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Xuefeng Guo, Chao Yu, Zhouyang Yin, Shouheng Sun, Christopher Takakazu Seto
We report a Ni30Pd70/nitrogen-doped graphene (NG) catalyst that hydrodehalogenates halogenated aromatics under mild reaction conditions. It reduces mono- or dichloroarenes to the corresponding dehalogenated arenes in >90% yield in 10% aqueous isopropanol solvent at or below 50C within 5 hours. Tests on a variety of substrates containing various functional groups show that the catalyst is selective for reduction of C-Cl and C-Br bonds. In addition, this catalyst completely hydrodehalogenates high concentration solutions of dioxin, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chloroaromatic constituents of the defoliant agent orange, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in 12 hours...
March 14, 2018: ChemSusChem
T Vandermarken, K Croes, K Van Langenhove, I Boonen, P Servais, T Garcia-Armisen, N Brion, M S Denison, L Goeyens, M Elskens
The Zenne River, crossing the Brussels region (Belgium) is an extremely urbanized river impacted by both domestic and industrial effluents. The objective of this study was to monitor the occurrence and activity of Endocrine Active Substances (EAS) in river water and sediments in the framework of the Environmental Quality Standards Directive (2008/105/EC and 2013/39/EU). Activities were determined using Estrogen and Dioxin Responsive Elements (ERE and DRE) Chemical Activated Luciferase Gene Expression (CALUX) bioassays...
March 7, 2018: Chemosphere
Semir Gül, Mehmet Gül, Birgül Yigitcan
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo- p-dioxin (TCDD) is a toxic agent and has disruptive effects on reproductive tissues in females. TCDD disrupts the hormonal regulation of the body and decreases the production of melatonin. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of melatonin supplements against the toxic effects of TCDD on ovaries of female rats. TCDD caused a significant decrease in the average number of corpora lutea and follicles per tissue section (2.1 ± 0.7; 2.3 ± 0.8, respectively), whereas these numbers were maintained in the melatonin supplemented group (5...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Jiafu Li, Ying Zhang, Tingting Sun, Huawei Hao, Hao Wu, Lili Wang, Yuxing Chen, Limin Xing, Zhiguang Niu
In our study, health risk levels of different age groups of residents living in the vicinity of a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) posed by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in atmosphere and soil were evaluated. The toxic equivalent concentrations of PCDD/Fs (TEQ) in surrounding atmosphere and soil of studied MSWI were 0.05-0.12 pg I-TEQ Nm-3 and 7.622-15.450 ng I-TEQ kg-1 , respectively. The PCDFs/PCDDs (F/D) values of PCDD/Fs in surrounding atmosphere of studied MSWI ranged from 0...
March 7, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Christine M Custer, Thomas W Custer, Matthew A Etterson, Paul M Dummer, Diana Goldberg, J Christian Franson
During 2010-2014, tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) reproductive success was monitored at 68 sites across all 5 Great Lakes, including 58 sites located within Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs) and 10 non-AOCs. Sample eggs were collected from tree swallow clutches and analyzed for contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and furans, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and 34 other organic compounds. Contaminant data were available for 360 of the clutches monitored. Markov chain multistate modeling was used to assess the importance of 5 ecological variables and 11 of the dominant contaminants in explaining the pattern of egg and nestling failure rates...
March 9, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Ming-Xiu Zhan, Ming-Feng Yu, Guangxue Zhang, Tong Chen, Xiao-Dong Li, Alfons Buekens
In order to find a catalyst to destroy polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) with high efficiency, a homemade VOx -CeOx /TiO2 catalyst was prepared, and then tested in the flue gas of a waste incinerator at temperatures of 180-240 °C. The results shows the best removal efficiency (93.4%) was attained already at 200 °C, yet degradation efficiency further raised with temperature, until 240 °C. Ozone (500 ppm) was also introduced into the system to increase the activity of catalyst, and removal efficiency of PCDD/Fs increased further to 97...
March 6, 2018: Waste Management
Wenjing Tian, Hualing Fu, Tuan Xu, Sherry Li Xu, Zhiling Guo, Jijing Tian, Wuqun Tao, Heidi Qunhui Xie, Bin Zhao
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) plays an important role in mediating dioxins toxicity. Currently, genes of P450 families are major research interests in studies on AhR-mediated gene alterations caused by dioxins. Genes related to other metabolic pathways or processes may be also responsive to dioxin exposures. Amino acid transporter B0AT1 (encoded by SLC6A19) plays a decisive role in neutral amino acid transport which is present in kidney, intestine and liver. However, effects of dioxins on its expression are still unknown...
