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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445599/growth-engineering-of-synechococcus-elongatus-pcc-7942-for-mixotrophy-under-natural-light-conditions-for-improved-feedstock-production
#1
Aditya Sarnaik, Reena Pandit, Arvind Lali
Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 has been widely explored as cyanobacterial cell factory through genetic modifications for production of various value-added compounds. However, successful industrial scale-ups have not been reported for the system predominantly due to its obligate photoautotrophic metabolism and use of artificial light in photobioreactors. Hence, engineering the organism to perform mixotrophy under natural light could serve as an effective solution. Thus, we applied a genetically engineered strain of Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 expressing heterologous hexose transporter gene (galP) to perform mixotrophy under natural light in a temperature controlled environmental chamber (EC)...
April 26, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445509/functional-genetic-variants-within-the-sirt2-gene-promoter-in-acute-myocardial-infarction
#2
Wentao Yang, Feng Gao, Pei Zhang, Shuchao Pang, Yinghua Cui, Lixin Liu, Guanghe Wei, Bo Yan
Coronary artery disease (CAD), including acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the complication of atherosclerosis. Recently, genome-wide association studies have identified a large number of CAD-related genetic variants. However, only 10% of CAD cases could be explained. Low frequent and rare genetic variants have been recently proposed to be main causes for CAD. SIRT2 is a member of sirtuin family, NAD(+)-dependent class III deacetylases. SIRT2 is involved in genomic stability, metabolism, inflammation, oxidative stress and autophagy, as well as in platelet function...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445147/identification-of-rs7350481-at-chromosome-11q23-3-as-a-novel-susceptibility-locus-for-metabolic-syndrome-in-japanese-individuals-by-an-exome-wide-association-study
#3
Yoshiji Yamada, Jun Sakuma, Ichiro Takeuchi, Yoshiki Yasukochi, Kimihiko Kato, Mitsutoshi Oguri, Tetsuo Fujimaki, Hideki Horibe, Masaaki Muramatsu, Motoji Sawabe, Yoshinori Fujiwara, Yu Taniguchi, Shuichi Obuchi, Hisashi Kawai, Shoji Shinkai, Seijiro Mori, Tomio Arai, Masashi Tanaka
We have performed exome-wide association studies to identify genetic variants that influence body mass index or confer susceptibility to obesity or metabolic syndrome in Japanese. The exome-wide association study for body mass index included 12,890 subjects, and those for obesity and metabolic syndrome included 12,968 subjects (3954 individuals with obesity, 9014 controls) and 6817 subjects (3998 individuals with MetS, 2819 controls), respectively. Exome-wide association studies were performed with Illumina HumanExome-12 DNA Analysis BeadChip or Infinium Exome-24 BeadChip arrays...
April 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444797/the-transcription-factor-myb115-contributes-to-the-regulation-of-proanthocyanidin-biosynthesis-and-enhances-fungal-resistance-in-poplar
#4
Lijun Wang, Lingyu Ran, Yisu Hou, Qiaoyan Tian, Chaofeng Li, Rui Liu, Di Fan, Keming Luo
Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are major defense phenolic compounds in the leaves of poplar (Populus spp.) in response to abiotic and biotic stresses. Transcriptional regulation of PA biosynthetic genes by the MYB-basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-WD40 complexes in poplar is not still fully understood. Here, an Arabidopsis TT2-like gene MYB115 was isolated from Populus tomentosa and characterized by various molecular, genetic and biochemical approaches. MYB115 restored PA productions in the seed coat of the Arabidopsis tt2 mutant...
