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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448739/health-economic-evaluation-of-immunization-strategies-of-hepatitis-e-vaccine-for-elderly-population
#1
Xiaoqing Cheng, Yueyuan Zhao, Xuefeng Zhang, Hui Jin, Jin Min
Objective This study was conducted to assess the cost-effectiveness of hepatitis E vaccination of elderly population in the sporadic regions in China. Methods We used a decision tree-Markov model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of three kinds of hepatitis E virus vaccination strategies from societal perspectives. Parameter estimates were obtained from published researches and experts' opinion. The time horizon was 16 years, and the discounted rate was 3% annually. Costs are expressed in 2016 US dollars...
April 27, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447476/mtbvac-from-discovery-to-clinical-trials-in-tuberculosis-endemic-countries
#2
Dessislava Marinova, Jesus Gonzalo-Asensio, Nacho Aguilo, Carlos Martin
BCG remains the only vaccine against tuberculosis (TB) in use today and despite its impressive global coverage, the nature of BCG protection against the pulmonary forms of TB remains subject to ongoing debate. Because of the limitations of BCG, novel TB vaccine candidates have been developed and several have reached the clinical pipeline. One of these candidates is MTBVAC, the first and only TB vaccine in the clinical pipeline to date based on live-attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis that has successfully entered clinical evaluation, a historic milestone in human vaccinology...
April 27, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446260/human-papillomavirus-9-valent-vaccine-for-cancer-prevention-a-systematic-review-of-the-available-evidence
#3
C Signorelli, A Odone, V Ciorba, P Cella, R A Audisio, A Lombardi, L Mariani, F S Mennini, S Pecorelli, G Rezza, G V Zuccotti, A Peracino
In 2014, the Food and Drug Administration approved a new human papillomavirus 9-valent vaccine (9vHPV), targeting nine HPV types: HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18, which are also targeted by the quadrivalent HPV vaccine (qHPV), plus five additional high cancer risk HPV types (HPV types 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58). The aim of the current study was to systematically retrieve, qualitatively and quantitatively pool, as well as critically appraise all available evidence on 9vHPV from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We conducted a systematic review of the literature on 9vHPV efficacy, immunogenicity and safety, as well as a systematic search of registered, completed, and ongoing RCTs...
April 27, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446173/impact-of-the-ebola-outbreak-on-routine-immunization-in-western-area-sierra-leone-a-field-survey-from-an-ebola-epidemic-area
#4
Xiaojin Sun, T T Samba, Jianyi Yao, Wenwu Yin, Lin Xiao, Fuqiang Liu, Xiaoqiang Liu, Jikun Zhou, Zengqiang Kou, Hongwei Fan, Hao Zhang, Aqnes Williams, Paul M Lansana, Zundong Yin
BACKGROUND: Since March 2014, the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa disrupted health care systems - especially in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone - with a consequential stress on the area's routine immunization programs. To address perceived decreased vaccination coverage, Sierra Leone conducted a catch-up vaccination campaign during 24-27 April 2015. We conducted a vaccination coverage survey and report coverage estimates surrounding the time of the EVD outbreak and the catch-up campaign...
April 26, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444974/school-based-surveillance-for-influenza-vaccine-effectiveness-during-2014-15-seasons-in-hong-kong
#5
Ting F Leung, Renee W Y Chan, Angela Kwok, Wendy C S Ho, Mars K P Tao, Kam L Hon, Frankie W T Cheng, Albert M Li, Paul K S Chan
BACKGROUND: Influenza imposes substantial healthcare burden in children, which can be prevented by vaccination. Influenza vaccination coverage varies widely among childhood populations worldwide, which has significant impact on herd immunity and usefulness of influenza vaccine. However, there is limited real-life data on influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) in children. OBJECTIVE: This prospective study aimed to investigate clinical spectrum of childhood influenza and VE in preventing influenza in Hong Kong children...