March 6, 2018: Environmental Pollution
A R Fernandes, D Mortimer, M Holmes, M Rose, L Zhihua, X Huang, F Smith, S Panton, L Marshall
The occurrence of a range of regulated and emerging organic environmental contaminants was investigated in 182 samples of edible marine fish sampled mainly from UK marine regions, but extending northerly to the coast of Norway and south to the Algarve. These species (sprats, mackerel, turbot, halibut, herring, grey mullet, sea bass, grey mullet, sardines, etc.) are among those considered to be at the highest risk of contamination with regulated contaminants such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs, dioxins), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), but the occurrence of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) was also investigated...
March 6, 2018: Environment International
Rui Zhang, Xiaoxiang Wang, Xuesheng Zhang, Chao Song, Robert J Letcher, Chunsheng Liu
It is hypothesized that polychlorinated diphenyl sulfides (PCDPSs) induce lethal toxicity in zebrafish which is mediated by aryl hydrocarbon receptor 2 (Ahr2) activation. In this study an assay was developed based on in vivo exposure of wild-type and Tg(cyp1a:gfp) transgenic zebrafish embryos/larvae to PCDPS congeners (i.e. six dichloro- to heptachloro-diphenyl sulfides) coupled with a zebrafish Ahr2-luciferase reporter gene (LRG) expression. Waterborne PCDPSs were found to be accumulated in zebrafish larvae and exposure to PCDPSs led to a significant increase in mortality and cyp1s mRNA expression...
March 9, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Joanna Rosińczuk, Robert Dymarek, Ireneusz Całkosiński
BACKGROUND: Dioxins contribute to neurological disorders in humans and animals, causing also neurological disorders in offspring during prenatal and postnatal periods. These compounds significantly affect the development of the central nervous system (CNS) structures, which results in behavioral changes. Tocopherol (TCP) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) may provide protective measures to reduce the inflammatory effects in the CNS associated with free radicals generated by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), thus contributing to the reduction of the negative effects of dioxin...
January 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Kwang Sik Suh, Eun Mi Choi, Hyun-Sook Kim, So Young Park, Sang Ouk Chin, Sang Youl Rhee, Youngmi Kim Pak, Wonchae Choe, Joohun Ha, Suk Chon
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is an environmental contaminant. Xanthohumol is a prenylated flavonoid found in hops (Humulus lupulus) and beer. The aim of the current study was to explore the role of xanthohumol in modulating the toxicity of TCDD in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. In cells treated with TCDD alone, intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, mitochondrial membrane potential disruption, reactive oxygen species production, cardiolipin peroxidation, nitric oxide release and cytochrome P450 1A1 expression were significantly increased...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Jordan Stubleski, Petr Kukucka, Samira Salihovic, P Monica Lind, Lars Lind, Anna Kärrman
The objective of this study was to develop and validate a 96-well plate solid phase extraction method for analysis of 23 lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in low-volume plasma and serum samples which is applicable for biomonitoring and epidemiological studies. The analysis of selected markers for internal exposure: 16 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 5 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD), and polybrominated diphenylether 47 (BDE 47) was evaluated by comparing two SPE sorbents and GC-HRMS or GC-MS/MS detection...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Young-Ah You, Elsayed A Mohamed, Md Saidur Rahman, Woo-Sung Kwon, Won-Hee Song, Buom-Yong Ryu, Myung-Geol Pang
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a reproductive and developmental toxicant that can alter the sex ratio of offspring (proportion of male offspring). We hypothesized that the alteration of sex ratio is associated with sex chromosome ratio of live spermatozoa affected by exposure to TCDD. After exposure to TCDD we analyzed simultaneously sperm sex chromosome constitution and viability, and evaluated sperm sex chromosome ratio association with embryo sex ratio in mice. Short-term exposure to TCDD affects the decreased sperm motility and viability, and the increased acrosome reaction...
