan, Bandara Rotewewa, Mahalingam Muralithas, Maximilian P O Baumann, Veerasak Punyapornwithaya
Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease that affects all cloven hoofed animals and causes considerable economic losses to cattle and buffalo farmers worldwide. FMD is endemic to Sri Lanka. The objective of this study was to analyze the past situation of FMD from 2008 to 2014 in the country and to identify relevant risk factors associated with the 2014 outbreak. Outbreak data from the Department of Animal Production and Health, Sri Lanka from 2008 to 2014 were used to describe the spatial distribution and to determine associations between the frequency of outbreaks across the country (nine provinces) and factors including vaccination coverage and outbreak year...
December 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157312/combating-echinococcosis-in-china-strengthening-the-research-and-development
#8
Men-Bao Qian, Bernadette Abela-Ridder, Wei-Ping Wu, Xiao-Nong Zhou
Echinococcosis is a neglected zoonotic disease, causing great morbidity and mortality due to the wide distribution of its endemic areas. China holds a high percentage in the global burden of both cystic and alveolar echinococcosis. A national survey conducted between 2012 and 2016 showed that an estimated 50 million people are at risk of contracting the disease in western China, of whom about 0.17 million are cases with echinococcosis.Despite this, research and development on echinococcosis in China is greatly inadequate compared to that in other countries...
November 21, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157291/vaccination-with-recombinant-adenovirus-expressing-peste-des-petits-ruminants-virus-f-or-h-proteins-elicits-t-cell-responses-to-epitopes-that-arises-during-pprv-infection
#9
José Manuel Rojas, Miguel Avia, Elena Pascual, Noemí Sevilla, Verónica Martín
Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes an economically important disease that limits productivity in small domestic ruminants and often affects the livestock of the poorest populations in developing countries. Animals that survive PPRV develop strong cellular and humoral responses, which are probably necessary for protection. Vaccination should thus aim at mimicking these natural responses. Immunization strategies against this morbillivirus using recombinant adenoviruses expressing PPRV-F or -H proteins can protect PPRV-challenged animals and permit differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals...
November 21, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156049/management-of-pregnant-women-and-children-focusing-on-preventing-mother-to-infant-transmission
#10
Huey-Ling Chen, Wan-Hsin Wen, Mei-Hwei Chang
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) immunization has been effectively preventing chronic HBV infection with >90% efficacy in countries with universal neonatal immunization. Perinatal mother-to-infant transmission of HBV remains the major cause of chronic HBV infection despite immunization. Maternal hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg) and high viral load have been noted to be the most important risk factors for transmission. In recent years, short-term antiviral therapy for pregnant women in the third trimester has been shown to be highly effective in reducing 90% of vaccine failure in children...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155877/immune-response-profiles-of-calves-following-vaccination-with-live-bcg-and-inactivated-mycobacterium-bovis-vaccine-candidates
#11
E M D L van der Heijden, J Chileshe, J C M Vernooij, C Gortazar, R A Juste, I Sevilla, J E Crafford, V P M G Rutten, A L Michel
Conventional control and eradication strategies for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) face tremendous difficulties in developing countries; countries with wildlife reservoirs, a complex wildlife-livestock-human interface or a lack of veterinary and veterinary public health surveillance. Vaccination of cattle and other species might in some cases provide the only suitable control strategy for BTB, while in others it may supplement existing test-and-slaughter schemes. However, the use of live BCG has several limitations and the global rise of HIV/AIDS infections has furthermore warranted the exploration of inactivated vaccine preparations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155666/cdc-activities-for-improving-implementation-of-human-papillomavirus-vaccination-cervical-cancer-screening-and-surveillance-worldwide
#12
Virginia Senkomago, Denise Duran, Anagha Loharikar, Terri B Hyde, Lauri E Markowitz, Elizabeth R Unger, Mona Saraiya
Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates are high, particularly in developing countries. Most cervical cancers can be prevented by human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, screening, and timely treatment. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provides global technical assistance for implementation and evaluation of HPV vaccination pilot projects and programs and laboratory-related HPV activities to assess HPV vaccines. CDC collaborates with global partners to develop global cervical cancer screening recommendations and manuals, implement screening, create standardized evaluation tools, and provide expertise to monitor outcomes...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147041/using-health-facility-data-to-assess-subnational-coverage-of-maternal-and-child-health-indicators-kenya
#13
Isabella Maina, Pepela Wanjala, David Soti, Hillary Kipruto, Benson Droti, Ties Boerma
Objective: To develop a systematic approach to obtain the best possible national and subnational statistics for maternal and child health coverage indicators from routine health-facility data. Methods: Our approach aimed to obtain improved numerators and denominators for calculating coverage at the subnational level from health-facility data. This involved assessing data quality and determining adjustment factors for incomplete reporting by facilities, then estimating local target populations based on interventions with near-universal coverage (first antenatal visit and first dose of pentavalent vaccine)...
October 1, 2017: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143623/the-impact-of-eliminating-within-country-inequality-in-health-coverage-on-maternal-and-child-mortality-a-lives-saved-tool-analysis
#14
Adrienne Clermont
BACKGROUND: Inequality in healthcare across population groups in low-income countries is a growing topic of interest in global health. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST), which uses health intervention coverage to model maternal, neonatal, and child health outcomes such as mortality rates, can be used to analyze the impact of within-country inequality. METHODS: Data from nationally representative household surveys (98 surveys conducted between 1998 and 2014), disaggregated by wealth quintile, were used to create a LiST analysis that models the impact of scaling up health intervention coverage for the entire country from the national average to the rate of the top wealth quintile (richest 20% of the population)...
