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Endothelial dysfunction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453532/the-toxicity-of-nanoparticles-to-human-endothelial-cells
#1
Yi Cao
The use of nanoparticles (NPs) in commercially available products and as biomedicinal materials could lead to increasing contact of human blood vessels with NPs, and it is necessary to assess the potential adverse effects of NPs to cells lining blood vessels. Of them, endothelial cells (ECs) are of particular relevance as they play a crucial role in the regulation of function of blood vessels. In this book chapter, I discussed studies that used human ECs to study the toxicity and mechanisms of NPs. It has been shown that exposure of human ECs to NPs could lead to cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, endothelial activation and impaired NO signaling...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453308/sex-specific-mechanisms-of-resistance-vessel-endothelial-dysfunction-induced-by-cardiometabolic-risk-factors
#2
Ana P Davel, Qing Lu, M Elizabeth Moss, Sitara Rao, Imran J Anwar, Jennifer J DuPont, Iris Z Jaffe
BACKGROUND: The incidence of obesity is rising, particularly among women. Microvascular dysfunction is more common with female sex, obesity, and hyperlipidemia and predicts adverse cardiovascular outcomes, but the molecular mechanisms are unclear. Because obesity is associated with mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activation, we tested the hypothesis that MR in endothelial cells contribute to sex differences in resistance vessel dysfunction in response to cardiometabolic risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male and female endothelial cell-specific MR knockout mice and MR-intact littermates were randomized to high-fat-diet-induced obesity or obesity with hyperlipidemia induced by adeno-associated virus-based vector targeting transfer of the mutant stable form (DY mutation) of the human PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9) gene and compared with control diet...
February 16, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451819/protection-from-chronic-stress-and-depressive-symptom-induced-vascular-endothelial-dysfunction-in-female-rats-is-abolished-by-pre-existing-metabolic-disease
#3
Steven D Brooks, Stan Hileman, Paul D Chantler, Samantha Milde, Kent C Lemaster, Stephanie Frisbee, J Kevin Shoemaker, Dwayne N Jackson, Jefferson C Frisbee
While it is known that chronic stress and clinical depression are powerful predictors of poor cardiovascular outcomes, recent clinical evidence has identified correlations between the development of metabolic disease and that for depressive symptoms; creating a combined condition of severely elevated cardiovascular disease risk. In this companion manuscript, we determine the impact of pre-existing metabolic disease on the relationship between chronic stress//depressive symptoms and vascular function, using the obese Zucker (OZR) and the unpredictable chronic mild stress UCMS models...
February 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451817/the-impact-of-pulse-pressure-on-cerebrovascular-events-leading-to-age-related-cognitive-decline
#4
Nathalie Thorin-Trescases, Olivia de Montgolfier, Anthony Pinçon, Adeline Raignault, Laurie Caland, Pauline Labbé, Eric Thorin
Aging is a modern concept: human life expectancy has more than doubled in less than 150 years in Western countries. Longer lifespan, however, reveals age-related diseases, including cerebrovascular diseases. The vascular system is a prime target of aging: the "wear and tear" of large elastic arteries exposed to a life-long pulsatile pressure causes arterial stiffening by fragmentation of elastin fibers and replacement by stiffer collagen. This arterial stiffening increases in return the amplitude of the pulse pressure (PP), its wave penetrating deeper into the microcirculation of low resistance, high flow organs such as the brain...
February 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449706/pre-pregnancy-endothelial-dysfunction-and-birth-outcomes-the-coronary-artery-risk-development-in-young-adults-cardia-study
#5
Abbi D Lane-Cordova, Erica P Gunderson, Mercedes R Carnethon, Janet M Catov, Alex P Reiner, Cora E Lewis, Annie M Dude, Philip Greenland, David R Jacobs
Endothelial dysfunction is a form of subclinical cardiovascular disease that may be involved in preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age deliveries. However, concentrations of biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction before pregnancy have rarely been measured. We hypothesized that higher levels of biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction (cellular adhesion molecules and selectins) would be associated with odds of preterm birth and/or small-for-gestational-age deliveries. We included 235 women from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study who were nulliparous at Y7, reported ≥1 live birth through Y25, and had ≥1 biomarker measured at Y7...
