Read by QxMD icon Read


Dominic P Golec, Laura M Henao Caviedes, Troy A Baldwin
T cell development is dependent on the migration of progenitor cells from the bone marrow to the thymus. Upon reaching the thymus, progenitors undergo a complex developmental program that requires inputs from various highly conserved signaling pathways including the Notch and Wnt pathways. To date, Ras signaling has not been implicated in the very earliest stages of T cell differentiation, but members of a family of Ras activators called RasGRPs have been shown to be involved at multiple stages of T cell development...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Agnes Czikora, Daniel J Lundberg, Adelle Abramovitz, Nancy E Lewin, Noemi Kedei, Megan L Peach, Xiaoling Zhou, Raymond C Merritt, Elizabeth A Craft, Derek C Braun, Peter M Blumberg
The C1 domain represents the recognition module for diacylglycerol and phorbol esters in protein kinase C, Ras guanine nucleotide releasing protein (RasGRP), and related proteins. RasGRP2 is exceptional in that its C1 domain has very weak binding affinity (Kd = 2890 ± 240 nm for [(3)H]phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate. We have identified four amino acid residues responsible for this lack of sensitivity. Replacing Asn(7), Ser(8), Ala(19), and Ile(21) with the corresponding residues from RasGRP1/3 (Thr(7), Tyr(8), Gly(19), and Leu(21), respectively) conferred potent binding affinity (Kd = 1...
May 20, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Benchang Guo, Thomas L Rothstein
B1a cells, particularly the PD-L2(+) B1a cell subset, are enriched with autoantigen-specific receptors. However, the underlying molecular mechanism responsible for the skewed selection of autoreactive B1a cells remains unclear. In this study, we find that B1 cells express only Ras guanyl nucleotide-releasing protein (RasGRP) 1, whereas B2 cells express mostly RasGRP3 and little RasGRP1. RasGRP1 is indispensable for transduction of weak signals. RasGRP1 deficiency markedly impairs B1a cell development and reduces serum natural IgM production; in particular, B1a cells that express autoantigen receptors, such as anti-phosphatidylcholine B1a cells, are virtually eliminated...
March 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Songqing Tang, Taoyong Chen, Zhou Yu, Xuhui Zhu, Mingjin Yang, Bin Xie, Nan Li, Xuetao Cao, Jianli Wang
Host immune cells can detect and destruct invading pathogens via pattern-recognition receptors. Small Rap GTPases act as conserved molecular switches coupling extracellular signals to various cellular responses, but their roles as regulators in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signalling have not been fully elucidated. Here we report that Ras guanine nucleotide-releasing protein 3 (RasGRP3), a guanine nucleotide-exchange factor activating Ras and Rap1, limits production of proinflammatory cytokines (especially IL-6) in macrophages by activating Rap1 on activation by low levels of TLR agonists...
2014: Nature Communications
Lia C Garcia, Lucia Gandolfi Donadío, Ella Mann, Sofiya Kolusheva, Noemi Kedei, Nancy E Lewin, Colin S Hill, Jessica S Kelsey, Jing Yang, Timothy E Esch, Marina Santos, Megan L Peach, James A Kelley, Peter M Blumberg, Raz Jelinek, Victor E Marquez, Maria J Comin
The development of selective agents capable of discriminating between protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms and other diacylglycerol (DAG)-responsive C1 domain-containing proteins represents an important challenge. Recent studies have highlighted the role that Ras guanine nucleotide-releasing protein (RasGRP) isoforms play both in immune responses as well as in the development of prostate cancer and melanoma, suggesting that the discovery of selective ligands could have potential therapeutic value. Thus far, the N-methyl-substituted indololactone 1 is the agonist with the highest reported potency and selectivity for RasGRP relative to PKC...
June 15, 2014: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Olga Ksionda, Andre Limnander, Jeroen P Roose
RasGRP proteins are activators of Ras and other related small GTPases by the virtue of functioning as guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). In vertebrates, four RasGRP family members have been described. RasGRP-1 through -4 share many structural domains but there are also subtle differences between each of the different family members. Whereas SOS RasGEFs are ubiquitously expressed, RasGRP proteins are expressed in distinct patterns, such as in different cells of the hematopoietic system and in the brain...
October 1, 2013: Frontiers in Biology
Noemi Cruz-Orcutt, Aldo Vacaflores, Sean F Connolly, Stephen C Bunnell, Jon C D Houtman
Phospholipase C-γ1 (PLC-γ1) is a key regulator of T cell receptor (TCR)-induced signaling. Activation of the TCR enhances PLC-γ1 enzymatic function, resulting in calcium influx and the activation of PKC family members and RasGRP. The current model is that phosphorylation of LAT tyrosine 132 facilitates the recruitment of PLC-γ1, leading to its activation and function at the LAT complex. In this study, we examined the phosphorylation kinetics of LAT and PLC-γ1 and the cellular localization of activated PLC-γ1...