November 7, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142132/identification-of-a-small-molecule-that-compromises-the-structural-integrity-of-viroplasms-and-rotavirus-double-layered-particles
#15
Catherine Eichwald, Giuditta De Lorenzo, Elisabeth M Schraner, Guido Papa, Michela Bollati, Paolo Swuec, Matteo de Rosa, Mario Milani, Eloise Mastrangelo, Mathias Ackermann, Oscar R Burrone, Francesca Arnoldi
Despite the availability of two attenuated vaccines, rotavirus (RV) gastroenteritis remains an important cause of mortality among children in developing countries causing about 215,000 infant deaths annually. Currently, there are no specific antiviral therapies available. RV is a non-enveloped virus with a segmented double-stranded RNA genome. Viral genome replication and assembly of transcriptionally active double-layered particles (DLPs) take place in cytoplasmic viral structures called viroplasms. In this study, we describe strong impairment of the early stages of RV replication induced by a small molecule known as RNA polymerase III inhibitor, ML-60218 (ML)...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141739/advancing-global-health-through-development-and-clinical-trials-partnerships-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blind-assessment-of-safety-tolerability-and-immunogenicity-of-plasmodium-falciparum-sporozoites-vaccine-for-malaria-in-healthy-equatoguinean
#16
Ally Olotu, Vicente Urbano, Ali Hamad, Martin Eka, Mwajuma Chemba, Elizabeth Nyakarungu, Jose Raso, Esther Eburi, Dolores O Mandumbi, Dianna Hergott, Carl D Maas, Mitoha O Ayekaba, Diosdado N Milang, Matilde R Rivas, Tobias Schindler, Oscar M Embon, Adam J Ruben, Elizabeth Saverino, Yonas Abebe, Natasha Kc, Eric R James, Tooba Murshedkar, Anita Manoj, Sumana Chakravarty, Minglin Li, Matthew Adams, Chris Schwabe, Luis Segura, Claudia Daubenberger, Marcel Tanner, Thomas L Richie, Peter F Billingsley, B Kim Lee Sim, Salim Abdulla, Stephen L Hoffman
Equatorial Guinea (EG) has implemented a successful malaria control program on Bioko Island. A highly effective vaccine would be an ideal complement to this effort and could lead to halting transmission and eliminating malaria. Sanaria(®)Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites (PfSPZ) Vaccine is being developed for this purpose. To begin the process of establishing the efficacy of and implementing a PfSPZ Vaccine mass vaccination program in EG, we decided to conduct a series of clinical trials of PfSPZ Vaccine on Bioko Island...
October 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140587/comparison-of-haematology-and-biochemistry-parameters-in-healthy-south-african-infants-with-laboratory-reference-intervals
#17
B Schmidt, M Tameris, H Geldenhuys, A Luabeya, E Bunyasi, T Hawkridge, J B McClain, H Mahomed, T J Scriba, H McShane, M Hatherill
OBJECTIVE: Paediatric laboratory reference intervals used in Africa and Asia may be derived from historical intervals of predominantly Caucasian infants in Europe or North America. These intervals may therefore not be compatible with the range of normality for developing country populations. We aimed to compare haematology and biochemistry parameters in healthy South African infants with local laboratory reference intervals. METHODS: We compared the baseline haematology and biochemistry results of 634 (316 male and 318 female) HIV-unexposed infants, aged 3-6 months, living in a rural area of the Western Cape Province, South Africa, against laboratory reference intervals supplied by the South African National Health Laboratory Services (NHLS)...
November 15, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138657/community-health-worker-interventions-are-key-to-optimal-infant-immunization-coverage-evidence-from-a-pretest-posttest-experiment-in-mwingi-kenya
#18
Japheth Mativo Nzioki, James Ouma, James Hebert Ombaka, Rosebella Ongutu Onyango
Introduction: Immunization is a powerful and cost-effective health intervention which averts an estimated 2 to 3 million deaths every year. Kenya has a high infant and under five mortality and morbidity rates. Increasing routine child immunization coverage is one way of reducing child morbidity and mortality rates in Kenya. Community Health Workers (CHWs) have emerged as critical human resources for health in developing countries. The Community Strategy (CS) is one of the CHW led interventions promoting Maternal and Child Health (MCH) in Kenya...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137604/varicella-zoster-virus-associated-morbidity-and-mortality-in-africa-a-systematic-review
#19
Hannah Hussey, Leila Abdullahi, Jamie Collins, Rudzani Muloiwa, Gregory Hussey, Benjamin Kagina
BACKGROUND: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes varicella and herpes zoster. These vaccine preventable diseases are common globally. Most available data on VZV epidemiology are from industrialised temperate countries and cannot be used to guide decisions on the immunization policy against VZV in Africa. This systematic review aims to review the published data on VZV morbidity and mortality in Africa. METHODS: All published studies conducted in Africa from 1974 to 2015 were eligible...
November 14, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137362/an-optimized-hmgb1-expressed-by-recombinant-rabies-virus-enhances-immunogenicity-through-activation-of-dendritic-cells-in-mice
#20
Zhao Wang, Qian Liang, Yajing Zhang, Jie Yang, Mingming Li, Kunlun Wang, Min Cui, Huanchun Chen, Zhen F Fu, Ling Zhao, Ming Zhou
Rabies remains an important public health threat, killing approximately 59,000 people worldwide annually, most of which are from the developing countries of Africa and Asia where dog rabies are endemic. Therefore, developing an affordable and efficacious vaccine for dog-mediated rabies control is needful in these countries. Our previous studies indicated that over-expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or macrophage inflammatory protein-1 (MIP-1α or CCL3) by recombinant rabies virus (rRABV) could enhance the immunogenicity by activating dendritic cells (DCs)...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
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