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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644696/varicella-vaccination-the-global-experience
#1
Peter Wutzler, Paolo Bonanni, Margaret Burgess, Anne Gershon, Marco Aurélio Sáfadi, Giacomo Casabona
Introduction Varicella, although a frequently benign childhood disease, nevertheless represents a considerable health burden. WHO recommends including varicella vaccines in universal routine vaccination programs, and maintaining coverage >80%. Many countries have successfully introduced varicella vaccination and have benefited from lower disease burden, but many others have not adopted the vaccine. Reasons include cost commitment for a 'mild childhood disease' or concerns that vaccination will shift varicella to older age groups or increase herpes zoster incidence...
June 23, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641590/measles-elimination-and-immunisation-national-surveillance-trends-in-japan-2008-2015
#2
S Inaida, S Matsuno, F Kobune
Measles elimination relies on vaccination programmes. In Japan, a major outbreak started in 2007. In response, 5-year two-dose catch-up vaccination programme was initiated in April 2008 for children 13-16-years-old. In this study, we analysed the epidemic curves, incidence rates for each age group, virus genotype, vaccination coverage and ratio of measles gelatin particle agglutination (PA) antibody using surveillance data for 2008-2015. Monthly case counts markedly decreased as vaccination coverage increased...
June 23, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641577/a-case-report-of-septic-shock-syndrome-caused-by-s-pneumoniae-in-an-immunocompromised-patient-despite-of-vaccination
#3
Josef Singer, Christoph Testori, Peter Schellongowski, Ammon Handisurya, Catharina Müller, Eva-Maria Reitter, Wolfgang Graninger, Paul Knöbl, Thomas Staudinger, Stefan Winkler, Florian Thalhammer
BACKGROUND AND CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of septic shock syndrome caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in a patient who had undergone splenectomy due to an autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), which is characterized as a dysfunction of immunoregulation. Although the patient was vaccinated with a conjugated polysaccharide vaccine after the splenectomy, he was still susceptible to S. pneumoniae infection, because the isolated serovar (24F), a serovar long thought to be apathogenic, is not covered by any vaccine currently approved, neither a conjugated nor an unconjugated polysaccharide one...
June 22, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641373/estimating-influenza-vaccine-effectiveness-in-the-test-negative-design-using-alternative-control-groups-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Shuo Feng, Benjamin J Cowling, Heath Kelly, Sheena G Sullivan
One important assumption in case-control studies is that control selection should be independent of exposure. Nevertheless, it has been hypothesized that virus interference might lead to a correlation between receipt of influenza vaccination and increased risk of infection with other respiratory viruses. We investigated if such a phenomenon might affect a commonly used study design to estimate influenza vaccination effectiveness (VE). We searched publications in Medline, PubMed and Web of Science. Twelve studies were identified reporting VE estimates using the test-negative design by three alternative control groups: (1) all patients testing negative for influenza, VEFLU-, (2) patients who tested positive for other respiratory viruses, VEORV+, or (3) patients who tested negative for all viruses tested, VEPAN-...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637805/conjugation-of-pspa4pro-with-capsular-streptococcus-pneumoniae-polysaccharide-serotype-14-does-not-reduce-the-induction-of-cross-reactive-antibodies
#5
Míriam A da Silva, Thiago R Converso, Viviane M Gonçalves, Luciana C C Leite, Martha M Tanizaki, Giovana C Barazzone
Current pneumococcal vaccines are composed of bacterial polysaccharides as antigens plain or conjugated to carrier proteins. While efficacious against vaccine serotypes, epidemiologic data shows increasing incidence of infections caused by non-vaccine serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The use of Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) as a carrier protein in a conjugate vaccine could help preventing serotype replacement by increasing vaccine coverage and reducing selective pressure of S. pneumoniae serotypes...
