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Vaccine coverage

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148958/human-leptospirosis-vaccines-in-china
#1
Yinghua Xu, Qiang Ye
The present incidence of leptospirosis in China is significantly lower than past rates, although small localized outbreaks continue to occur in epidemic regions. Improvements in sanitation, as well as vaccination of high-risk populations, have played crucial roles in reducing the disease burden. Several types of human leptospirosis vaccines have been developed, including inactivated whole-cell, outer-envelope, and recombinant vaccines. Of these, only a multivalent inactivated leptospirosis vaccine is available in China, which was added to the Chinese Expanded Program on Immunization in 2007...
November 17, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148920/the-unexpected-impact-of-vaccines-on-secondary-bacterial-infections-following-influenza
#2
Amber M Smith, Victor C Huber
Influenza virus infections remain a significant health burden worldwide, despite available vaccines. Factors that contribute to this include a lack of broad coverage by current vaccines and continual emergence of novel virus strains. Further complicating matters, when influenza viruses infect a host, severe infections can develop when bacterial pathogens invade. Secondary bacterial infections (SBIs) contribute to a significant proportion of influenza-related mortality, with Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Haemophilus influenzae as major coinfecting pathogens...
November 17, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148273/global-routine-vaccination-coverage-2016
#3
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2017: Relevé épidémiologique Hebdomadaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147041/using-health-facility-data-to-assess-subnational-coverage-of-maternal-and-child-health-indicators-kenya
#4
Isabella Maina, Pepela Wanjala, David Soti, Hillary Kipruto, Benson Droti, Ties Boerma
Objective: To develop a systematic approach to obtain the best possible national and subnational statistics for maternal and child health coverage indicators from routine health-facility data. Methods: Our approach aimed to obtain improved numerators and denominators for calculating coverage at the subnational level from health-facility data. This involved assessing data quality and determining adjustment factors for incomplete reporting by facilities, then estimating local target populations based on interventions with near-universal coverage (first antenatal visit and first dose of pentavalent vaccine)...
October 1, 2017: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145357/global-routine-vaccination-coverage-2016
#5
Leora R Feldstein, Stephanie Mariat, Marta Gacic-Dobo, Mamadou S Diallo, Laura M Conklin, Aaron S Wallace
The Global Vaccine Action Plan 2011-2020 (GVAP) (1), endorsed by the World Health Assembly in 2012, calls on all countries to reach ≥90% national coverage for all vaccines in the country's routine immunization schedule by 2020. CDC and the World Health Organization (WHO) evaluated the WHO and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) global vaccination coverage estimates to describe changes in global and regional coverage as of 2016. Global coverage estimates for the third dose of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis-containing vaccine (DTP3), the third dose of polio vaccine, and the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) have ranged from 84% to 86% since 2010...
November 17, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143623/the-impact-of-eliminating-within-country-inequality-in-health-coverage-on-maternal-and-child-mortality-a-lives-saved-tool-analysis
#6
Adrienne Clermont
BACKGROUND: Inequality in healthcare across population groups in low-income countries is a growing topic of interest in global health. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST), which uses health intervention coverage to model maternal, neonatal, and child health outcomes such as mortality rates, can be used to analyze the impact of within-country inequality. METHODS: Data from nationally representative household surveys (98 surveys conducted between 1998 and 2014), disaggregated by wealth quintile, were used to create a LiST analysis that models the impact of scaling up health intervention coverage for the entire country from the national average to the rate of the top wealth quintile (richest 20% of the population)...
November 7, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141619/seasonal-influenza-vaccination-of-healthcare-workers-systematic-review-of-qualitative-evidence
#7
Theo Lorenc, David Marshall, Kath Wright, Katy Sutcliffe, Amanda Sowden
BACKGROUND: Most countries recommend that healthcare workers (HCWs) are vaccinated seasonally against influenza in order to protect themselves and patients. However, in many cases coverage remains low. A range of strategies have been implemented to increase uptake. Qualitative evidence can help in understanding the context of interventions, including why interventions may fail to achieve the desired effect. This study aimed to synthesise evidence on HCWs' perceptions and experiences of vaccination for seasonal influenza...
