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Mycobacterium avium

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228494/an-evaluation-of-rgm-medium-for-isolation-of-nontuberculous-mycobacteria-from-respiratory-samples-from-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis-in-the-united-states
#1
Rongpong Plongla, Clair L Preece, John D Perry, Peter H Gilligan
A novel selective agar (RGM medium) has been advocated for the isolation of rapidly growing mycobacteria from the sputum of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The aim of this study was to compare RGM medium with Burkholderia cepacia selective agar (BCSA) and a standard AFB culture method for the isolation of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) from patients with CF. The applicability of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for identification of NTM isolated on RGM was also assessed...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221870/bovine-leukemia-virus-and-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-paratuberculosis-are-not-associated-with-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-shedding-in-cattle
#2
Cristina Venegas-Vargas, Shannon D Manning, Paul M Coussens, Jonathan A Roussey, Paul Bartlett, Daniel Grooms
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a retrovirus that causes enzootic bovine leukosis in cattle, and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of Johne's disease in cattle. Both diseases are chronic in nature and can lead to the disruption of normal immunological or physiological processes. Cattle are the major reservoir of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), a cause of foodborne illness in humans. We tested the hypothesis that cattle infected with BLV or MAP are more likely to shed STEC...
January 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221106/pulmonary-nontuberculous-mycobacteria-associated-deaths-ontario-canada-2001-2013
#3
Theodore K Marras, Michael A Campitelli, Hong Lu, Hannah Chung, Sarah K Brode, Alex Marchand-Austin, Kevin L Winthrop, Andrea S Gershon, Jeffrey C Kwong, Frances B Jamieson
Survival implications of nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM-PD) and NTM pulmonary isolation without disease (NTM-PI) are unclear. To study deaths associated with NTM-PD and NTM-PI and differences in survival between them, we conducted a population-based cohort study of persons with microbiologically defined NTM-PD or NTM-PI diagnosed during 2001-2013 in Ontario, Canada. We used propensity score matching and Cox proportional hazards models to compare survival. Among 9,681 NTM-PD patients and 10,936 NTM-PI patients, 87% and 91%, respectively, were successfully matched with unexposed controls...
March 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219077/radiopathological-features-and-identification-of-mycobacterial-infections-in-granulomatous-nodules-resected-from-the-lung
#4
Yumi Sakakibara, Yoshimi Suzuki, Toshihide Fujie, Takumi Akashi, Tadatsune Iida, Yasunari Miyazaki, Yoshinobu Eishi, Naohiko Inase
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary granulomas are sometimes resected because they resemble lung cancer and false-positive findings come through from positron emission tomography (PET) using 18fluorine-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG). Mycobacterial infection is a common cause of granulomas. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiopathological features and the methods for identifying mycobacterial infections in granulomatous nodules resected from the lung. METHODS: Thirty-five solitary lesions resected because of suspected lung cancer were enrolled, including 22 nonfungal granulomatous lesions and 13 benign lesions as controls...
February 21, 2017: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210245/pcr-inhibition-of-a-quantitative-pcr-for-detection-of-mycobacterium-avium-subspecies-paratuberculosis-dna-in-feces-diagnostic-implications-and-potential-solutions
#5
Kamal R Acharya, Navneet K Dhand, Richard J Whittington, Karren M Plain
Molecular tests such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are increasingly being applied for the diagnosis of Johne's disease, a chronic intestinal infection of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Feces, as the primary test sample, presents challenges in terms of effective DNA isolation, with potential for PCR inhibition and ultimately for reduced analytical and diagnostic sensitivity. However, limited evidence is available regarding the magnitude and diagnostic implications of PCR inhibition for the detection of MAP in feces...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194371/non-tuberculous-mycobacteria-in-south-african-wildlife-neglected-pathogens-and-potential-impediments-for-bovine-tuberculosis-diagnosis
#6
Nomakorinte Gcebe, Tiny M Hlokwe
Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are not only emerging and opportunistic pathogens of both humans and animals, but from a veterinary point of view some species induce cross-reactive immune responses that hamper the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in both livestock and wildlife. Little information is available about NTM species circulating in wildlife species of South Africa. In this study, we determined the diversity of NTM isolated from wildlife species from South Africa as well as Botswana. Thirty known NTM species and subspecies, as well as unidentified NTM, and NTM closely related to Mycobacterium goodii/Mycobacterium smegmatis were identified from 102 isolates cultured between the years 1998 and 2010, using a combination of molecular assays viz PCR and sequencing of different Mycobacterial house-keeping genes as well as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182785/virulence-and-immunogenicity-of-genetically-defined-human-and-porcine-isolates-of-m-avium-subsp-hominissuis-in-an-experimental-mouse-infection
#7
Nicolas Bruffaerts, Christelle Vluggen, Virginie Roupie, Lucille Duytschaever, Christophe Van den Poel, Joseph Denoël, Ruddy Wattiez, Jean-Jacques Letesson, David Fretin, Leen Rigouts, Ophélie Chapeira, Vanessa Mathys, Claude Saegerman, Kris Huygen
Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (Mah) represents a health concern for humans and to a lesser extent for pigs, but its zoonotic potential remains elusive. Using multispacer sequence typing (MST) we previously identified 49 different genotypes of Mah among Belgian clinical and porcine isolates, with 5 MSTs shared by both hosts. Using experimental intranasal infection of BALB/c mice, we compared the virulence and immunogenicity of porcine and clinical human isolates with shared genotype or with a genotype only found in humans or pigs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178715/infectious-causes-of-right-middle-lobe-syndrome
#8
Aatif Rashid, Sowmya Nanjappa, John N Greene
Right middle lobe (RML) syndrome is defined as recurrent or chronic obstruction or infection of the middle lobe of the right lung. Nonobstructive causes of middle lobe syndrome include inflammatory processes and defects in the bronchial anatomy and collateral ventilation. We report on 2 case patients with RML syndrome, one due to infection with Mycobacterium avium complex followed by M asiaticum infection and the other due to allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. A history of atopy, asthma, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has been reported in up to one-half of those with RML...
