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Jihyae Ann, Agnes Czikora, Amandeep Saini, Xiaoling Zhou, Gary A Mitchell, Nancy E Lewin, Megan L Peach, Peter M Blumberg, Jeewoo Lee
Diacylglycerol-lactones have proven to be a powerful template for the design of potent ligands targeting C1 domains, the recognition motif for the cellular second messenger diacylglycerol. A major objective has been to better understand the structure activity relations distinguishing the seven families of signaling proteins that contain such domains, of which the protein kinase C (PKC) and RasGRP families are of particular interest. Here, we synthesize a series of aryl/alkyl substituted diacylglycerol-lactones and probe their relative selectivities for RasGRP3 versus PKC...
June 3, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Yvonne Vercoulen, Yasushi Kondo, Jeffrey S Iwig, Axel B Janssen, Katharine A White, Mojtaba Amini, Diane L Barber, John Kuriyan, Jeroen P Roose
RasGRPs are guanine nucleotide exchange factors that are specific for Ras or Rap, and are important regulators of cellular signaling. Aberrant expression or mutation of RasGRPs results in disease. An analysis of RasGRP1 SNP variants led to the conclusion that the charge of His 212 in RasGRP1 alters signaling activity and plasma membrane recruitment, indicating that His 212 is a pH sensor that alters the balance between the inactive and active forms of RasGRP1. To understand the structural basis for this effect we compared the structure of autoinhibited RasGRP1, determined previously, to those of active RasGRP4:H-Ras and RasGRP2:Rap1b complexes...
September 27, 2017: ELife
Agnes Czikora, Noemi Kedei, Heather Kalish, Peter M Blumberg
RasGRP comprises a family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors, regulating the dissociation of GDP from Ras GTPases to enhance the formation of the active GTP-bound form. RasGRP1 possesses REM (Ras exchange), GEF (catalytic), EF-hand, C1, SuPT (suppressor of PT), and PT (plasma membrane-targeting) domains, among which the C1 domain drives membrane localization in response to diacylglycerol or phorbol ester and the PT domain recognizes phosphoinositides. The homologous family member RasGRP3 shows less plasma membrane localization...
December 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Eleonora Elhalem, Lucía Gandolfi Donadío, Xiaoling Zhou, Nancy E Lewin, Lia C Garcia, Christopher C Lai, James A Kelley, Megan L Peach, Peter M Blumberg, María J Comin
C1 domain-containing proteins, such as protein kinase C (PKC), have a central role in cellular signal transduction. Their involvement in many diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and immunological and neurological disorders has been extensively demonstrated and has prompted a search for small molecules to modulate their activity. By employing a diacylglycerol (DAG)-lactone template, we have been able to develop ultra potent analogs of diacylglycerol with nanomolar binding affinities approaching those of complex natural products such as phorbol esters and bryostatins...
June 15, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Dominic P Golec, Laura M Henao Caviedes, Troy A Baldwin
T cell development is dependent on the migration of progenitor cells from the bone marrow to the thymus. Upon reaching the thymus, progenitors undergo a complex developmental program that requires inputs from various highly conserved signaling pathways including the Notch and Wnt pathways. To date, Ras signaling has not been implicated in the very earliest stages of T cell differentiation, but members of a family of Ras activators called RasGRPs have been shown to be involved at multiple stages of T cell development...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Agnes Czikora, Daniel J Lundberg, Adelle Abramovitz, Nancy E Lewin, Noemi Kedei, Megan L Peach, Xiaoling Zhou, Raymond C Merritt, Elizabeth A Craft, Derek C Braun, Peter M Blumberg
The C1 domain represents the recognition module for diacylglycerol and phorbol esters in protein kinase C, Ras guanine nucleotide releasing protein (RasGRP), and related proteins. RasGRP2 is exceptional in that its C1 domain has very weak binding affinity (Kd = 2890 ± 240 nm for [(3)H]phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate. We have identified four amino acid residues responsible for this lack of sensitivity. Replacing Asn(7), Ser(8), Ala(19), and Ile(21) with the corresponding residues from RasGRP1/3 (Thr(7), Tyr(8), Gly(19), and Leu(21), respectively) conferred potent binding affinity (Kd = 1...
May 20, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Benchang Guo, Thomas L Rothstein
B1a cells, particularly the PD-L2(+) B1a cell subset, are enriched with autoantigen-specific receptors. However, the underlying molecular mechanism responsible for the skewed selection of autoreactive B1a cells remains unclear. In this study, we find that B1 cells express only Ras guanyl nucleotide-releasing protein (RasGRP) 1, whereas B2 cells express mostly RasGRP3 and little RasGRP1. RasGRP1 is indispensable for transduction of weak signals. RasGRP1 deficiency markedly impairs B1a cell development and reduces serum natural IgM production; in particular, B1a cells that express autoantigen receptors, such as anti-phosphatidylcholine B1a cells, are virtually eliminated...