April 26, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444819/antenatal-maternal-hepatitis-b-care-is-a-predictor-of-timely-perinatal-administration-of-hepatitis-b-immunoglobulin
#6
Suong Tt Le, Lukas Sahhar, Stephanie Spring, William Sievert, Anouk T Dev
BACKGROUND: Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus continues to occur despite universal recommendations for neonatal immune prophylaxis therapy (IPT) and infant vaccination. AIM: To characterise the risk factors for failure to provide timely IPT and completion of the infant hepatitis B vaccination schedule for children born to mothers with Chronic Hepatitis B (CHB). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to assess compliance with universal guidelines for neonatal IPT for children born to CHB mothers at Monash Health, Australia from 2008 to 2013...
April 26, 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443132/disease-resistance-and-the-definition-of-genetic-enhancement
#7
Derek So, Erika Kleiderman, Seydina B Touré, Yann Joly
Recent gene editing experiments carried out in human embryos have raised the question of whether interventions like the introduction of a CCR5-Δ32 deletion, which could provide heritable resistance to HIV infection, ought to be considered enhancements. Many authors have used the term "enhancement" in different ways, some based on patients' biomedical outcomes and others on their social context. These classifications are often considered overly imprecise. Nevertheless, the concept of "enhancement" could affect the ways in which these applications are regulated in different jurisdictions, the availability of coverage by insurers or public health care, and the force of public opinion in shaping future policy on gene editing...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442231/case-control-vaccine-effectiveness-studies-preparation-design-and-enrollment-of-cases-and-controls
#8
REVIEW
Jennifer R Verani, Abdullah H Baqui, Claire V Broome, Thomas Cherian, Cheryl Cohen, Jennifer L Farrar, Daniel R Feikin, Michelle J Groome, Rana A Hajjeh, Hope L Johnson, Shabir A Madhi, Kim Mulholland, Katherine L O'Brien, Umesh D Parashar, Manish M Patel, Laura C Rodrigues, Mathuram Santosham, J Anthony Scott, Peter G Smith, Halvor Sommerfelt, Jacqueline E Tate, J Chris Victor, Cynthia G Whitney, Anita K Zaidi, Elizabeth R Zell
Case-control studies are commonly used to evaluate effectiveness of licensed vaccines after deployment in public health programs. Such studies can provide policy-relevant data on vaccine performance under 'real world' conditions, contributing to the evidence base to support and sustain introduction of new vaccines. However, case-control studies do not measure the impact of vaccine introduction on disease at a population level, and are subject to bias and confounding, which may lead to inaccurate results that can misinform policy decisions...
April 22, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442134/hpv-vaccines-a-review-of-the-first-decade
#9
REVIEW
Diane M Harper, Leslie R DeMars
Pre-adolescent girls (9-15years) have the option of receiving a two dose HPV vaccine series at either a six month or one year interval to provide protection from HPV 16, the most prevalent type associated with cervical cancers, as well as several other less prevalent types. This series of vaccinations is highly likely to protect her from HPV infection until she enters the routine screening program, whether that be primary HPV testing or a combination of HPV testing and cytology. The two dose program has been recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) since 2015...
April 22, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441935/direct-and-indirect-effects-of-influenza-vaccination
#10
Martin Eichner, Markus Schwehm, Linda Eichner, Laetitia Gerlier
BACKGROUND: After vaccination, vaccinees acquire some protection against infection and/or disease. Vaccination, therefore, reduces the number of infections in the population. Due to this herd protection, not everybody needs to be vaccinated to prevent infections from spreading. METHODS: We quantify direct and indirect effects of influenza vaccination examining the standard Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) and Susceptible-Infected-Recovered-Susceptible (SIRS) model as well as simulation results of a sophisticated simulation tool which allows for seasonal transmission of four influenza strains in a population with realistic demography and age-dependent contact patterns...