February 15, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449526/raised-serum-levels-of-syndecan-1-cd138-in-a-case-of-acute-idiopathic-systemic-capillary-leak-syndrome-scls-clarkson-s-disease
#6
Ole Wilhelm Bøe, Kjell Sveen, Magne Børset, Kirk M Druey
BACKGROUND Systemic capillary leak syndrome (SCLS) (Clarkson's disease) is a rare disorder of unknown etiology, characterized by transient episodes of hypotension, and the microvascular leak of fluids into the peripheral tissues, resulting in edema. Between 80-90% of patients with SCLS have a concomitant monoclonal gammopathy. Although translational in vitro studies have implicated vascular endothelial barrier dysfunction in the etiology of SCLS, the etiology and disease associations in clinical cases remain unknown...
February 16, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448287/-significance-of-homocysteine-in-glaucoma
#7
Anselm Jünemann, Robert Rejdak, Bettina Hohberger
Endothelial dysfunction and vascular dysregulation play a role in the multifactorial pathogenesis of glaucomatous optic nerve atrophy. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for endothelial dysfunction and is associated with primary open-angle glaucoma as well as secondary open-angle glaucoma in the pseudoexfoliation syndrome. This paper reviews the literature on the association between homocysteine metabolism and glaucomatous disease and explains the possible role of hyperhomocysteinemia in the pathogenesis and progression of glaucoma...
February 2018: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447788/the-influence-of-febuxostat-on-coronary-artery-endothelial-dysfunction-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease-a-phase-4-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blind-crossover-trial
#8
Allison G Hays, Micaela Iantorno, Michael Schär, Shenghan Lai, Matthew Czarny, Elayne Breton, Robert N Palmer, Andrew Whelton, Robert G Weiss, Gary Gerstenblith
BACKGROUND: The xanthine oxidase (XO) system is a significant source of vascular oxidative stress, which is believed to impair endothelial function, an important contributor to atherosclerotic disease. We tested whether febuxostat, a potent XO inhibitor, improves coronary endothelial function (CEF) in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) in a single-center, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover trial. METHODS: CEF was measured using noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment of changes in 30 patients with stable CAD and baseline impaired CEF...
March 2018: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447449/prognostic-and-pathogenic-role-of-angiopoietin-1-and-2-in-pneumonia
#9
Birgitt Gutbier, Anne-Kathrin Neuhauß, Katrin Reppe, Carolin Ehrler, Ansgar Santel, Jörg Kaufmann, Markus Scholz, Norbert Weissmann, Lars Morawietz, Timothy J Mitchell, Stefano Aliberti, Stefan Hippenstiel, Norbert Suttorp, Martin Witzenrath
RATIONALE: During pneumonia, pathogen-host interaction evokes inflammation and lung barrier dysfunction. Tie2-activation by Angiopoietin-1 reduces, while Tie2-blockade by Angiopoietin-2 increases inflammation and permeability during sepsis. The role of Angiopoietin-1/-2 in pneumonia remains unidentified. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prognostic and pathogenetic impact of Angiopoietins in regulating pulmonary vascular barrier function and inflammation in bacterial pneumonia...