June 21, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634747/evaluation-of-vaccination-strategies-for-sir-epidemics-on-random-networks-incorporating-household-structure
#6
Frank Ball, David Sirl
This paper is concerned with the analysis of vaccination strategies in a stochastic susceptible [Formula: see text] infected [Formula: see text] removed model for the spread of an epidemic amongst a population of individuals with a random network of social contacts that is also partitioned into households. Under various vaccine action models, we consider both household-based vaccination schemes, in which the way in which individuals are chosen for vaccination depends on the size of the households in which they reside, and acquaintance vaccination, which targets individuals of high degree in the social network...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633302/mumps-clinical-diagnostic-uncertainty
#7
Fabio Magurano, Melissa Baggieri, Antonella Marchi, Paola Bucci, Giovanni Rezza, Loredana Nicoletti
During recent years, various mumps outbreaks have occurred among populations vaccinated for mumps worldwide. In Italy, improving routine coverage with two doses of measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine is one of the key strategies to eliminate measles and rubella. To monitor the effect of the vaccination programme on the population, the surveillance of these vaccine-preventable diseases has been implemented. This provided the opportunity to evaluate the accuracy of the clinical diagnosis of those diseases, including mumps...
June 12, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632827/-occult-bacteremia-in-s%C3%A3-tero-del-r%C3%A3-o-hospital-experience-after-pneumococcal-conjugated-vaccine
#8
Isolda Budnik, Alejandra Sandoval, Alejandra Prado, Marcela Labbé, Anamaría Peña, Tamara Viviani
BACKGROUND: Occult bacteremia (OB) is one of the possible diagnoses of children younger than 3 years with fever without source in the emergency room. OBJECTIVE: describe OB in the era after introduction of pneumococcal vaccine in Chile. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Prospective descriptive review of data of children with possible OB diagnosis, referred from the emergency department between 2010-2013. RESULTS: Possible OB was diagnosed on 391 patients...
April 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632192/coverage-and-influencing-determinants-of-influenza-vaccination-in-elderly-patients-in-a-country-with-a-poor-vaccination-implementation
#9
Maria Ganczak, Karolina Gil, Marcin Korzeń, Marta Bażydło
The seasonal influenza vaccination uptake of the elderly in Poland is one of the lowest in Europe. Objective: to assess the vaccination coverage and influencing determinants in patients ≥65 years of age. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted (November 2015-April 2016) among consecutive patients admitted to a municipal hospital located in the city of Szczecin, North-west Poland. Patients completed researcher-administered, anonymous questionnaires on socio- demographic data/factors related to the vaccination...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631310/zinc-supplementation-for-the-treatment-of-measles-in-children
#10
REVIEW
Ajibola A Awotiwon, Olabisi Oduwole, Anju Sinha, Charles I Okwundu
BACKGROUND: Measles is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality globally, despite increasing vaccine coverage. Zinc plays a significant role in the maintenance of normal immunological functions, therefore supplements given to zinc-deficient children will increase the availability of zinc and could reduce measles-related morbidity and mortality. This is an update of a review first published in 2015. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of zinc supplementation in reducing morbidity and mortality in children with measles...
June 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628185/epidemiology-and-prevention-of-influenza-in-children-in-argentina-and-brazil
#11
(no author information available yet)
A group of influenza experts from Argentina and Brazil got together to discuss the burden of influenza in children, review current vaccine coverage rates in both countries, analyze vaccine effectiveness, and discuss strategies to improve prevention. Active surveillance of respiratory viruses is carried out nationwide in both countries. Years 2014 and 2015 were mild influenza seasons; influenza virus type A/H3N2 prevailed, whereas type B represented less than 30% of isolates. Trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine is included in National Immunization Programs for 1) children 6 months to 2 years old in Argentina; 2) children 6 months to 5 years old in Brazil; and 3) all high-risk individuals...