April 26, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444412/biochemical-and-genetic-analyses-of-n-metabolism-in-maize-testcross-seedlings-1-leaves
#5
Ignacio Trucillo Silva, Hari Kishan R Abbaraju, Lynne P Fallis, Hongjun Liu, Michael Lee, Kanwarpal S Dhugga
Aside from the identification of 32 QTL for N metabolism in the seedling leaves of a maize testcross population, alanine aminotransferase was found to be a central enzyme in N assimilation. Excessive application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer to grow commercial crops like maize is a cause of concern because of the runoff of excess N into streams and rivers. Breeding maize with improved N use efficiency (NUE) would reduce environmental pollution as well as input costs for the farmers. An understanding of the genetics underlying N metabolism is key to breeding for NUE...
April 25, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444381/evidence-for-very-recent-positive-selection-in-mongolians
#6
Kazuhiro Nakayama, Jun Ohashi, Kazuhisa Watanabe, Lkagvasuren Munkhtulga, Sadahiko Iwamoto
Mongols, the founders of the largest continental empire in history, successfully adapted to the harsh environments of Inner Asia through nomadic pastoralism. Considerable interest exists in ascertaining whether genetic adaptation also contributed to the Mongols' success, and dissecting the genome diversity of present-day populations in Mongolia can help address this question. To this end, we determined the genotypes of nearly 2.4 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 96 unrelated Mongolian individuals in Ulaanbaatar city, and performed genome-wide scans for population-specific positive selection...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443701/evaluation-of-dietary-intake-leisure-time-physical-activity-and-metabolic-profile-in-women-with-mutation-in-the-lmna-gene
#7
Luciana Monteiro, Maria Cristina Foss-Freitas, Anderson Navarro, Francisco Pereira, Fernanda Coeli, Estela Carneseca, Renan Montenegro Júnior, Milton Foss
INTRODUCTION: Familial partial lipodystrophy (FPL) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by selective lack of subcutaneous fat, which is associated with insulin-resistant diabetes. The Dunnigan variety (FPLD2) is caused by several missense mutations in the lamin A/C (LMNA) gene, most of which are typically located in exon 8 at the codon position 482. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess and compare the dietary intake, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), and biochemical measurements (glucose, A1C, and plasma lipids) in women with FPLD2 and without (control group, CG) and to examine the associations between dietary intake and biochemical measurements (BM)...
April 26, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443466/promoter-methylation-and-gene-polymorphism-are-two-independent-events-in-regulation-of-gstp1-gene-expression
#8
Aaliya Bhat, A Masood, K A Wani, Younus Ahmad Bhat, Bushra Nissar, Nuzhat Shaheen Khan, B A Ganai
Breast carcinogenesis is a multistep process, involving both genetic and epigenetic modification process of genes, involved in diverse pathways ranging from DNA repair to metabolic processes. This study was undertaken to assess the role of promoter methylation of GSTP1 gene, a member of glutathione-S-transferase family of enzymes, in relation to its expression, polymorphism, and clinicopathological parameters. Tissue samples were taken from breast cancer patients and paired with their normal adjacent tissues...
April 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443127/transcriptome-analysis-of-a-female-sterile-mutant-fsm-in-chinese-cabbage-brassica-campestris-ssp-pekinensis
#9
Shengnan Huang, Zhiyong Liu, Chengyu Li, Runpeng Yao, Danyang Li, Li Hou, Xiang Li, Wenjie Liu, Hui Feng
Female-sterile mutants are ideal materials for studying pistil development in plants. Here, we identified a female-sterile mutant fsm in Chinese cabbage. This mutant, which exhibited stable inheritance, was derived from Chinese cabbage DH line 'FT' using a combination of isolated microspore culture and ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis. Compared with the wild-type line 'FT,' the fsm plants exhibited pistil abortion, and floral organs were also relatively smaller. Genetic analysis indicated that the phenotype of fsm is controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443117/seed-biology-updates-highlights-and-new-discoveries-in-seed-dormancy-and-germination-research
#10
REVIEW
Hiroyuki Nonogaki