January 2017: Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169347/attenuation-of-lymphocyte-immune-responses-during-mycobacterium-avium-complex-induced-lung-disease-due-to-increasing-expression-of-programmed-death-1-on-lymphocytes
#9
Chin-Chung Shu, Jann-Yuan Wang, Ming-Fang Wu, Chen-Tu Wu, Hsin-Chih Lai, Li-Na Lee, Bor-Luen Chiang, Chong-Jen Yu
Mycobacterium avium complex-induced lung disease (MAC-LD) becomes important due to its increasing prevalence. Attenuated cellular immunity associated with programmed cell death (PD)-1 may play a pathophysiological role in MAC-LD but lacks of investigation. We enrolled 80 participants in this prospective study, including 50 with MAC-LD and 30 healthy controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), lymphocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages were used for MAC antigen stimulation. Patients with MAC-LD had lower tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ responses compared to the healthy controls in PBMC stimulation assays with MAC bacilli...
February 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166858/genetic-diversity-of-mycobacterium-avium-complex-strains-isolated-in-argentina-by-miru-vntr
#10
B R Imperiale, R D Moyano, A B DI Giulio, M A Romero, M F Alvarado Pinedo, M P Santangelo, G E Travería, N S Morcillo, M I Romano
Mycobacterium avium sp. avium (MAA), M. avium sp. hominissuis (MAH), and M. avium sp. paratuberculosis (MAP) are the main members of the M. avium complex (MAC) causing diseases in several hosts. The aim of this study was to describe the genetic diversity of MAC isolated from different hosts. Twenty-six MAH and 61 MAP isolates were recovered from humans and cattle, respectively. GenoType CM® and IS1311-PCR were used to identify Mycobacterium species. The IS901-PCR was used to differentiate between MAH and MAA, while IS900-PCR was used to identify MAP...
February 7, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163944/immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-opening-pandora-s-box
#11
Mariana Meireles, Conceição Souto Moura, Margarida França
One of the purposes of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is to restore the immune system. However, it can sometimes lead to an aberrant inflammatory response and paradoxical clinical worsening known as the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). We describe a 23-year-old male, HIV1 infected with a rapid progression phenotype, who started ART with TCD4+ of 53 cells/mm(3) (3,3%) and HIV RNA = 890000 copies/mL (6 log). Four weeks later he was admitted to the intensive care unit with severe sepsis...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156101/mycobacteria-encode-active-and-inactive-classes-of-tesb-fatty-acyl-coa-thioesterases-revealed-through-structural-and-functional-analysis
#12
Crystall M D Swarbrick, Glennon V Bythrow, David Guerra Aragão, Gabrielle A Germain, Luis E N Quadri, Jade K Forwood
Mycobacteria contain a large number of highly divergent species, and exhibit unusual lipid metabolism profiles, believed to play important roles in immune invasion. Thioesterases modulate lipid metabolism through the hydrolysis of activated fatty-acyl CoAs, and multiple copies are present in mycobacteria, yet many remain uncharacterized. Here, we undertake a comprehensive structural and functional analysis of a TesB thioesterase from Mycobacterium avium (MaTesB). Structural superposition with other TesB thioesterases reveal that the Asp active site residue, highly conserved across a wide range of TesB thioesterases, is mutated to Ala...