June 8, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627429/impact-of-rotavirus-vaccination-on-child-mortality-morbidity-and-rotavirus-related-hospitalizations-in-bolivia
#12
Lucia Inchauste, Maritza Patzi, Kjetil Halvorsen, Susana Solano, Raul Montesano, Volga Iñiguez
BACKGROUND: The public health impact of rotavirus vaccination in countries with high child mortality rates remains to be established. The RV1 rotavirus vaccine was introduced in Bolivia in August 2008. This study describes the trends in deaths, hospitalizations, and healthcare visits due to acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and in rotavirus-related hospitalizations, among children <5 years of age, during the pre- and post-vaccination periods. METHODS: Data were obtained from the National Health Information System to calculate vaccine coverage and AGE-related health indicators...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626810/human-papillomavirus-hpv-in-young-women-in-britain-population-based-evidence-of-the-effectiveness-of-the-bivalent-immunisation-programme-and-burden-of-quadrivalent-and-9-valent-vaccine-types
#13
Clare Tanton, David Mesher, Simon Beddows, Kate Soldan, Soazig Clifton, Kavita Panwar, Nigel Field, Catherine H Mercer, Anne M Johnson, Pam Sonnenberg
BACKGROUND: In 2008, the UK introduced an HPV immunisation programme in girls. Population-based prevalence estimates of bivalent (HPV-16/18), quadrivalent (HPV-6/11/16/18) and 9-valent (HPV-6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) vaccine types, and comparison over time, are needed to monitor impact, evaluate effectiveness and guide decision-making on vaccination strategies. METHODS: The third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3) in 2010-12, tested urine for HPV from 2569 sexually-experienced women aged 16-44...
June 2017: Papillomavirus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626749/a-century-spent-combating-rabies-in-morocco-1911-2015-how-much-longer
#14
Sami Darkaoui, Florence Cliquet, Marine Wasniewski, Emmanuelle Robardet, Nadia Aboulfidaa, Mohammed Bouslikhane, Ouafaa Fassi-Fihri
Rabies has no known beginning in Morocco and to date, government control efforts and plans fail to eradicate the disease. A review and analysis of available epidemiological data are crucial to learn lessons from the past and to propose effective actions. Legally, animal rabies is a notifiable disease since 1913 and legislation has been updated periodically since. Dogs have always been considered as both the disease's vector and reservoir, while cattle, other herbivores, and humans are victims. Animal rabies cases evolution from 1942 to 2015 is characterized by ascending phase then decreasing one following structured rabies control plan implementation in 1980s...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626253/socio-economic-and-demographic-determinants-of-full-immunization-among-children-of-12-23-months-in-afghanistan
#15
Fraidoon Farzad, Joshua A Reyer, Eiko Yamamoto, Nobuyuki Hamajima
Immunization is one of the most cost-effective interventions to reduce vaccine-preventable diseases morbidity and mortality. Vaccination coverage is very low in Afghanistan; National Risk and Vulnerability Assessment (NRVA) Survey 2008 estimated the coverage of fully immunized children to be 37%. The current study was designed to examine the factors influencing full immunization among children aged 12-23 months. Demographic and vaccination data of 2,561 children of 12-23 months was extracted from the Afghanistan Health Survey (AHS) 2012...
February 2017: Nagoya Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625524/cross-reactivity-and-avidity-of-antibody-responses-induced-in-humans-by-the-oral-inactivated-multivalent-enterotoxigenicescherichia-coli-etec-vaccine-etvax
#16
Susannah Leach, Anna Lundgren, Nils Carlin, Madeleine Löfstrand, Ann-Mari Svennerholm
We investigated whether the oral inactivated, multivalent enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) vaccine ETVAX, consisting of four E. coli strains over-expressing the colonisation factors (CFs) CFA/I, CS3, CS5 and CS6, combined with the toxoid LCTBA, could induce cross-reactive antibodies to CFs related to the CFA/I and CS5 families. We also evaluated the avidity of vaccine induced antibodies against the toxoid and CFs. Cross-reactivity was analysed in mucosal (faecal and antibodies in lymphocyte supernatants, ALS) samples, and antibody avidity in serum and ALS samples, from two phase I trials: a primary vaccination study, where two oral doses of ETVAX were given±the double mutant heat labile toxin (dmLT) adjuvant at a 2-week interval, and a booster vaccination study, where a single booster dose of ETVAX was given 13-23months after primary vaccinations...