An understanding of the biology of seeds has been greatly advanced in recent years. The progresses, particularly in the field of seed dormancy and germination research, have been made at a remarkable speed. Some of the possible epigenetic mechanisms, including an involvement of non-coding RNA, which were predicted for DELAY OF GERMINATION1 just a few years ago, have now been demonstrated with strong molecular and genetic evidence. Imprinting, or parent-of-origin-specific gene silencing/expression, which was characterized particularly for developing seeds, was also found in imbibed seeds and suggested for dormancy mechanisms...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443016/genetics-of-aggression-in-alzheimer-s-disease-ad
#11
Walter J Lukiw, Evgeny I Rogaev
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a terminal, age-related neurological syndrome exhibiting progressive cognitive and memory decline, however AD patients in addition exhibit ancillary neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPSs) and these include aggression. In this communication we provide recent evidence for the mis-regulation of a small family of genes expressed in the human hippocampus that appear to be significantly involved in expression patterns common to both AD and aggression. DNA array- and mRNA transcriptome-based gene expression analysis and candidate gene association and/or genome-wide association studies (CGAS, GWAS) of aggressive attributes in humans have revealed a surprisingly small subset of six brain genes that are also strongly associated with altered gene expression patterns in AD...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442501/chlorokb-a-web-application-for-the-integration-of-knowledge-related-to-chloroplast-metabolic-network
#12
Pauline Gloaguen, Sylvain Bournais, Claude Alban, Stephane Ravanel, Daphne Seigneurin-Berny, Michel Matringe, Marianne Tardif, Marcel Kuntz, Myriam Ferro, Christophe Bruley, Norbert Rolland, Yves Vandenbrouck, Gilles Curien
CONTEXT: Higher plants, as autotrophic organisms, are effective sources of molecules. They hold great promise for metabolic engineering, but the behavior of plant metabolism at the network level is still incompletely described. Although structural models (stoichiometry matrices) and pathway databases are extremely useful, they cannot describe the complexity of the metabolic context and new tools are required to visually represent integrated biocurated knowledge for use by both humans and computers...
April 25, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441577/membrane-vesicles-and-horizontal-gene-transfer-in-prokaryotes
#13
REVIEW
Sara Domingues, Kaare M Nielsen
Membrane vesicles (MVs) are released from all living cells. MVs are lumen-containing spheres of lipid-bilayers derived from the cell surface. MVs are biologically active and contain various components, including genetic material. Both chromosomal and plasmid DNA, as well as different types of RNA have been detected in MVs. Vesicle-mediated transfer of genes coding for antibiotic resistance, virulence and metabolic traits has been reported in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and in Archaea. MVs can persist over time in natural environments...
April 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441416/ethanol-itself-is-a-holoprosencephaly-inducing-teratogen
#14
Mingi Hong, Robert S Krauss
Ethanol is a teratogen, inducing a variety of structural defects in developing humans and animals that are exposed in utero. Mechanisms of ethanol teratogenicity in specific defects are not well understood. Oxidative metabolism of ethanol by alcohol dehydrogenase or cytochrome P450 2E1 has been implicated in some of ethanol's teratogenic effects, either via production of acetaldehyde or competitive inhibition of retinoic acid synthesis. Generalized oxidative stress in response to ethanol may also play a role in its teratogenicity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441146/epigenetic-regulation-of-glucose-metabolism
#15
Sapna Sharma, Jennifer Kriebel, Harald Grallert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Glucose metabolism is a central process in mammalian energy homeostasis. Its deregulation is a key factor in development of metabolic disease like diabetes and cancer. In recent decades, our understanding of gene regulation at the signaling, chromatin and posttranscriptional levels has seen dramatic developments. RECENT FINDINGS: A number of epigenetic mechanisms that do not affect the genetic code can be assessed with new technologies. However, increasing complexity becomes a major challenge for translation into clinical application...
