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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813028/detection-methodologies-for-pathogen-and-toxins-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Md Eshrat E Alahi, Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay
Pathogen and toxin-contaminated foods and beverages are a major source of illnesses, even death, and have a significant economic impact worldwide. Human health is always under a potential threat, including from biological warfare, due to these dangerous pathogens. The agricultural and food production chain consists of many steps such as harvesting, handling, processing, packaging, storage, distribution, preparation, and consumption. Each step is susceptible to threats of environmental contamination or failure to safeguard the processes...
August 16, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812142/tcdd-administered-on-activated-carbon-eliminates-bioavailability-and-subsequent-shifts-to-a-key-murine-gut-commensal
#2
Robert D Stedtfeld, J Brett Sallach, Robert B Crawford, Tiffany M Stedtfeld, Maggie R Williams, Hassan Waseem, Cliff T Johnston, Hui Li, Brian J Teppen, Norbert E Kaminski, Stephen A Boyd, James M Tiedje, Syed A Hashsham
Activated carbon (AC) is an increasingly attractive remediation alternative for the sequestration of dioxins at contaminated sites globally. However, the potential for AC to reduce the bioavailability of dioxins in mammals and the residing gut microbiota has received less attention. This question was partially answered in a recent study examining 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced hallmark toxic responses in mice administered with TCDD sequestered by AC or freely available in corn oil by oral gavage...
August 15, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810150/occurrence-of-carbazoles-in-dust-and-air-samples-from-different-locations-in-germany
#3
Hermann Fromme, Wenying Mi, Thomas Lahrz, Martin Kraft, Bettina Aschenbrenner, Bianca Bruessow, Ralf Ebinghaus, Zhiyong Xie, Ludwig Fembacher
9H-carbazole is generated from incomplete combustion of diverse fossil fuels and biomass, in tobacco smoke and from industrial processes, while halogenated carbazoles have natural and anthropogenic sources. We analyzed 9H-carbazole and 14 halogenated carbazoles in dust samples from 14 schools, 13 daycare centers, and 13 residences, as well as 5 indoor air samples from residences in Munich, Germany. Overall, we present first data of various carbazoles in different indoor environments without visible combustion sources...
August 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809549/mesocosm-studies-on-the-efficacy-of-bioamended-activated-carbon-for-treating-pcb-impacted-sediment
#4
Rayford B Payne, Upal Ghosh, Harold Douglas May, Christopher W Marshall, Kevin R Sowers
This report describes results of a bench-scale treatability study to evaluate the efficacy of bioaugmentation with bioamended activated carbon (AC) for in-situ treatment of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) impacted sediments. To this end, the ability of PCB transforming microorganisms to degrade and reduce the overall concentration of PCBs in sediment was determined in 2 L recirculating mesocosms designed to simulate conditions in Abraham's Creek in Quantico, Virginia. Ten sediment mesocosms were tested for the effects of AC alone, AC with slow release electron donor (cellulose) and different concentrations and combinations of PCB dehalogenating and degrading microorganisms added as bioamendments...
August 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803196/prenatal-exposure-to-dioxin-like-compounds-is-associated-with-decreased-cord-blood-ige-and-increased-risk-of-wheezing-in-children-aged-up-to-7years-the-hokkaido-study
#5
Chihiro Miyashita, Yu Ait Bamai, Atsuko Araki, Sachiko Itoh, Machiko Minatoya, Sumitaka Kobayashi, Jumboku Kajiwara, Tsuguhide Hori, Reiko Kishi
INTRODUCTION: In utero exposure to dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) may cause imbalance of immune development in early infancy. However, there are few epidemiological studies into the effects of in utero exposure to DLCs on allergies and infections during childhood. This study evaluates associations between concentrations of maternal DLCs and cord blood immunoglobulin (Ig) E, as well as allergies and infections during childhood. METHOD: We recruited 514 pregnant women in a maternity hospital in Sapporo, Japan, and measured concentrations of DLCs in 426 maternal blood samples using high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry...