February 15, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447435/asymmetric-dimethylarginine-levels-are-associated-with-augmentation-index-across-na%C3%A3-ve-untreated-patients-with-different-hypertension-phenotypes
#10
Eugenia Gkaliagkousi, Eleni Gavriilaki, Areti Triantafyllou, Barbara Nikolaidou, Panagiota Anyfanti, Nikolaos Koletsos, Anastasios Vamvakis, Konstantina Dipla, Antonios Lazaridis, Stella Douma
Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is a robust marker of endothelial dysfunction in patients with essential hypertension. We investigated ADMA levels and their association with vascular damage in untreated hypertension. We enrolled consecutive patients with untreated, recently diagnosed hypertension and age-matched normotensive individuals. 24-hour blood pressure, central hemodynamics, and arterial stiffness were recorded. A total of 311 individuals were studied: 165 with essential hypertension, 50 with masked hypertension, 25 with white-coat hypertension, and 71 normotensive individuals...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447114/higher-d-lactate-levels-are-associated-with-higher-prevalence-of-small-dense-low-density-lipoprotein-in-obese-adolescents
#11
Reyna Rodríguez-Mortera, Claudia Luevano-Contreras, Sergio Solorio-Meza, Russell Caccavello, Yasmin Bains, Ma Eugenia Garay-Sevilla, Alejandro Gugliucci
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is associated with insulin resistance (IR), increased levels of small dense low-density lipoprotein (sd-LDL) as well as with augmented hepatic de novo lipogenesis, which implies increased triose phosphate fluxes that may lead to increased methylglyoxal (MG) and its catabolic end product D-lactate. We hypothesized that obese adolescents have increased D-lactate serum levels associated with high incidence of sd-LDL. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study where the anthropometric characteristics, atherogenic dyslipidemia complex, sd-LDL (Lipoprint, Quantimetrix) and D-lactate (kinetic enzymatic analysis) were explored in 30 lean vs...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445837/alkaline-phosphatases-in-the-complex-chronic-kidney-disease-mineral-and-bone-disorders
#12
Jordi Bover, Pablo Ureña, Armando Aguilar, Sandro Mazzaferro, Silvia Benito, Víctor López-Báez, Alejandra Ramos, Iara daSilva, Mario Cozzolino
Alkaline phosphatases (APs) remove the phosphate (dephosphorylation) needed in multiple metabolic processes (from many molecules such as proteins, nucleotides, or pyrophosphate). Therefore, APs are important for bone mineralization but paradoxically they can also be deleterious for other processes, such as vascular calcification and the increasingly known cross-talk between bone and vessels. A proper balance between beneficial and harmful activities is further complicated in the context of chronic kidney disease (CKD)...
February 14, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445240/high-fat-diet-induced-metabolically-obese-and-normal-weight-rabbit-model-shows-early-vascular-dysfunction-mechanisms-involved
#13
Gabriela Alarcon, Julieta Roco, Mirta Medina, Analia Medina, Maria Peral, Susana Jerez
BACKGROUND: Obesity contributes significantly to the development and evolution of cardiovascular disease (CVD) which is believed to be mediated by oxidative stress, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. However, the vascular health of metabolically obese and normal weight (MONW) individuals is not completely comprehended. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of our study was to evaluate vascular function on the basis of a high fat diet (HFD)-MONW rabbit model. SUBJECTS: Twenty four male rabbits were randomly assigned to receive either a regular diet (CD, n = 12) or a high-fat diet (18% extra fat on the regular diet, HFD, n = 12) for 6 weeks...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444988/nmda-type-glutamate-receptor-activation-promotes-vascular-remodeling-and-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#14
Sébastien J Dumas, Gilles Bru-Mercier, Audrey Courboulin, Marceau Quatredeniers, Catherine Rücker-Martin, Fabrice Antigny, Morad K Nakhleh, Benoit Ranchoux, Elodie Gouadon, Maria-Candida Vinhas, Matthieu Vocelle, Nicolas Raymond, Peter Dorfmüller, Elie Fadel, Frédéric Perros, Marc Humbert, Sylvia Cohen-Kaminsky
Background -Excessive proliferation and apoptosis resistance in pulmonary vascular cells underlie vascular remodeling in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Specific treatments for PAH exist, mostly targeting endothelial dysfunction, but high pulmonary arterial pressure still causes heart failure and death. Pulmonary vascular remodeling may be driven by metabolic reprogramming of vascular cells to increase glutaminolysis and glutamate production. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), a major neuronal glutamate receptor, is also expressed on vascular cells, but its role in PAH is unknown...