June 15, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624983/how-to-increase-vaccination-acceptance-among-apostolic-communities-quantitative-results-from-an-assessment-in-three-provinces-in-zimbabwe
#17
Regina Gerede, Zorodzai Machekanyanga, Serigne Ndiaye, Kenneth Chindedza, Colline Chigodo, Messeret E Shibeshi, James Goodson, Fussum Daniel, Reinhard Kaiser
A worldwide increasing trend toward vaccine hesitancy has been reported. Measles outbreaks in southern Africa in 2009-2010 were linked to objections originating from Apostolic gatherings. Founded in Zimbabwe in the 1950s, the Apostolic church has built up a large number of followers with an estimated 3.5 million in Zimbabwe in 2014. To inform planning of interventions for the 2015 measles-rubella vaccination campaign, we assessed vaccination status and knowledge, attitudes and practices among purposive samples of Apostolic caregivers in three districts each in Harare City, Manicaland and Matabeleland South in Zimbabwe...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624305/durability-of-immunogenicity-and-strain-coverage-of-menbvac-a-meningococcal-vaccine-based-on-outer-membrane-vesicles-lessons-of-the-normandy-campaign
#18
Julien Sevestre, Eva Hong, Valérie Delbos, Aude Terrade, Eric Mallet, Ala-Eddine Deghmane, Ludovic Lemée, Muhamed-Kheir Taha, François Caron
OBJECTIVES: MenBvac® is an outer membrane vesicle (OMV)-based meningococcal vaccine. From 2006 to 2012, it was used to control a clonal B outbreak in Normandy (France). We aimed to analyse the durability of the response against the epidemic strain and coverage beyond the vaccine strain. These data should help to optimize the use of OMV-containing vaccines, such as the new 4CMenB/Bexsero® recombinant vaccine. METHODS: Serum bactericidal activity (SBA) was measured in two cohorts of children who received their first dose of MenBvac® at 1-5years of age and accepted to provide a blood sample either one or four years after a 2+1+1 schedule...
June 14, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624133/-the-use-of-administrative-health-databases-in-infectious-disease-epidemiology-and-public-health
#19
L Fonteneau, N Le Meur, A Cohen-Akenine, C Pessel, C Brouard, F Delon, G Desjeux, J Durand, J Kirchgesner, N Lapidus, M Lemaitre, S Tala, A Thiébaut, L Watier, J Rudant, L Guillon-Grammatico
BACKGROUND: The public health burden resulting from infectious diseases requires efforts in surveillance and evaluation of health care. The use of administrative health databases (AHD) and in particular the French national health insurance database (SNIIRAM) is an opportunity to improve knowledge in this field. The SNIIRAM data network (REDSIAM) workshop dedicated to infectious diseases conducted a narrative literature review of studies using French AHD. From the results, benefits and limits of these new tools in the field of infectious diseases are presented...
June 14, 2017: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623957/developing-a-mathematical-model-for-the-evaluation-of-the-potential-impact-of-a-partially-efficacious-vaccine-on-the-transmission-dynamics-of-schistosoma-mansoni-in-human-communities
#20
Andria Stylianou, Christoforos Hadjichrysanthou, James E Truscott, Roy M Anderson
BACKGROUND: There is currently no vaccine available to protect humans against infection with the schistosome digenean parasites, although candidate formulations for Schistosoma mansoni are under trial in animal models, including rodents and primates. Current strategies for the control of infection are based on mass drug administration (MDA) targeted at school-aged children of age 5 to 14 years. This approach is unlikely to eliminate exposure to infection except in settings with very low levels of transmission...
June 17, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
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