August 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803151/sex-specific-differences-in-effect-of-prenatal-exposure-to-dioxin-like-compounds-on-neurodevelopment-in-japanese-children-sapporo-cohort-study
#6
Sonomi Nakajima, Yasuaki Saijo, Chihiro Miyashita, Tamiko Ikeno, Seiko Sasaki, Junboku Kajiwara, Reiko Kishi
BACKGROUND: Consistent reports are not available on the effects of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD)/ polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) (dioxin-like compounds [DLCs]) on child neurodevelopment. Further, the effect of background-level exposure to individual DLC isomers is not known. OBJECTIVES: We carried out the Sapporo cohort study to evaluate the effect of prenatal exposure to each DLC isomer on child neurodevelopment at 6 and 18 months of age, and assessed sex-specific differences in these effects...
August 10, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802104/results-of-the-second-national-forest-soil-inventory-in-germany-interpretation-of-level-and-stock-profiles-for-pcdd-f-and-pcb-in-terms-of-vegetation-and-humus-type
#7
Marchela Pandelova, Bernhard Henkelmann, Bernd M Bussian, Karl-Werner Schramm
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected in 86 humic topsoil layers and in a subset of 11 randomly selected top mineral forest soils at the depths of 0-5cm and 5-10cm collected from different federal states of Germany. The distribution of these persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in humic topsoils with respect to vegetation cover (coniferous vs. deciduous vs. mixed), total organic carbon (TOC), altitude and latitude data was investigated...
August 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800567/a-comparative-evaluation-of-anaerobic-dechlorination-of-pcb-118-and-aroclor-1254-in-sediment-microcosms-from-three-pcb-impacted-environments
#8
Devrim Kaya, Ipek Imamoglu, F Dilek Sanin, Kevin R Sowers
Aroclor 1254 (A1254) is the most toxic commercial PCB mixture produced, primarily due to its relatively high concentrations of dioxin-like congeners. This study demonstrates a comparative evaluation of dechlorination of A1254 and PCB-118 by indigenous organohalide respiring bacteria enriched from three PCB impacted sites: Grasse River (GR), NY; Fox River (FR), WI; and Baltimore Harbor (BH), MD. PCB-118 dechlorination rates in GR, BH, and FR was 0.0308, 0.015, and 0.0006 Cl(-)/biphenyl/day, respectively. A1254 dechlorination rates in GR, FR, and BH were 0...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796943/forensic-analysis-of-polychlorinated-dibenzo-p-dioxin-and-furan-fingerprints-to-elucidate-dechlorination-pathways
#9
Lisa A Rodenburg, Yashika Dewani, Max M Haggblom, Lee Kerkhof, Donna E Fennell
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs) are persistent organic pollutants whose main removal process in the environment is due to biodegradation, and particularly anaerobic reductive dechlorination. Since PCDD/F congeners that are substituted in the lateral 2, 3, 7, and 8 positions are the most toxic, removal of these chlorines is advantageous, but previous studies have only demonstrated their removal under laboratory conditions. We evaluated a concentration data set of PCDD/F congeners with four or more chlorines along with all 209 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in surface water, treated and untreated wastewater, landfill leachate, and biosolids (NY CARP dataset) to determine whether peri and peri/lateral dechlorination of PCDD/Fs occurs in these environments...
August 10, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795866/dioxins-and-pcbs-in-ostrich-meat-and-eggs-levels-and-implications
#10
Jadwiga Piskorska-Pliszczynska, Paweł Struciński, Szczepan Mikołajczyk, Marek Pajurek, Sebastian Maszewski, Wojciech Jerzy Pietron
Although consumption of eggs is an essential part of our diet, limited information is available for table eggs other than those laid by hens. The aim of our study was to determine concentrations of PCDD/Fs, DL- and NDL-PCBs in ostrich eggs and meat available on the Polish market in order to obtain baseline information on the current status of these pollutants in comparison to poultry products. Obtained data were compared to the binding EU limits set for chicken eggs and meat. The levels of individual PCDD/Fs and PCBs congeners varied considerably...