November 15, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140938/immunity-following-childhood-vaccinations-in-perinatally-hiv-exposed-children-with-and-without-hiv-infection-in-latin-america
#8
Regina Cm Succi, Margot R Krauss, D Robert Harris, Daisy M Machado, Maria I de Moraes-Pinto, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata, Noris Pavia Ruz, Russell B Pierre, Lenka A Kolevic Roca, Esaú Joao, Irene Foradori, Marcelo C Scotta, Rohan Hazra, George K Siberry
BACKGROUND: Perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) children are at risk for undervaccination and poor vaccine response at four years of age. Childhood vaccine coverage and immune response were compared between PHIV and HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children in Latin America and the Caribbean. METHODS: PHIV and HEU children were enrolled prospectively at fifteen sites from 2002-2009. Full vaccination by age four years was defined as: three hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine doses; four tetanus toxoid-containing vaccine doses; three doses of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine by age 12 months or ≥1 dose given after age 12 months; one measles-containing vaccine dose; one rubella-containing vaccine dose...
November 14, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139107/antenatal-influenza-and-pertussis-vaccine-uptake-among-aboriginal-mothers-in-western-australia
#9
Kennia Lotter, Annette K Regan, Tyra Thomas, Paul V Effler, Donna B Mak
BACKGROUND: Antenatal influenza and pertussis vaccination prevent serious disease in mothers and infants. Aboriginal individuals are at increased risk of infection yet little is known about vaccine coverage among Aboriginal mothers. AIMS: To estimate the uptake of influenza and pertussis vaccination among pregnant Aboriginal women in Western Australia and identify barriers and enablers to vaccination. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four hundred Aboriginal women, aged ≥18 years, who gave birth to a live infant between April and October 2015, were randomly selected and invited to participate in telephone interviews...
November 14, 2017: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138657/community-health-worker-interventions-are-key-to-optimal-infant-immunization-coverage-evidence-from-a-pretest-posttest-experiment-in-mwingi-kenya
#10
Japheth Mativo Nzioki, James Ouma, James Hebert Ombaka, Rosebella Ongutu Onyango
Introduction: Immunization is a powerful and cost-effective health intervention which averts an estimated 2 to 3 million deaths every year. Kenya has a high infant and under five mortality and morbidity rates. Increasing routine child immunization coverage is one way of reducing child morbidity and mortality rates in Kenya. Community Health Workers (CHWs) have emerged as critical human resources for health in developing countries. The Community Strategy (CS) is one of the CHW led interventions promoting Maternal and Child Health (MCH) in Kenya...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135538/cervical-morbidity-in-alsace-france-results-from-a-regional-organized-cervical-cancer-screening-program
#11
Jean-Jacques Baldauf, Muriel Fender, Christine Bergeron, Emilie Marrer, Michel Velten, Pierre Pradat, Marc Arbyn
In 1994, a pilot program of cervical cancer screening was introduced in the Alsace region, France. Women aged 25-65 years were proposed to have one Pap smear every 3 years. The objective was to assess cervical morbidity in Alsace before the human papillomavirus vaccinated population reaches the age of screening. Data on cervical lesions and cancers were collected by EVE for the period September 2008 to August 2011 from existing medical services and cytopathology laboratories in Alsace. Cytological and histological data were completed with data from the two cancer registries covering the region (Bas-Rhin and Haut-Rhin)...
