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Vaccine coverage

Laura Mosimann, Abdallah Traoré, Stephanie Mauti, Monique Léchenne, Brigit Obrist, René Véron, Jan Hattendorf, Jakob Zinsstag
In the framework of the research network on integrated control of zoonoses in Africa (ICONZ) a dog rabies mass vaccination campaign was carried out in two communes of Bamako (Mali) in September 2014. A mixed method approach, combining quantitative and qualitative tools, was developed to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention towards optimization for future scale-up. Actions to control rabies occur on one level in households when individuals take the decision to vaccinate their dogs. However, control also depends on provision of vaccination services and community participation at the intermediate level of social resilience...
October 14, 2016: Acta Tropica
Merlin L Robb, Jintanat Ananworanich
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Understanding the characteristics of transmission during acute HIV infection (AHI) may inform targets for vaccine-induced immune interdiction. Individuals treated in AHI with a small HIV reservoir size may be ideal candidates for therapeutic HIV vaccines aiming for HIV remission (i.e. viremic control after treatment interruption). RECENT FINDINGS: The AHI period is brief and peak viremia predicts a viral set point that occurs 4-5 weeks following infection...
September 29, 2016: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Alice Lejeune, Luise Martin, Sabine Santibanez, Stephanie Thee, Alexander Gratopp, Peter Späth, Annette Mankertz, Tilmann Kallinich, Horst von Bernuth
Most non-immune individuals exposed to the highly contagious measles virus will develop measles. Complications, such as encephalitis and bacterial infections due to measles virus-induced immunomodulation, account for an acute mortality rate of approximately 0.1% (1). It has been calculated that measles-related immunomodulation may last for several years and may contribute to child mortality on a larger scale than acute measles-related mortality (2). Since humans provide the only host for the virus, and an efficient vaccine is available, it is possible to eliminate measles...
October 17, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
Carmen Radecki Breitkopf, Lila J Finney Rutten, Victoria Findley, Debra J Jacobson, Patrick M Wilson, Monica Albertie, Robert M Jacobson, Gerardo Colón-Otero
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines offer primary prevention of cervical cancer and protection against other HPV-associated cancers. HPV vaccine coverage in the United States (U.S.) remains low, particularly among older adolescents/young adults, and the uninsured. We assessed awareness and knowledge of HPV disease, HPV-related cancers, and HPV vaccines among working, uninsured adults. Data from the 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS 4, Cycle 4) were used as a benchmark. Patients were surveyed in late 2014 at the Volunteers in Medicine free clinic in Duval County, Florida...
October 17, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Chun Chao, Michael J Silverberg, Tracy A Becerra, Douglas A Corley, Christopher D Jensen, Qiaoling Chen, Virginia P Quinn
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus vaccination may result in lowered intention to be screened for cervical cancer, potentially leading to gaps in screening coverage and avoidable cervical cancer diagnoses. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between human papillomavirus vaccination and subsequent cervical cancer screening initiation and adherence to recommended screening intervals to detect gaps in screening coverage and inform future prevention efforts. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in two distinct cohorts of female members of Kaiser Permanente Southern California, a large integrated healthcare delivery system...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Juan Yang, Katherine E Atkins, Luzhao Feng, Mingfan Pang, Yaming Zheng, Xinxin Liu, Benjamin J Cowling, Hongjie Yu
BACKGROUND: To explore the current landscape of seasonal influenza vaccination across China, and estimate the budget of implementing a national "free-at-the-point-of-care" vaccination program for priority populations recommended by the World Health Organization. METHODS: In 2014 and 2016, we conducted a survey across provincial Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to collect information on regional reimbursement policies for influenza vaccination, estimated the national uptake using distributed doses of influenza vaccines, and evaluated the budget using population size and vaccine cost obtained from official websites and literatures...
October 13, 2016: Vaccine
Anonh Xeuatvongsa, Siddhartha Sankar Datta, Edna Moturi, Kathleen Wannemuehler, Phanmanisone Philakong, Viengnakhone Vongxay, Vansy Vilayvone, Minal K Patel
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B vaccine birth dose (HepB-BD) was introduced in Lao People's Democratic Republic to prevent perinatal hepatitis B virus transmission in 2008; high coverage is challenging since only 38% of births occur in a health facility. Healthcare workers report being unaware of home births and thus unable to conduct timely postnatal care (PNC) home visits. A quasi-experimental pilot study was conducted wherein mobile phones and phone credits were provided to village health volunteers (VHV) and healthcare workers (HCWs) to assess whether this could improve HepB-BD administration, as well as birth notification and increase home visits...
