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Endothelial dysfunction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049327/characteristics-of-pulsatile-flows-in-curved-stenosed-channels
#1
Hyeonji Hong, Eunseop Yeom, Ho Seong Ji, Hyun Dong Kim, Kyung Chun Kim
Spatial and temporal variations of the hemodynamic features occur under pulsatile conditions in complex vessel geometry. Wall shear stress affected by the disturbed flow can result in endothelial cell dysfunction, which leads to atherogenesis and thrombosis. Therefore, detailed understanding of the hemodynamic characteristics in a curved stenosed channel is highly important when examining the pathological effects of hemodynamic phenomena on the progression of atherosclerosis. The present study measures the velocity fields of pulsatile flows with three different Reynolds numbers in 3D curved vessel models with stenosis using time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048735/6-hydroxydopamine-induces-brain-vascular-endothelial-inflammation
#2
Qizhi Fu, Runluo Song, Zhongxi Yang, Qi Shan, Wenna Chen
Disruption of the blood-brain barrier associated with endothelial dysfunction is an important hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD). 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is a synthetic dopamine derivate often used to model PD as it results in retrograde degeneration of striatal dopaminergic (DA) terminals. Presently, the effects of 6-OHDA on endothelial dysfunction remain unknown. Using a 6-OHDA rodent model of PD, we found that administration of 6-OHDA could increase the expression of endothelial adhesion molecules, such as intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), and E-selectin...
October 19, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048462/obesity-induced-vascular-dysfunction-and-arterial-stiffening-requires-endothelial-cell-arginase-1
#3
Anil Bhatta, Lin Yao, Zhimin Xu, Haroldo A Toque, Jijun Chen, Reem T Atawia, Abdelrahman Y Fouda, Zsolt Bagi, Rudolf Lucas, Ruth B Caldwell, Robert W Caldwell
Aims: Elevation of arginase activity has been linked to vascular dysfunction in diabetes and hypertension by a mechanism involving decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability due to L-arginine depletion. Excessive arginase activity also can drive L-arginine metabolism towards the production of ornithine, polyamines, and proline, promoting proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and collagen formation, leading to perivascular fibrosis. We hypothesized that there is a specific involvement of arginase 1 expression within the vascular endothelial cells in this pathology...
September 7, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047102/reactive-oxygen-species-in-copd-related-vascular-remodeling
#4
Li Zuo, Chia-Chen Chuang, Alexander D Clark, Davis E Garrison, Jamie L Kuhlman, David C Sypert
The pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a multifaceted process involving the alteration of pulmonary vasculature. Such vascular remodeling can be associated with inflammation, shear stress, and hypoxia-conditions commonly seen in patients with lung diseases. Particularly, the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the diseased lungs contributes greatly to pulmonary vascular remodeling. ROS play an important role in vascular homeostasis, yet excessive ROS can alter pulmonary vasculature and impair lung function, as implicated in COPD at all stages...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047100/mitochondrial-and-metabolic-drivers-of-pulmonary-vascular-endothelial-dysfunction-in-pulmonary-hypertension
#5
Qiujun Yu, Stephen Y Chan
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a deadly and increasingly prevalent vascular disease characterized by excessive pulmonary vascular remodeling and right ventricular dysfunction which leads to right heart failure, multiorgan dysfunction, and premature death. The cause of the vascular remodeling in PH remains elusive, and thus current treatments are marginally effective and prognosis of PH remains poor. Increasing evidence indicates the pathogenic importance of endothelial dysfunction in PH. However, the underlying mechanisms of such dysfunction are not well described...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047085/redox-dependent-calpain-signaling-in-airway-and-pulmonary-vascular-remodeling-in-copd
#6
Laszlo Kovacs, Yunchao Su
The calcium-dependent cytosolic, neutral, thiol endopeptidases, calpains, perform limited cleavage of their substrates thereby irreversibly changing their functions. Calpains have been shown to be involved in several physiological processes such as cell motility, proliferation, cell cycle, signal transduction, and apoptosis. Overactivation of calpain or mutations in the calpain genes contribute to a number of pathological conditions including neurodegenerative disorders, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, and lung diseases...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046976/the-complement-system-and-preeclampsia
#7
REVIEW
Jean F Regal, Richard M Burwick, Sherry D Fleming
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Preeclampsia affects 3-4% of pregnancies with few treatment options to reduce maternal and fetal harm. Recent evidence that targeting the complement system may be an effective therapeutic strategy in prevention or treatment of preeclampsia will be reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies in humans confirm the safety and efficacy of C5 blockade in complement-mediated disorders of pregnancy, including preeclampsia. Animal models mimic the placental abnormalities and/or the maternal symptoms which characterize preeclampsia...