February 3, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155911/effects-of-nutritional-and-ambient-oxygen-condition-on-biofilm-formation-in-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-hominissuis-via-altered-glycolipid-expression
#13
Takahiro Totani, Yukiko Nishiuchi, Yoshitaka Tateishi, Yutaka Yoshida, Hiromi Kitanaka, Mamiko Niki, Yukihiro Kaneko, Sohkichi Matsumoto
Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (MAH) is the major causative agent of nontuberculous mycobacteriosis, the representative case of environment-related infectious diseases the incidence of which is increasing in industrialized countries. MAH is found in biofilm in drinking water distribution system and residential environments. We investigated the effect of gaseous and nutritional conditions, and the role of glycopeptidolipids (GPLs) on biofilm-like pellicle formation in MAH. Pellicle formation was observed under 5% oxygen in Middlebrook 7H9 broth containing 0...
February 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150579/clinical-significance-of-the-radiological-severity-score-in-mycobacterium-avium-complex-lung-disease-patients
#14
K Furuuchi, A Ito, T Hashimoto, S Kumagai, T Ishida
<h2>SETTING:</h2><p>Practical methods for assessing the radiographic findings of Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease (MAC-LD) have not been established.</p><h2>OBJECTIVE:</h2><p>To identify a correlation between the radiological score and semi-quantitative culture results of respiratory samples, and to assess the prognostic impact of this radiological score in MAC-LD patients.</p><h2>DESIGN:</h2><p>We retrospectively studied 218 MAC-LD patients...
January 26, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132959/detection-of-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-paratuberculosis-in-kidney-samples-of-red-deer-cervus-elaphus-in-portugal-evaluation-of-different-methods
#15
Ana C Matos, Luis Figueira, Maria H Martins, Manuela Matos, Sofia Álvares, Andreia Mendes, Maria L Pinto, Ana C Coelho
Paratuberculosis or Johne's disease, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), is a chronic granulomatous enteritis affecting both domestic and wild ruminants. The present work is part of a wider set of studies designed to assess the prevalence of paratuberculosis in free ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus). With that purpose, 877 free-ranging red deer legally hunted in the Centre-eastern Portugal were submitted to necropsy and sampled for molecular methods, microbiology and histopathology...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130998/investigations-and-implications-of-associations-between-mycobacterial-purified-protein-derivative-hypersensitivity-and-map-antibody-elisa-in-irish-dairy-cows
#16
A E Kennedy, N Byrne, J O'Mahony, R G Sayers
Intradermal testing, involving administration of purified protein derivative (PPD), to elicit a delayed hypersensitivity (DTH) response, is used as a diagnostic tool for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and to aid in the identification of exposure to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD). Further research is required to increase the diagnostic value of skin testing for MAP. The aim of this study was to investigate if animals showing DTH reactions to PPD had an associated increase in MAP ELISA response, thereby identifying potential cases of sub-clinical JD...
January 21, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128073/nontuberculous-mycobacteria-overview
#17
Won-Jung Koh
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are emerging pathogens that affect both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. The development of molecular methods has allowed the characterization of new species and the identification of NTM to the precise species and subspecies levels. The incidence and prevalence of NTM lung disease are increasing worldwide, and this syndrome accounts for the majority of clinical cases of NTM disease. Common causative organisms of pulmonary infection are the slowly growing mycobacteria Mycobacterium avium complex and Mycobacterium kansasii and the rapidly growing mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium abscessus complex...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099547/primary-cutaneous-mycobacterium-avium-complex-infection-following-squamous-cell-carcinoma-excision
#18
Joseph Dyer, Jonathan Weiss, W Stephen Steiner, Julie A Barber
Primary cutaneous Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection is rare, particularly among immunocompetent patients. We present the case of a purportedly healthy patient with primary cutaneous MAC infection arising within the excision margins of multiple infiltrating squamous cell carcinomas.
December 2016: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093102/proteomic-changes-in-the-ileum-of-sheep-infected-with-mycobacterium-avium-subspecies-paratuberculosis
#19
S Pisanu, T Cubeddu, S Uzzau, S Rocca, M F Addis
Johne's disease (JD) is a chronic enteritis of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). To identify the processes activated in the sheep intestine during natural MAP infection, and to provide a panel of differential host and pathogen proteins with diagnostic and prognostic potential, a differential shotgun proteomics workflow, including mass spectrometry, label-free quantisation and pathway analysis, was applied to ileal tissues of ewes with and without JD. Out of 2889 total proteins identified, 384 were differentially expressed and 341 were expressed at a higher level in JD...
January 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070460/metabolic-phenotype-of-clinical-and-environmental-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-hominissuis-isolates
#20
Andrea Sanchini, Flavia Dematheis, Torsten Semmler, Astrid Lewin
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (MAH) is an emerging opportunistic human pathogen. It can cause pulmonary infections, lymphadenitis and disseminated infections in immuno-compromised patients. In addition, MAH is widespread in the environment, since it has been isolated from water, soil or dust. In recent years, knowledge on MAH at the molecular level has increased substantially. In contrast, knowledge of the MAH metabolic phenotypes remains limited. METHODS: In this study, for the first time we analyzed the metabolic substrate utilization of ten MAH isolates, five from a clinical source and five from an environmental source...
2017: PeerJ
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