March 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Songqing Tang, Taoyong Chen, Zhou Yu, Xuhui Zhu, Mingjin Yang, Bin Xie, Nan Li, Xuetao Cao, Jianli Wang
Host immune cells can detect and destruct invading pathogens via pattern-recognition receptors. Small Rap GTPases act as conserved molecular switches coupling extracellular signals to various cellular responses, but their roles as regulators in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signalling have not been fully elucidated. Here we report that Ras guanine nucleotide-releasing protein 3 (RasGRP3), a guanine nucleotide-exchange factor activating Ras and Rap1, limits production of proinflammatory cytokines (especially IL-6) in macrophages by activating Rap1 on activation by low levels of TLR agonists...
2014: Nature Communications
Lia C Garcia, Lucia Gandolfi Donadío, Ella Mann, Sofiya Kolusheva, Noemi Kedei, Nancy E Lewin, Colin S Hill, Jessica S Kelsey, Jing Yang, Timothy E Esch, Marina Santos, Megan L Peach, James A Kelley, Peter M Blumberg, Raz Jelinek, Victor E Marquez, Maria J Comin
The development of selective agents capable of discriminating between protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms and other diacylglycerol (DAG)-responsive C1 domain-containing proteins represents an important challenge. Recent studies have highlighted the role that Ras guanine nucleotide-releasing protein (RasGRP) isoforms play both in immune responses as well as in the development of prostate cancer and melanoma, suggesting that the discovery of selective ligands could have potential therapeutic value. Thus far, the N-methyl-substituted indololactone 1 is the agonist with the highest reported potency and selectivity for RasGRP relative to PKC...
June 15, 2014: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Olga Ksionda, Andre Limnander, Jeroen P Roose
RasGRP proteins are activators of Ras and other related small GTPases by the virtue of functioning as guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). In vertebrates, four RasGRP family members have been described. RasGRP-1 through -4 share many structural domains but there are also subtle differences between each of the different family members. Whereas SOS RasGEFs are ubiquitously expressed, RasGRP proteins are expressed in distinct patterns, such as in different cells of the hematopoietic system and in the brain...
October 1, 2013: Frontiers in Biology
Noemi Cruz-Orcutt, Aldo Vacaflores, Sean F Connolly, Stephen C Bunnell, Jon C D Houtman
Phospholipase C-γ1 (PLC-γ1) is a key regulator of T cell receptor (TCR)-induced signaling. Activation of the TCR enhances PLC-γ1 enzymatic function, resulting in calcium influx and the activation of PKC family members and RasGRP. The current model is that phosphorylation of LAT tyrosine 132 facilitates the recruitment of PLC-γ1, leading to its activation and function at the LAT complex. In this study, we examined the phosphorylation kinetics of LAT and PLC-γ1 and the cellular localization of activated PLC-γ1...
April 2014: Cellular Signalling
Jesse E Jun, Ignacio Rubio, Jeroen P Roose
The Ras-MAPK signaling pathway is highly conserved throughout evolution and is activated downstream of a wide range of receptor stimuli. Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RasGEFs) catalyze GTP loading of Ras and play a pivotal role in regulating receptor-ligand induced Ras activity. In T cells, three families of functionally important RasGEFs are expressed: RasGRF, RasGRP, and Son of Sevenless (SOS)-family GEFs. Early on it was recognized that Ras activation is critical for T cell development and that the RasGEFs play an important role herein...
2013: Frontiers in Immunology
Xiaohua Song, Ana Lopez-Campistrous, Lucy Sun, Nancy A Dower, Noemi Kedei, Jing Yang, Jessica S Kelsey, Nancy E Lewin, Tim E Esch, Peter M Blumberg, James C Stone
Ingenol-3-angelate (I3A) is a non-tumor promoting phorbol ester-like compound identified in the sap of Euphoria peplus. Similar to tumor promoting phorbol esters, I3A is a diacylglycerol (DAG) analogue that binds with high affinity to the C1 domains of PKCs, recruits PKCs to cellular membranes and promotes enzyme activation. Numerous anti-cancer activities have been attributed to I3A and ascribed to I3A's effects on PKCs. We show here that I3A also binds to and activates members of the RasGRP family of Ras activators leading to robust elevation of Ras-GTP and engagement of the Raf-Mek-Erk kinase cascade...