October 11, 2016: Vaccine
Surendra Karki, Amalie Dyda, Anthony Newall, Anita Heywood, C Raina MacIntyre, Peter McIntyre, Emily Banks, Bette Liu
Australia has a large immigrant population but there are few data regarding whether influenza vaccine coverage in adults varies according to country of birth. We quantified and compared self-reported influenza vaccination coverage between Australian-born and immigrant residents aged ⩾49years enrolled in a large cohort (the 45 and Up Study), surveyed in 2012 and 2013. Estimated vaccine coverage was adjusted for age, sex and other factors known to be associated with vaccine uptake. Among 76,040 participants included in the analyses (mean age 66...
October 11, 2016: Vaccine
Kirsten Maertens, Tessa Braeckman, Geert Top, Pierre Van Damme, Elke Leuridan
In Belgium, pertussis vaccination is recommended for all pregnant women in every pregnancy. Adults in close contact with young infants are equally advised to receive a pertussis containing booster dose. Maternal influenza vaccination is likewise recommended in Belgium in the second or third trimester of pregnancy, within the influenza season. A quantitative multicenter survey study has been performed between October 2014 and May 2015 in both postpartum women (N=823, response rate=89.2%) and health care workers (HCWs) (N=261) to assess the coverage of both vaccines during pregnancy along with the coverage of the pertussis cocoon strategy, and to evaluate the knowledge and recommending attitude of HCWs towards the maternal vaccination strategies and the cocoon strategy among surveyed women and HCWs...
October 11, 2016: Vaccine
Vijay G Mammen, Ziyaad Dangor, David P Moore, Alane Izu, Natalie Beylis, Shabir A Madhi
BACKGROUND: Children hospitalized with culture-confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) frequently present with acute symptoms, possibly because of superimposed pneumococcal pneumonia. We undertook a time-series analysis to determine whether routine immunization of children with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) was temporally associated with changes in the incidence of hospitalization for PTB in South African children. METHODS: PCV was introduced in the South African public immunization program in April 2009, with coverage for the third dose of PCV of 10%, 64% and 89% in 2009, 2010 and 2011, respectively...
October 12, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Peter Aaby, Jens Nielsen, Christine S Benn, Jean-François Trape
BACKGROUND: Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) may be associated with increased female mortality; the effect of co-administration with BCG is not known. METHODS: Between 1989 and 1997, we examined female and male mortality rates in rural Senegal where 7824 infants received the first dose of DTP and inactivated polio vaccine (DTP-IPV) with BCG. Subsequent doses of DTP-IPV were administered alone. We analysed mortality according to sex and number of doses of DTP-IPV vaccine...
October 13, 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Bernardo Antonio Agostini, Lisara Tosatto Pinto, Mariangélica Koehler, Bruno Emmanuelli, Chaiana Piovesan, Thiago Machado Ardenghi
The aim of this study was to assess trends in traumatic crown injuries (TCIs), their prevalence, and association with socioeconomic and clinical factors in preschool children over a 5-year period. A series of cross-sectional surveys was conducted in Santa Maria, Brazil, on children attending a National Day of Children's Vaccination. The same protocol was used in all surveys conducted in 2008, 2010, and 2013. Clinical examinations were performed to evaluate types of traumatic crown injuries using the O'brien index...
October 10, 2016: Brazilian Oral Research
Deborah A Williamson, Pierre R Smeesters, Andrew C Steer, Julie Morgan, Mark Davies, Philip Carter, Arlo Upton, Stephen Y C Tong, John Fraser, Nicole J Moreland
BACKGROUND: Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) are responsible for a significant disease burden amongst Māori and Pacific populations in New Zealand (NZ). However, contemporary data are lacking regarding circulating group A Streptococcal (GAS) strains in NZ. Such information is important in guiding vaccine development. METHODS: GAS isolates from April to June 2015 were recovered from skin and pharyngeal samples from children living in areas of high social deprivation in Auckland, NZ, a significant proportion of which are Māori or Pacific...