April 26, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440642/asymmetric-silica-nanoparticles-with-tunable-head-tail-structures-enhance-hemocompatibility-and-maturation-of-immune-cells
#11
Prasanna Lakshmi Abbaraju, Anand Kumar Meka, Hao Song, Yannan Yang, Manasi Jambhrunkar, Jun Zhang, Chun Xu, Meihua Yu, Chengzhong Yu
Asymmetric mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) with controllable head-tail structures have been successfully synthesized. The head particle type is tunable (solid or porous) and the tail has dendritic large pores. The tail length and tail coverage on head particles are adjustable. Compared to spherical silica nanoparticles with a solid structure (Stöber spheres) or large-pore symmetrical MSN with fully covered tails, asymmetrical head-tail MSN (HTMSN) show superior hemocompatibility due to reduced membrane deformation of red blood cells and decreased level of reactive oxygen species...
April 25, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439708/hepatitis-b-virus-infection-assessed-3-to-18%C3%A2-years-after-vaccination-in-cuban-children-and-adolescents-born-to-hbsag-positive-mothers
#12
Licel de Los Angeles Rodríguez Lay, Marité Bello Corredor, Maria Caridad Montalvo Villalba, Annia Gertrudis Chibás Ojeda, Susel Sariego Frómeta, Manuel Diaz González, Yoandra Abad Lamoth, Meilin Sánchez Wong, Aurélie Sausy, Claude P Muller, Judith M Hübschen
Thirty-two participants, aged between 3-18 years, born to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive mothers and vaccinated at birth were analyzed for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Overall, 56% had anti-HB titers ≥10 IU/L; five were positive for antibodies to the core antigen (anti-HBc), and two of these were also positive for HBsAg/DNA. One of the HBsAg/anti-HBc double-negative children presented with an unusual occult infection (HBV DNA-positive). No known vaccine escape mutations were detectable...
April 24, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438409/health-workers-attitudes-perceptions-and-knowledge-of-influenza-immunization-in-lima-peru-a-mixed-methods-study
#13
Magdalena Bazán, Erika Villacorta, Gisella Barbagelatta, M Michelle Jimenez, Cecilia Goya, Rosario M Bartolini, Mary E Penny
BACKGROUND: Vaccination against seasonal influenza in health workers is recommended but coverage is variable. This study aimed to determine coverage of influenza vaccination among health workers in Lima, Peru in 2010; explore barriers and enabling elements for vaccination; and suggest strategies to improve coverage. METHODS: Qualitative interviews informed the development of a survey instrument that consisted of open and close-ended questions. Sub-analyses were done by occupational group and results were calculated as percentages for each possible response with confidence intervals of 95%...
April 21, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438408/spray-dried-human-and-chimpanzee-adenoviral-vectored-vaccines-are-thermally-stable-and-immunogenic-in-vivo
#14
Sam Afkhami, Daniel A LeClair, Siamak Haddadi, Rocky Lai, Steven P Toniolo, Hildegund C Ertl, Emily D Cranston, Michael R Thompson, Zhou Xing
Cold chain-free vaccine technologies are needed to ensure effective vaccine delivery and coverage, particularly in resource-poor countries. However, the immunogenicity and thermostability of spray dried live viral vector-based vaccines such as recombinant adenoviral-vectored vaccines remain to be investigated. To address this issue, we have spray dried human adenoviral (AdHu5)- and chimpanzee adenoviral (AdCh68)-vectored tuberculosis vaccines in a mannitol and dextran matrix. Spray dried powders containing these two vaccines display the morphologic and chemical properties desired for long-term thermostability and vaccination...
April 21, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438406/coverage-and-determinants-of-childhood-immunization-in-nigeria-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Davies Adeloye, Wura Jacobs, Ann O Amuta, Oluwatomisin Ogundipe, Oluwaseun Mosaku, Muktar A Gadanya, Gbolahan Oni
INTRODUCTION: The proportion of fully immunized children in Nigeria is reportedly low. There are concerns over national immunization data quality, with this possibly limiting country-wide response. We reviewed publicly available evidence on routine immunization across Nigeria to estimate national and zonal coverage of childhood immunization and associated determinants. METHODS: A systematic search of Medline, EMBASE, Global Health and African Journals Online (AJOL) was conducted...