October 18, 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046499/the-assessment-of-total-antioxidant-capacity-and-superoxide-dismutase-levels-and-the-possible-role-of-manganese-superoxide-dismutase-polymorphism-in-acromegaly
#8
Muzaffer Ilhan, Seda Turgut, Saime Turan, Sema Demirci Cekic, Hayriye Arzu Ergen, Gurbet Korkmaz Dursun, Brunilda Mezani, Ozcan Karaman, Ilhan Yaylim, Mustafa Resat Apak, Ertugrul Tasan
Oxidative status is attributed to endothelial dysfunction and might be one of the key mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction in acromegaly. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of acromegaly on superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels, and the possible influence of human manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) polymorphism on these levels. 51 acromegaly patients and 57 age and sex matched healthy subjects were recruited to the study in Bezmialem Vakif University Hospital between 2011 and 2014...
October 17, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046295/free-circulating-active-elastase-contributes-to-chronic-inflammation-in-hemodialysis-patients
#9
Eman Khatib-Massalha, Regina Michelis, Beny Trabelcy, Yoram Gerchman, Batya Kristal, Amiram Ariel, Shifra Sela
Atherosclerosis and cardiovascular complications are prevalent among patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis (HD). In this population, peripheral polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) are primed, releasing pro-inflammatory mediators, such as elastase. Elastase is normally inhibited by a specific inhibitor, avoiding undesirable degradation of cellular and extracellular components. This study tested the hypothesis that in states of non-infectious inflammation, elastase is released by PMNLs and acts in an uncontrolled manner to inflict vascular damage...
October 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044123/ire1%C3%AE-xbp1s-branch-of-upr-links-hif1%C3%AE-activation-to-mediate-angii-dependent-endothelial-dysfunction-under-particulate-matter-pm-2-5-exposure
#10
Xiuduan Xu, Aodeng Qimuge, Hongli Wang, Chen Xing, Ye Gu, Shasha Liu, Huan Xu, Meiru Hu, Lun Song
Short- and long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) 2.5 instigates adverse health effect upon the cardiovascular (CV) system. Disclosing the molecular events by which PM2.5 evokes CV injuries is essential in developing effective risk-reduction strategy. Here we found that rats after intratracheally instillation with PM2.5 displayed increased circulating level of ANGII, the major bioactive peptide in renin-angiotensin-system (RAS), which resulted from the elevation of ANGII production in the vascular endothelium...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044016/drug-induced-hypothyroidism
#11
Leonardo F L Rizzo, Daniela L Mana, Héctor A Serra
The thyroid axis is particularly prone to interactions with a wide variety of drugs, whose list increases year by year. Hypothyroidism is the most frequent consequence of drug-induced thyroid dysfunction. The main mechanisms involved in the development of primary hypothyroidism are: inhibition of the synthesis and/or release of thyroid hormones, immune mechanisms related to the use of interferon and other cytokines, and the induction of thyroiditis associated with the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors and drugs blocking the receptors for vascular endothelial growth factor...
2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043397/myocardial-fistulisation-and-coronary-arterial-ectasia-in-children-with-univentricular-circulation-an-under-recognised-problem
#12
Daragh Finn, Kevin Walsh, David Roberson, Colin J McMahon
Among 241 children with univentricular circulation who underwent total cavopulmonary connection (Glenn or Fontan) over a 17 years period (January 2000-April 2017), we found two patients who had diffuse coronary fistulisation of their myocardium (0.8%). We also report an additional third case from Oak Lawn, Illinois, USA. One of the children had documented normal coronary arteries and myocardium at catheterisation prior to development of the fistulisation process. The same child also developed extensive veno-venous collaterals...
October 17, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043342/antihypertensive-effects-of-tartary-buckwheat-flavonoids-by-improvement-of-vascular-insulin-sensitivity-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#13
Zuoxu Hou, Yuanyuan Hu, Xingbin Yang, Wensheng Chen
Vascular insulin resistance and oxidative stress contribute to endothelial dysfunction and hypertension. The present study investigated whether chronic treatment with purified Tartary buckwheat flavonoids fraction (TBF) prevents the development of hypertension via improving vascular insulin sensitivity and reducing oxidative stress. Six-week-old male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and their normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) control rats were subjected to different dosages of TBF for 8 weeks. Blood pressure, mesenteric arteriolar vasorelaxation, superoxide anion (O2(-)) generation, NAD(P)H oxidase activity, and insulin-stimulated Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation and nitric oxide (NO) production were determined...