October 12, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Sarah A Buchan, Jeffrey C Kwong
BACKGROUND: Influenza immunization coverage among Canadian health care personnel remains below national targets. Targeting this group is of particular importance given their elevated risk of influenza infection, role in transmission and influence on patients' immunization status. We examined influenza immunization coverage in health care personnel in Canada, reasons for not being immunized and the impact of "vaccinate-or-mask" influenza prevention policies. METHODS: In this national cross-sectional study, we pooled data from the 2007 to 2014 cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey and restricted it to respondents who reported a health care occupation...
July 2016: CMAJ Open
Kevin L Schwartz, Nathaniel Jembere, Michael A Campitelli, Sarah A Buchan, Hannah Chung, Jeffrey C Kwong
BACKGROUND: Owing to the absence of a vaccination registry in Ontario, administrative data are currently the best available source to determine population-based individual-level influenza vaccination status. Our objective was to validate physician billing claims for influenza vaccination in the Ontario Health Insurance Plan database against the Canadian Community Health Survey. METHODS: We used self-reported seasonal influenza vaccination status of Ontario residents surveyed between 2007 and 2009 as the reference standard...
July 2016: CMAJ Open
Evelot Duijzer, Willem van Jaarsveld, Jacco Wallinga, Rommert Dekker
'Critical vaccination coverages' are vaccination allocations that result in an effective reproduction ratio of one. In a population with interacting subpopulations there are many different critical vaccination coverages. To find the most efficient critical vaccination coverage, we define the following optimization problem: minimize the required amount of vaccines to obtain an effective reproduction ratio of exactly one. We prove that this optimization problem is equivalent to the problem of maximizing the proportion of susceptibles that escape infection during an epidemic (i...
October 8, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences
Shoaib Fahad Hussain, Peter Boyle, Preeti Patel, Richard Sullivan
Since the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in 1988 the global incidence of poliomyelitis has fallen by nearly 99 %. From a situation where wild type poliovirus was endemic in 125 countries across five continents, transmission is now limited to regions of just three countries - Pakistan, Afghanistan and Nigeria. A sharp increase in Pakistan's poliomyelitis cases in 2014 prompted the International Health Regulations Emergency Committee to declare the situation a 'public health emergency of international concern'...
October 12, 2016: Globalization and Health
Justin Lessler, C Jessica E Metcalf, Felicity T Cutts, Bryan T Grenfell
BACKGROUND: Routine vaccination supplemented by planned campaigns occurring at 2-5 y intervals is the core of current measles control and elimination efforts. Yet, large, unexpected outbreaks still occur, even when control measures appear effective. Supplementing these activities with mass vaccination campaigns triggered when low levels of measles immunity are observed in a sample of the population (i.e., serosurveys) or incident measles cases occur may provide a way to limit the size of outbreaks...
October 2016: PLoS Medicine
Laetitia Duval, François-Charles Wolff, Martin McKee, Bayard Roberts
AIM: To investigate differences in vaccination coverage between Roma and otherwise comparable non-Roma children, including factors associated with the vaccination gap, health care access and discrimination faced by Roma. METHODS: We analyse data from the Roma Regional Survey 2011 implemented in twelve countries of Central and South-East Europe. Our sample comprises 8233 children aged up to 6 with 7072 Roma children and 1161 non-Roma children. Estimates of the Roma vaccination gap are estimated using Logit regressions...
October 7, 2016: Vaccine
Alasdair Bamford, Emma C Manno, Maria Jose Mellado, Vana Spoulou, Laura Marques, Henriette J Scherpbier, Tim Niehues, Agnieszka Oldakowska, Paolo Rossi, Paolo Palma
BACKGROUND: Current national immunisation schedules differ between countries in terms of vaccine formulation, timing of vaccinations and immunisation programme funding and co-ordination. As a result, some HIV infected paediatric population may be left susceptible to vaccine preventable infections. Vaccines used in healthy population should be subjected to high quality ethical research and be explicitly validated for use in children with special vaccination needs such as those infected with HIV...
October 7, 2016: Vaccine
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