April 21, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435428/in-silico-cd4-cd8-t-cell-and-b-cell-immunity-associated-immunogenic-epitope-prediction-and-hla-distribution-analysis-of-zika-virus
#16
Essam Mohammed Janahi, Anupam Dhasmana, Vandana Srivastava, Aditya Narayan Sarangi, Sana Raza, Jamal M Arif, Madan Lal Bramha Bhatt, Mohtashim Lohani, Mohammed Yahya Areeshi, Anand Murari Saxena, Shafiul Haque
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus distributed all over Africa, South America and Asia. The infection with the virus may cause acute febrile sickness that clinically resembles dengue fever, yet there is no vaccine, no satisfactory treatment, and no means of evaluating the risk of the disease or prognosis in the infected people. In the present study, the efficacy of the host's immune response in reducing the risk of infectious diseases was taken into account to carry out immuno-informatics driven epitope screening strategy of vaccine candidates against ZIKV...
2017: EXCLI journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434402/implementing-the-communication-for-development-strategy-to-improve-knowledge-and-coverage-of-measles-vaccination-in-western-chinese-immunization-programs-a-before-and-after-evaluation
#17
Ming Lu, Yao-Zhu Chu, Wen-Zhou Yu, Robert Scherpbier, Yu-Qing Zhou, Xu Zhu, Qi-Ru Su, Meng-Juan Duan, Xuan Zhang, Fu-Qiang Cui, Hua-Qing Wang, Yi-Biao Zhou, Qing-Wu Jiang
BACKGROUND: Communication for Development (C4D) is a strategy promoted by the United Nations Children's Fund to foster positive and measurable changes at the individual, family, community, social, and policy levels of society. In western China, C4D activities have previously been conducted as part of province-level immunization programs. In this study, we evaluated the association of C4D with changes in parental knowledge of immunization services, measles disease, and measles vaccine, and changes in their children's measles vaccine coverage...
April 24, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433329/measles-epidemics-and-seroepidemiology-of-population-in-wujin-changzhou-city-jiangsu-province-china-2015
#18
Lingyan Tang, Yihong Zhou, Yingzi Pan, Hongming Zhu
The measles epidemic was rather severe in Wujin 2015, and a seroprevalence survey of measles antibody was conducted during June to September 2015 in Wjin district of Changzhou city. Blood samples were collected from community health population and convenient samples of residual blood from hospitals. Measles-specific IgG levels were measured by ELISA assay. A total of 122 measles cases were reported 2015 in Wujin district with an incidence of 8.31 per 100000 populations. A large proportion of measles cases were adults ≥20years (62...
April 19, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433328/role-of-non-traditional-locations-for-seasonal-flu-vaccination-empirical-evidence-and-evaluation
#19
Namhoon Kim, Travis P Mountain
This study investigated the role of non-traditional locations in the decision to vaccinate for seasonal flu. We measured individuals' preferred location for seasonal flu vaccination by examining the National H1N1 Flu Survey (NHFS) conducted from late 2009 to early 2010. Our econometric model estimated the probabilities of possible choices by varying individual characteristics, and predicted the way in which the probabilities are expected to change given the specific covariates of interest. From this estimation, we observed that non-traditional locations significantly influenced the vaccination of certain individuals, such as those who are high-income, educated, White, employed, and living in a metropolitan statistical area (MSA), by increasing the coverage...
April 19, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432101/polio-and-measles-down-the-drain-environmental-enterovirus-surveillance-in-the-netherlands-2005-2015
#20
Kimberley S M Benschop, Harrie G van der Avoort, Edin Jusic, Harry Vennema, Rob van Binnendijk, Erwin Duizer
Polioviruses (PV) are members of the genus Enterovirus (EV). In the Netherlands, the exclusion of PVcirculation is based on Clinical EV Surveillance (CEVS) of EV positive cases and routine Environmental EV Surveillance (EEVS) conducted on sewage samples collected in the region of the Netherlands where vaccination coverage is low due to religious reason.We compared the EEVS data to those of the CEVS to gain insight in the relevance of EEVS for poliovirus and non-polio enterovirus surveillance. Following the polio outbreak in Syria, EEVS was performed at the Primary Refugee Center Ter Apel in the Netherlands and data were compared to CEVS and EEVS...
April 21, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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