March 2, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Anders Fredrik Elfwing, Wanzhu Cai, Liangqi Ouyang, Xianjie Liu, Yuxin Xia, Zheng Tang, Olle Inganäs
A new solution processable electron transport material (ETM) is introduced for use in photovoltaic devices, which consists of a metallic conjugated polyelectrolyte, poly(4-(2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4- b][1,4]dioxin-2-yl-methoxy)-1-butanesulfonic acid (PEDOT-S), and surfactant-functionalized deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) (named DNA: CTMA: PEDOT-S). This ETM is demonstrated to effectively work for bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic devices (OPV) based on different electron acceptor materials. The fill factor, open circuit voltage and the overall power conversion efficiency of the solar cells with a DNA: CTMA: PEDOT-S modified cathode are comparable to that of devices with a traditional Lithium fluoride/Aluminum cathode...
March 5, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yoshiki Mino
 The X-ray crystallographic analysis of the single-crystal mugineic acid-Cu(II) complex showed that mugineic acid acts as a hexadentate ligand. Mugineic acid, a typical phytosiderophore, shows a marked stimulating effect on59 Fe-uptake and chlorophyll synthesis in rice plants. A salient feature is the higher reduction potential of the mugineic acid-Fe(III) complex than those of bacterial siderophores. X-ray diffraction study of the structurally analogous Co(III) complex of the mugineic acid-Fe(III) complex demonstrates that the azetidine nitrogen and secondary amine nitrogen, and both terminal carboxylate oxygens, coordinate as basal planar donors, and the hydroxyl oxygen and intermediate carboxylate oxygen bind as axial donors in a nearly octahedral configuration...
2018: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Marike M Leijs, André Esser, Philipp M Amann, Thomas Schettgen, Monika Gube, Hans F Merk, Thomas Kraus, Jens M Baron
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are well known persistent and toxic environmental pollutants. Our aim was to identify effects of moderate-high exposure to dioxin-like (dl) and non-dioxin-like (ndl)-PCBs on the skin in order to provide more insight in the pathophysiological effects of these compounds. We performed a dermatological examination on 92 former workers from a transformer recycling company with known elevated serum PCB and/or dioxin (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/polychlorinated dibenzo-p-furan (PCDD/F)) levels...
March 1, 2018: Environmental Research
Gloria R Garcia, Sean M Bugel, Lisa Truong, Sean Spagnoli, Robert L Tanguay
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a conserved ligand-activated transcription factor required for proper vertebrate development and homeostasis. The inappropriate activation of AHR by ubiquitous pollutants can lead to adverse effects on wildlife and human health. The zebrafish is a powerful model system that provides a vertebrate data stream that anchors hypothesis at the genetic and cellular levels to observations at the morphological and behavioral level, in a high-throughput format. In order to investigate the endogenous functions of AHR, we generated an AHR2 (homolog of human AHR)-null zebrafish line (ahr2osu1) using the clustered, regulatory interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 precision genome editing method...
2018: PloS One
Maria Persson, Sisse Fagt, Sara M Pires, Morten Poulsen, Florent Vieux, Maarten J Nauta
Background: Recommended fish intake differs substantially from observed fish intake. In Denmark, ∼15% of the population consumes the state-recommended fish intake. How much fish individuals eat varies greatly, and this variation cannot be captured by considering the fish intake of the average population. Objective: We developed a method intended to provide realistic and achievable personalized dietary recommendations based on an individual's body weight and current fish intake...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Morgan Ye, Marcella Warner, Paolo Mocarelli, Paolo Brambilla, Brenda Eskenazi
BACKGROUND: 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a toxic environmental contaminant that can bioaccumulate in humans, cross the placenta, and cause immunological effects in children, including altering their risk of developing allergies. On July 10, 1976, a chemical explosion in Seveso, Italy, exposed nearby residents to a high amount of TCDD. In 1996, the Seveso Women's Health Study (SWHS) was established to study the effects of TCDD on women's health. Using data from the Seveso Second Generation Health Study, we aim to examine the effect of prenatal exposure to TCDD on the risk of atopic conditions in SWHS children born after the explosion...
February 27, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Kotaro Minomo, Nobutoshi Ohtsuka, Kiyoshi Nojiri, Rie Matsumoto
Bulk (wet and dry) deposition samples were collected in Saitama Prefecture, Japan throughout a year (February 8, 2012 to February 7, 2013) to estimate the influence of dioxins emitting from waste incinerators on river water quality. The annual deposition flux of dioxins was 3.3ng-toxic equivalent (TEQ)/m2 /year. Source identification using indicative congeners estimated that 82% of dioxin TEQ in the bulk deposition (2.7ng-TEQ/m2 /year) was combustion-originated, indicating that most of the dioxins in the deposition were derived from waste incinerators...
February 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
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