November 13, 2017: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135339/improving-rotavirus-vaccine-coverage-can-newer-generation-and-locally-produced-vaccines-help
#12
Jacqueline Deen, Anna Lena Lopez, Suman Kanungo, Xuan-Yi Wang, Dang Duc Anh, Milagritos Tapia, Rebecca F Grais
There are two internationally available WHO-prequalified oral rotavirus vaccines (Rotarix and RotaTeq), two rotavirus vaccines licensed in India (Rotavac and Rotasiil), one in China (Lanzhou lamb rotavirus vaccine) and one in Vietnam (Rotavin-M1), and several candidates in development. Rotavirus vaccination has been rolled out in Latin American countries and is beginning to be deployed in sub-Saharan African countries but middle- and low-income Asian countries have lagged behind in rotavirus vaccine introduction...
November 14, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135332/antibodies-to-pcpa-and-phtd-protect-mice-against-streptococcus-pneumoniae-by-a-macrophage-and-complement-dependent-mechanism
#13
Lucian Visan, Nicolas Rouleau, Emilie Proust, Loïc Peyrot, Arnaud Donadieu, Martina Ochs
Currently marketed Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) vaccines, which contain polysaccharide capsular antigens from the most common Spn serotypes, have substantially reduced pneumococcal disease rates but have limited coverage. A trivalent pneumococcal protein vaccine containing pneumococcal choline-binding protein A (PcpA), pneumococcal histidine triad protein D (PhtD), and detoxified pneumolysin is being developed to provide broader, cross-serotype protection. Antibodies against detoxified pneumolysin protect against bacterial pneumonia by neutralizing Spn-produced pneumolysin, but how anti-PhtD and anti-PcpA antibodies protect against Spn has not been established...
November 14, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133488/randomized-controlled-trial-of-text-message-reminders-for-increasing-influenza-vaccination
#14
Annette K Regan, Lauren Bloomfield, Ian Peters, Paul V Effler
PURPOSE: Seasonal influenza vaccine is recommended and funded for groups at higher risk of serious infection, but uptake is suboptimal. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of short message service (SMS) reminders for influenza vaccination. METHODS: Six weeks after seasonal influenza vaccinations began, we identified high-risk patients who had a mobile telephone number on record at 10 practices in Western Australia. Thirty-two percent of the selected patients had already been vaccinated in the current year and were ineligible...
November 2017: Annals of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132994/countries-interest-in-a-hepatitis-b-vaccine-licensed-for-the-controlled-temperature-chain-survey-results-from-african-and-western-pacific-regions
#15
Dörte Petit, Carole Tevi-Benissan, Joseph Woodring, Karen Hennessey, Anna-Lea Kahn
Chronic hepatitis B infection can be prevented by hepatitis B vaccine birth dose (hepB-BD) given within 24 h after birth, followed by two hepatitis B vaccinations within the first year of life. Yet nearly half of World Health Organization (WHO) Member States do not provide a hepB-BD. Barriers are primarily attributed to vaccine storage and transportation, as well as high rates of home births. Delivering the vaccine outside the cold chain could potentially increase coverage. To do this, WHO recommends vaccines be licensed for use in a "controlled temperature chain" (CTC), which requires a given product to tolerate temperature excursions up to at least 40 °C for a minimum of three days...
November 10, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132990/beneficiary-characteristics-and-vaccinations-in-the-end-stage-renal-disease-medicare-beneficiary-population-an-analysis-of-claims-data-2006-2015
#16
Angela K Shen, Jeffrey A Kelman, Rob Warnock, Weiwei Zhang, Stephaeno Brereton, Stephen McKean, Michael Wernecke, Steve Chu, Bruce G Gellin
BACKGROUND: The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) routinely recommends three vaccines - influenza, hepatitis B, and pneumococcal vaccines - for End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) dialysis patients. METHODS: We sought to assess vaccination coverage among fee-for-service (FFS) Medicare beneficiaries with ESRD who received Part B dialysis services at any point from January 1, 2006 through December 31, 2015 (through June 30, 2016 for influenza). To assess influenza vaccination rates in a given influenza season, we restricted the population to beneficiaries who were continuously enrolled in Medicare Parts A and B throughout all twelve months of that season...