April 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440827/molecular-dynamics-investigations-of-membrane-bound-cyp2c19-polymorphisms-reveal-distinct-mechanisms-for-peripheral-variants-by-long-range-effects-on-the-enzymatic-activity
#16
Ying-Lu Cui, Rong-Ling Wu
Increasing sophistication in methods used to account for human polymorphisms in susceptibility to drug metabolism has been one of the success stories in the prevention of adverse drug reactions. Genetic polymorphisms in drug-metabolizing enzymes can affect enzyme activity and cause differences in treatment response or drug toxicity. CYP2C19 is one of the most highly polymorphic CYP enzymes and acts on 10-15% of drugs in current clinical use. Despite the number of experimental analyses carried out for this system, the detailed structural basis for altered catalytic properties of polymorphic CYP2C19 variants remains unexplained at the atomic level...
April 25, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440407/effects-of-cytochrome-p450-family-3-subfamily-a-member%C3%A2-5-gene-polymorphisms-on-daunorubicin-metabolism-and-adverse-reactions-in-patients-with-acute-leukemia
#17
Zhen Huang, Juxiang Wang, Jiangchao Qian, Yuan Li, Zhisheng Xu, Min Chen, Hongfei Tong
The present study aimed to investigate the association between the genetic polymorphism of cytochrome P450 family 3 subfamily A member 5 (CYP3A5) and the activity of CYP3A and plasma concentrations of daunorubicin (DNR) in patients with acute leukemia. A total of 36 children with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia were enrolled in the study. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)‑restriction fragment length polymorphism and PCR product sequencing were used to detect the genotype of CYP3A5*3. PCR was then used to express the mRNA expression of CYP3A5...
April 12, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440189/better-predictive-value-of-cancer-antigen125-ca125-as-biomarker-in-ovary-and-breast-tumors-and-its-correlation-with-the-histopathological-type-grade-of-the-disease
#18
Aarifa Nazmeen, Smarajit Maiti, Kusumita Mandal, Samir K Roy, Tamal Kanti Ghosh, Nirmalya K Sinha, Kamalika Mandal
BACKGROUND: Both ovarian/breast cancers are the most prevalent hormone-associated gynecological-cancers, where uncontrolled cellular proliferations/genetic-errors are noticed. The cancer-antigen125 (CA125), which we assessed presently is an important biomarker in the early detection/monitoring of this disease-pathogenesis. METHODS: Serum/tissue CA125 was measured by solid-phase-Enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay in women with ovarian/breast tumors of different types (epithelial/non-epithelial; benign/borderline/malignant)/stages...
April 24, 2017: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439972/mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-pgc-1%C3%AE-gene-expression-in-male-broilers-from-ascites-susceptible-and-resistant-lines
#19
N Khodambashi Emami, A Golian, M Danesh Mesgaran, N B Anthony, D D Rhoads
Ascites is a cardiovascular metabolic disease characterized by accumulation of fluid around the heart and in the abdominal cavity that eventually leads to death. This syndrome is the end-point result of a series of metabolic incidents that are generally caused by impaired oxygen availability. Mitochondria are the major sites of oxygen consumption, therefore major contributors to oxidative stress. Genetic, metabolic and dietary factors can influence variations in mitochondrial biogenesis (mitochondrial size, number and mass) that might have an effect on oxygen consumption and reactive oxygen species production...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439449/mobilizable-genomic-islands-different-strategies-for-the-dissemination-of-multidrug-resistance-and-other-adaptive-traits
#20
COMMENT
Nicolas Carraro, Nicolas Rivard, Vincent Burrus, Daniela Ceccarelli
Mobile genetic elements are near ubiquitous DNA segments that revealed a surprising variety of strategies for their propagation among prokaryotes and between eukaryotes. In bacteria, conjugative elements were shown to be key drivers of evolution and adaptation by efficiently disseminating genes involved in pathogenicity, symbiosis, metabolic pathways, and antibiotic resistance. Conjugative plasmids of the incompatibility groups A and C (A/C) are important vehicles for the dissemination of antibiotic resistance and the consequent global emergence and spread of multi-resistant pathogenic bacteria...
2017: Mobile Genetic Elements
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