February 14, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444850/neurovascular-dysfunction-in-dementia-human-cellular-models-and-molecular-mechanisms
#15
REVIEW
Isobel Parkes, Satyan Chintawar, M Zameel Cader
From the earliest stages of development, when cerebral angiogenesis and neurogenesis are entwined, to the end of life, the interplay between vascular and neural systems of the brain is critical in health and disease. Cerebral microvascular endothelial cells constitute the blood-brain barrier and in concert with pericytes or smooth muscle cells, glia and neurons, integrate into a functional neurovascular unit (NVU). This multicellular NVU maintains homoeostasis of the brain's microenvironment by restricting the entry of systemic pathogens and neurotoxins as well as meeting the metabolic demands of neural activity...
February 14, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444773/lung-function-inflammation-and-endothelin-1-in-congenital-heart-disease-associated-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#16
Andrew Low, Sarah George, Luke Howard, Nicholas Bell, Ann Millar, Robert M R Tulloh
BACKGROUND: Breathlessness is the most common symptom in people with pulmonary arterial hypertension and congenital heart disease (CHD-APAH), previously thought to be caused by worsening PAH, but perhaps also by inflammation and abnormalities of lung function. We studied lung function and airway inflammation in patients with CHD-APAH and compared the results with controls. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixty people were recruited into the study: 20 CHD-APAH, 20 CHD controls, and 20 healthy controls...
February 14, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444696/bedside-analysis-of-the-sublingual-microvascular-glycocalyx-in-the-emergency-room-and-intensive-care-unit-the-glyconurse-study
#17
Alexandros Rovas, Alexander-Henrik Lukasz, Hans Vink, Marc Urban, Jan Sackarnd, Hermann Pavenstädt, Philipp Kümpers
BACKGROUND: Deterioration of the endothelial glycocalyx (eGC), a protective carbohydrate-rich layer lining the luminal surface of the endothelium, plays a key role in vascular barrier dysfunction and eventually organ-failure in systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis. Early detection of glycocalyx damage could thus become an important goal in critical care. This study was designed to determine the feasibility and reproducibility of quantitative, real-time glycocalyx measurements performed at bedside in the emergency room (ER) and intensive care unit (ICU)...
February 14, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444453/efferocytosis-in-atherosclerotic-lesions-malfunctioning-regulatory-pathways-and-control-mechanisms
#18
REVIEW
Amir Tajbakhsh, Mehdi Rezaee, Petri T Kovanen, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Atherosclerosis is a dynamic and progressive inflammatory process in the intimal layer of large and medium-sized arteries, and it is the major contributor to the atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD), the leading cause of death worldwide. In an atherosclerotic plaque, phagocytosis of apoptotic cells occurs through an intricate process designated efferocytosis. Defective efferocytosis has emerged as a causal factor in the etiopathogenesis of atherosclerosis and its progression into overt ACVD. Both specialized phagocytes (macrophages and dendritic cells) and non-specialized cells with phagocytic capabilities (smooth muscle and endothelial cells) are involved in the efferocytotic process...
February 11, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443032/kinetic-analysis-of-vasculogenesis-quantifies-dynamics-of-vasculogenesis-and-angiogenesis-in-vitro
#19
Kaela M Varberg, Seth Winfree, Kenneth W Dunn, Laura S Haneline
Vasculogenesis is a complex process by which endothelial stem and progenitor cells undergo de novo vessel formation. Quantitative assessment of vasculogenesis has become a central readout of endothelial progenitor cell functionality, and therefore, several attempts have been made to improve both in vitro and in vivo vasculogenesis models. However, standard methods are limited in scope, with static measurements failing to capture many aspects of this highly dynamic process. Therefore, the goal of developing this novel protocol was to assess the kinetics of in vitro vasculogenesis in order to quantitate rates of network formation and stabilization, as well as provide insight into potential mechanisms underlying vascular dysfunction...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442546/vegf-therapy-for-the-kidney-emerging-strategies
#20
Erika Guise, Alejandro R Chade
Renovascular disease (RVD) is prevalent in the elderly, significantly increases cardiovascular risk, and can progressively deteriorate renal function. The loss of renal function in patients with RVD is associated with a progressive dysfunction, damage, and loss of renal microvessels, which pairs with decreased renal bioavailability of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and a defective vascular repair and proliferation. This association has been the impetus for recent efforts that focused on developing methods to stop the progression of renal injury by protecting the renal microvasculature...
February 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
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