October 18, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042661/therapy-of-corneal-endothelial-dysfunction-with-corneal-endothelial-cell-like-cells-derived-from-skin-derived-precursors
#14
Lin Shen, Peng Sun, Canwei Zhang, Le Yang, Liqun Du, Xinyi Wu
Corneal endothelial dysfunction occurs when corneal endothelial cells (CECs) are dramatically lost and eventually results in vision loss. Corneal transplantation is the only solution at present. However, corneal transplantation requires a fresh human cornea and there is a worldwide shortage of donors. Therefore, finding new functional CECs to replace human CECs is urgent. Skin-derived precursors (SKPs) can be easily acquired and have multiple differential potential. We co-cultured human SKPs with B4G12 cells in serum-free medium and obtained abundant CEC-like cells which had similar morphology and characteristic to human CECs...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042424/angiotensin-ii-receptor-neprilysin-inhibitor-sacubitril-valsartan-improves-endothelial-dysfunction-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#15
Takunori Seki, Kenichi Goto, Yasuo Kansui, Toshio Ohtsubo, Kiyoshi Matsumura, Takanari Kitazono
BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated that antihypertensive treatment with renin-angiotensin system inhibitors restores the impaired endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization (EDH)-mediated responses in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Herein, we investigated whether the angiotensin II receptor-neprilysin inhibitor sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696) would improve reduced EDH-mediated responses and whether LCZ696 would exert additional effects on endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasorelaxation compared with an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker alone during hypertension...
October 17, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041979/methotrexate-and-anti-tumor-necrosis-factor-treatment-improves-endothelial-function-in-patients-with-inflammatory-arthritis
#16
Gia Deyab, Ingrid Hokstad, Jon Elling Whist, Milada Cvancarova Smastuen, Stefan Agewall, Torstein Lyberg, Nicoletta Ronda, Knut Mikkelsen, Gunnbjorg Hjeltnes, Ivana Hollan
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory arthritis (IA), including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA), leads to increased cardiovascular disease occurrence probably due to atherosclerosis. One of the first stages in atherogenesis is endothelial dysfunction (ED). Therefore, we aimed to compare endothelial function (EF) in patients with IA, and to examine the effects of methotrexate (MTX) monotherapy and antitumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) treatment with or without MTX comedication (anti-TNF ± MTX) on EF...
October 17, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041845/relationship-between-oxidative-stress-and-erectile-function
#17
Thierry Roumeguère, Pierre Van Antwerpen, Henda Fathi, Alexandre Rousseau, Luc Vanhamme, Thierry Franck, Carla Costa, Annamaria Morelli, Christophe Lelubre, Claude Hauzeur, Martine Raes, Didier Serteyn, Eric Wespes, Michel Vanhaeverbeek, Karim Zouaoui Boudjeltia
The aim of this study was to investigate markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in the corpus cavernosum (CC) and to compare levels of inflammatory markers recorded in CC to venous blood from the arm to examine the potential impact of inflammatory parameters on erectile function and endothelial dysfunction in vitro. Ninety-seven patients with no complaint of erectile dysfunction (ED) at inclusion were prospectively included and completed the Erectile Function domain of the IIEF questionnaire. Several parameters, including lipids, MPO-dependent oxidized LDL (Mox-LDL), IL-8, IL-18, were measured...
October 17, 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040462/both-cardiomyocyte-and-endothelial-cell-nox4-mediate-protection-against-hemodynamic-overload-induced-remodeling
#18
Min Zhang, Heloise Mongue-Din, Daniel Martin, Norman Catibog, Ioannis Smyrnias, Xiaohong Zhang, Bin Yu, Minshu Wang, Ralf P Brandes, Katrin Schröder, Ajay M Shah
Aims: NADPH oxidase-4 (Nox4) is an important reactive oxygen species (ROS) source that is upregulated in the hemodynamically overloaded heart. Our previous studies using global Nox4 knockout (Nox4KO) mice demonstrated a protective role of Nox4 during chronic abdominal aortic banding, involving a paracrine enhancement of myocardial capillary density. However, other authors who studied cardiac-specific Nox4KO mice reported detrimental effects of Nox4 in response to transverse aortic constriction (TAC)...
October 13, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039826/-endothelial-immune-activation-and-functional-state-in-patients-with-hypertensive-disease
#19
T V Ashcheulova, O N Kovalyova, N N Gerasimchuk
AIM: To investigate the nitric oxide (NO) system, the activity of endothelial NO synthase (e-NOS) and inducible NO synthase (i-NOS) in relation to the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF- α) and its soluble receptor type I (sTNFRI) depending on the grade of hypertensive disease (HD). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 317 patients, including 284 patients aged 30 to 65 years (mean age 54.7±0.58 years) with Grades 1-3 HD who had not previously received regular antihypertensive therapy and 33 apparently healthy individuals, were examined at Kharkov City Clinical Hospital Eleven...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039786/tgf-%C3%AE-induced-endothelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-fibrotic-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Evangelia Pardali, Gonzalo Sanchez-Duffhues, Maria Catalina Gomez-Puerto, Peter Ten Dijke
Fibrotic diseases are characterized by net accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins in affected organs leading to their dysfunction and ultimate failure. Myofibroblasts have been identified as the cells responsible for the progression of the fibrotic process, and they originate from several sources, including quiescent tissue fibroblasts, circulating CD34⁺ fibrocytes and the phenotypic conversion of various cell types into activated myofibroblasts. Several studies have demonstrated that endothelial cells can transdifferentiate into mesenchymal cells through a process termed endothelial- mesenchymal transition (EndMT) and that this can give rise to activated myofibroblasts involved in the development of fibrotic diseases...
October 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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