August 10, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782362/emission-factors-for-selected-semivolatile-organic-chemicals-from-burning-of-tropical-biomass-fuels-and-estimation-of-annual-australian-emissions
#11
Xianyu Wang, Carl P Meyer, Fabienne Reisen, Melita Keywood, Phong K Thai, Darryl W Hawker, Jennifer Claire Powell, Jochen F Mueller
This study reveals that open-field biomass burning can be an important source of various semivolatile organic chemicals (SVOCs) to the atmosphere including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and a range of pesticides. Emission factors (EFs) for 39 individual SVOCs are determined from burning of various fuel types that are common in tropical Australia. Emissions of PAHs are found to be sensitive to differences in combustion efficiencies rather than fuel types reflecting a formation mechanism...
August 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782227/short-androgen-receptor-poly-glutamine-promoted-endometrial-cancer-is-associated-with-benzo-a-pyrene-mediated-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-activation
#12
Lumin Chen, Bo-Ying Bao, Wei-Chun Chang, Jason Yen-Ping Ho, Bi-Hua Cheng, Chung-Lin Wang, Qifeng Tang, Wei-Chung Cheng, Hui-Wen Chang, Yao-Ching Hung, Wen-Lung Ma
The androgen receptor (AR) poly-glutamine polymorphism (AR-Q) was reported to play role in endometrial cancer (EMCA) development, yet controversial. Environmental factors interact with genetic variation have been reported in EMCA. Aerosol toxins, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), are EMCA facilitators. This report examined the interplay between AR-Qs and BaP in EMCA. During analysing patient AR-Q polymorphism and Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) expressions, we found overall survival (OS) benefit is ascending with AR-Q lengths (5-year OS of 61...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780123/molecular-insights-into-the-role-of-a-distal-f240a-mutation-that-alters-cyp1a1-activity-towards-persistent-organic-pollutants
#13
Veronika Navrátilová, Markéta Paloncýová, Karel Berka, Shintaro Mise, Yuki Haga, Chisato Matsumura, Toshiyuki Sakaki, Hideyuki Inui, Michal Otyepka
BACKGROUND: Cytochromes P450 are major drug-metabolizing enzymes involved in the biotransformation of diverse xenobiotics and endogenous chemicals. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are toxic hydrophobic compounds that cause serious environmental problems because of their poor degradability. This calls for rational design of enzymes capable of catalyzing their biotransformation. Cytochrome P450 1A1 isoforms catalyze the biotransformation of some POPs, and constitute good starting points for the design of biocatalysts with tailored substrate specificity...
August 2, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774668/chronic-exposure-of-2-3-7-8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-tcdd-induces-an-obesogenic-effect-in-c57bl-6j-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#14
Axelle Brulport, Ludovic Le Corre, Marie-Christine Chagnon
Contaminant involvement in the pathophysiology of obesity is widely recognized. It has been shown that low dose and chronic exposure to endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs) potentiated diet- induced obesity. High and acute exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a persistent organic pollutant (POP) and an EDC with anti-estrogenic property, causes wasting syndrome . However at lower doses, the TCDD metabolic effects remain poorly understood. We investigated the obesogenic effect during chronic exposure of TCDD at 1μg/kg body weight (bw)/week in adult C57BL/6J mice fed with a high fat diet (HFD) and exposed from 10 to 42 weeks old to TCDD or equal volume of vehicle by intragastric gavage...
July 31, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774553/polychlorinated-biphenyls-and-its-potential-role-in-endometriosis
#15
REVIEW
Mengyun Yao, Tingting Hu, Yinfeng Wang, Yongjiang Du, Changchang Hu, Ruijin Wu
With the progress of global industrialization and environmental deterioration, the relationship between human health and the living environment has become an increasing focus of attention. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, including dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls and non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls), as part of the organic chlorine contaminants, have been suspected as playing a role in the etiopathogenesis of endometriosis. Several population-based studies have proposed that exposure to PCBs may increase the risk of developing endometriosis, while some epidemiological studies have failed to find any association between PCBs and endometriosis...