November 10, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132759/hepatitis-b-in-sub-saharan-africa-strategies-to-achieve-the-2030-elimination-targets
#17
REVIEW
C Wendy Spearman, Mary Afihene, Reidwaan Ally, Betty Apica, Yaw Awuku, Lina Cunha, Geoffrey Dusheiko, Neliswa Gogela, Chris Kassianides, Michael Kew, Philip Lam, Olufunmilayo Lesi, Marie-Jeanne Lohouès-Kouacou, Papa Saliou Mbaye, Emmanuel Musabeyezu, Betty Musau, Olusegun Ojo, John Rwegasha, Barbara Scholz, Abate B Shewaye, Christian Tzeuton, Mark W Sonderup
The WHO global health sector strategy on viral hepatitis, created in May, 2016, aims to achieve a 90% reduction in new cases of chronic hepatitis B and C and a 65% reduction in mortality due to hepatitis B and C by 2030. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, and despite the introduction of universal hepatitis B vaccination and effective antiviral therapy, the estimated overall seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen remains high at 6·1% (95% uncertainty interval 4·6-8·5). In this Series paper, we have reviewed the literature to examine the epidemiology, burden of liver disease, and elimination strategies of hepatitis B in sub-Saharan Africa...
December 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132449/using-mobile-apps-to-communicate-vaccination-records-a-city-wide-evaluation-with-a-national-immunization-app-maternal-child-registry-and-public-health-authorities
#18
Katherine M Atkinson, Ziad El-Khatib, Geoffery Barnum, Cameron Bell, Marie-Claude Turcotte, Malia S Q Murphy, Mari Teitelbaum, Pranesh Chakraborty, Lucie Laflamme, Kumanan Wilson
Medicine is experiencing a paradigm shift, where patients are increasingly involved in the management of their health data. We created a mobile app which permitted parental reporting of immunization status to public health authorities. We describe app use as a proxy for feasibility and acceptability as well as data utility for public health surveillance. The evaluation period ran from April 27, 2015, to April 18, 2017, during which time 2,653 unique children's records were transmitted, containing 36,105 vaccinations...
2017: Healthcare Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132312/genomic-analysis-of-endemic-clones-of-toxigenic-and-non-toxigenic-corynebacterium-diphtheriae-in-belarus-during-and-after-the-major-epidemic-in-1990s
#19
Steffen Grosse-Kock, Valentina Kolodkina, Edward C Schwalbe, Jochen Blom, Andreas Burkovski, Paul A Hoskisson, Sylvain Brisse, Darren Smith, Iain C Sutcliffe, Leonid Titov, Vartul Sangal
BACKGROUND: Diphtheria remains a major public health concern with multiple recent outbreaks around the world. Moreover, invasive non-toxigenic strains have emerged globally causing severe infections. A diphtheria epidemic in the former Soviet Union in the 1990s resulted in ~5000 deaths. In this study, we analysed the genome sequences of a collection of 93 C. diphtheriae strains collected during and after this outbreak (1996 - 2014) in a former Soviet State, Belarus to understand the evolutionary dynamics and virulence capacities of these strains...
November 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131316/efficacy-of-a-community-based-participatory-and-multilevel-intervention-to-enhance-hepatitis-b-virus-screening-and-vaccination-in-underserved-korean-americans
#20
Grace X Ma, Minsun M Lee, Yin Tan, Alexandra L Hanlon, Ziding Feng, Theresa I Shireman, Joanne Rhee, Zhengyu Wei, Frank Wong, Han Seung Koh, Charles Kim, Whitney York
BACKGROUND: The primary objective of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of a community-based participatory intervention program in improving hepatitis B virus (HBV) screening and vaccination among Korean Americans who were not previously screened. METHODS: A cluster randomized trial involving 32 Korean church-based community organizations (1834 participants) was conducted. Sixteen churches were randomly assigned to an HBV screening and vaccination multicomponent intervention condition (972 participants) and 16 were assigned to a general cancer education control condition (862 participants)...
November 13, 2017: Cancer
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