2013: PloS One
Jesse E Jun, Ming Yang, Hang Chen, Arup K Chakraborty, Jeroen P Roose
Thymocytes convert graded T cell receptor (TCR) signals into positive selection or deletion, and activation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), p38, and Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) has been postulated to play a discriminatory role. Two families of Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RasGEFs), SOS and RasGRP, activate Ras and the downstream RAF-MEK-ERK pathway. The pathways leading to lymphocyte p38 and JNK activation are less well defined. We previously described how RasGRP alone induces analog Ras-ERK activation while SOS and RasGRP cooperate to establish bimodal ERK activation...
June 2013: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Michael C Schmid, Irene Franco, Sang Won Kang, Emilio Hirsch, Lawrence A Quilliam, Judith A Varner
Tumor inflammation, the recruitment of myeloid lineage cells into the tumor microenvironment, promotes angiogenesis, immunosuppression and metastasis. CD11b+Gr1lo monocytic lineage cells and CD11b+Gr1hi granulocytic lineage cells are recruited from the circulation by tumor-derived chemoattractants, which stimulate PI3-kinase γ (PI3Kγ)-mediated integrin α4 activation and extravasation. We show here that PI3Kγ activates PLCγ, leading to RasGrp/CalDAG-GEF-I&II mediated, Rap1a-dependent activation of integrin α4β1, extravasation of monocytes and granulocytes, and inflammation-associated tumor progression...
2013: PloS One
Junichi Takino, Kentaro Nagamine, Takamitsu Hori
Ras guanyl nucleotide releasing proteins (RasGRPs) are guanine nucleotide exchange factors that activate Ras and Rap. We recently reported that xrasgrp2, which is a homolog of the human rasgrp2, plays a role in vasculogenesis and/or angiogenesis during early development of Xenopus embryos. However, the function of RasGRP2 in human vascular endothelium remains unknown. Therefore we aimed to analyze the function of human RasGRP2 in vascular endothelial cells. RasGRP2 overexpression did not increase Ras activation...
May 2013: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Takayuki Uozumi, Takaaki Hirotsu, Kazushi Yoshida, Ryuji Yamada, Akiya Suzuki, Gun Taniguchi, Yuichi Iino, Takeshi Ishihara
Responses to environmental stimuli are mediated by the activation and inactivation of various signalling proteins. However, the temporal dynamics of these events in living animals are not well understood. Here we show real-time imaging of the activity of the key regulator of the MAP kinase pathway, Ras, in living Caenorhabditis elegans and that Ras is transiently activated within a few seconds in olfactory neurons in response to increase in the concentration of odorants. This fast activation of Ras is dependent on the olfactory signalling pathway and Ras guanyl nucleotide-releasing protein (RasGRP)...
2012: Scientific Reports
Minghua Zhu, Deirdre M Fuller, Weiguo Zhang
The RasGRP (Ras guanine nucleotide-releasing protein) family proteins are guanine nucleotide exchange factors that activate Ras GTPases, ultimately leading to MAPK activation and many cellular processes. The RasGRP family has four members. Published studies demonstrate that RasGRP1, RasGRP2, and RasGRP3 play critical roles in T cells, platelets, and B cells, respectively. RasGRP4 is highly expressed in mast cells. Although previous data suggest that it is important in mast cell development and function, the role of RasGRP4 in mast cells and allergic responses has not been clearly demonstrated...
March 9, 2012: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Aws Alshamsan
Thymocytes are subjected to processes of selection during their life in the thymus; negative selection for autoreactive thymocytes and positive selection for self-MHC restricted self-tolerant cells. Interestingly, signals for positive or negative selection originate from the same receptor. More importantly, evidence showed that both death and survival signals are mediated by the MAPK pathway. The degree and order of ERK activation, but not other MAPK proteins, has been found to be different in either cases of cell fate...
2011: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
T Oki, J Kitaura, N Watanabe-Okochi, K Nishimura, A Maehara, T Uchida, Y Komeno, F Nakahara, Y Harada, T Sonoki, H Harada, T Kitamura
Ras guanyl nucleotide-releasing proteins (RasGRPs) are activators of Ras. Previous studies have indicated the possible involvement of RasGRP1 and RasGRP4 in leukemogenesis. Here, the predominant role of RasGRP1 in T-cell leukemogenesis is clarified. Notably, increased expression of RasGRP1, but not RasGRP4, was frequently observed in human T-cell malignancies. In a mouse bone marrow transplantation model, RasGRP1 exclusively induced T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (T-ALL) after a shorter latency when compared with RasGRP4...
May 2012: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
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