July 31, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772179/artificial-neural-networks-to-evaluate-organic-and-inorganic-contamination-in-agricultural-soils
#16
Maria Grazia Bonelli, Mauro Ferrini, Andrea Manni
The assessment of organic and inorganic contaminants in agricultural soils is a difficult challenge due to the large-scale dimensions of the areas under investigation and the great number of samples needed for analysis. On-site screening techniques, such as Field Portable X-ray Fluorescence (FPXRF) spectrometry, can be used for inorganic compounds, such as heavy metals. This method is not destructive and allows a rapid qualitative characterization, identifying hot spots from where to collect soil samples for analysis by traditional laboratory techniques...
July 28, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764121/ahr-and-cyp1a-expression-link-historical-contamination-events-to-modern-day-developmental-effects-in-the-american-alligator
#17
Matthew D Hale, Thomas M Galligan, Thomas R Rainwater, Brandon C Moore, Philip M Wilkinson, Louis J Guillette, Benjamin B Parrott
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that initiates a transcriptional pathway responsible for the expression of CYP1A subfamily members, key to the metabolism of xenobiotic compounds. Toxic planar halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, including dioxin and PCBs, are capable of activating the AHR, and while dioxin and PCB inputs into the environment have been dramatically curbed following strict regulatory efforts in the United States, they persist in the environment and exposures remain relevant today...
July 27, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745352/airborne-persistent-toxic-substances-ptss-in-china-occurrence-and-its-implication-associated-with-air-pollution
#18
REVIEW
Pu Wang, Qinghua Zhang, Yingming Li, Julius Matsiko, Ya Zhang, Guibin Jiang
In recent years, China suffered from extensive air pollution due to the rapidly expanding economic and industrial developments. Its severe impact on human health has raised great concern currently. Persistent toxic substances (PTSs), a large group of environmental pollutants, have also received much attention due to their adverse effects on both the ecosystem and public health. However, limited studies have been conducted to reveal the airborne PTSs associated with air pollution at the national scale in China...
August 16, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736047/health-risk-assessment-as-an-approach-to-manage-an-old-landfill-and-to-propose-integrated-solid-waste-treatment-a-case-study-in-italy
#19
O Paladino, M Massabò
The aim of the present paper is to show how an approach based on human health risk analysis can be used as a decisional tool for the evaluation of impacts on population and for deciding between different waste treatment processes. The situation in which the increasing production of solid wastes cannot be confined in the old existing Municipal Solid Waste landfill (settled in Genoa, Liguria Region, Italy) is used as a case study. Risk assessment for human health due to air, surface water, groundwater and soil contamination is performed in different scenarios for the old landfill and compared with alternative Waste-to-Energy management solutions that consider thermal treatment by gasification of the total waste or gasification of the dry fraction coupled with anaerobic digestion of the wet fraction, plus biogas combustion with or without sludge and bottom ash/slag disposal in the old landfill...
July 20, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735712/analysis-of-polychlorinated-dibenzo-p-dioxins-and-dibenzofurans-in-stack-gas-emissions-by-gas-chromatography-atmospheric-pressure-chemical-ionization-triple-quadrupole-mass-spectrometry
#20
J Rivera-Austrui, K Martínez, M Ábalos, C Sales, T Portoles, J Beltran, J Sauló, B H Aristizábal, E Abad
A gas chromatography coupled to triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-(QqQ)MS/MS) including a soft-ionization through an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source based method was compared with the high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) standard reference method EN1948, for the analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) in stack gas emissions. The stack emission samples were collected, both, by manual method sampling (from 6 to 8h) and by long-term sampling systems (sampling time of several weeks)...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
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