April 2014: Cellular Signalling
Jesse E Jun, Ignacio Rubio, Jeroen P Roose
The Ras-MAPK signaling pathway is highly conserved throughout evolution and is activated downstream of a wide range of receptor stimuli. Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RasGEFs) catalyze GTP loading of Ras and play a pivotal role in regulating receptor-ligand induced Ras activity. In T cells, three families of functionally important RasGEFs are expressed: RasGRF, RasGRP, and Son of Sevenless (SOS)-family GEFs. Early on it was recognized that Ras activation is critical for T cell development and that the RasGEFs play an important role herein...
2013: Frontiers in Immunology
Xiaohua Song, Ana Lopez-Campistrous, Lucy Sun, Nancy A Dower, Noemi Kedei, Jing Yang, Jessica S Kelsey, Nancy E Lewin, Tim E Esch, Peter M Blumberg, James C Stone
Ingenol-3-angelate (I3A) is a non-tumor promoting phorbol ester-like compound identified in the sap of Euphoria peplus. Similar to tumor promoting phorbol esters, I3A is a diacylglycerol (DAG) analogue that binds with high affinity to the C1 domains of PKCs, recruits PKCs to cellular membranes and promotes enzyme activation. Numerous anti-cancer activities have been attributed to I3A and ascribed to I3A's effects on PKCs. We show here that I3A also binds to and activates members of the RasGRP family of Ras activators leading to robust elevation of Ras-GTP and engagement of the Raf-Mek-Erk kinase cascade...
2013: PloS One
Jesse E Jun, Ming Yang, Hang Chen, Arup K Chakraborty, Jeroen P Roose
Thymocytes convert graded T cell receptor (TCR) signals into positive selection or deletion, and activation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), p38, and Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) has been postulated to play a discriminatory role. Two families of Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RasGEFs), SOS and RasGRP, activate Ras and the downstream RAF-MEK-ERK pathway. The pathways leading to lymphocyte p38 and JNK activation are less well defined. We previously described how RasGRP alone induces analog Ras-ERK activation while SOS and RasGRP cooperate to establish bimodal ERK activation...
June 2013: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Michael C Schmid, Irene Franco, Sang Won Kang, Emilio Hirsch, Lawrence A Quilliam, Judith A Varner
Tumor inflammation, the recruitment of myeloid lineage cells into the tumor microenvironment, promotes angiogenesis, immunosuppression and metastasis. CD11b+Gr1lo monocytic lineage cells and CD11b+Gr1hi granulocytic lineage cells are recruited from the circulation by tumor-derived chemoattractants, which stimulate PI3-kinase γ (PI3Kγ)-mediated integrin α4 activation and extravasation. We show here that PI3Kγ activates PLCγ, leading to RasGrp/CalDAG-GEF-I&II mediated, Rap1a-dependent activation of integrin α4β1, extravasation of monocytes and granulocytes, and inflammation-associated tumor progression...
2013: PloS One
Junichi Takino, Kentaro Nagamine, Takamitsu Hori
Ras guanyl nucleotide releasing proteins (RasGRPs) are guanine nucleotide exchange factors that activate Ras and Rap. We recently reported that xrasgrp2, which is a homolog of the human rasgrp2, plays a role in vasculogenesis and/or angiogenesis during early development of Xenopus embryos. However, the function of RasGRP2 in human vascular endothelium remains unknown. Therefore we aimed to analyze the function of human RasGRP2 in vascular endothelial cells. RasGRP2 overexpression did not increase Ras activation...
May 2013: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Takayuki Uozumi, Takaaki Hirotsu, Kazushi Yoshida, Ryuji Yamada, Akiya Suzuki, Gun Taniguchi, Yuichi Iino, Takeshi Ishihara
Responses to environmental stimuli are mediated by the activation and inactivation of various signalling proteins. However, the temporal dynamics of these events in living animals are not well understood. Here we show real-time imaging of the activity of the key regulator of the MAP kinase pathway, Ras, in living Caenorhabditis elegans and that Ras is transiently activated within a few seconds in olfactory neurons in response to increase in the concentration of odorants. This fast activation of Ras is dependent on the olfactory signalling pathway and Ras guanyl nucleotide-releasing protein (RasGRP)...
2012: Scientific Reports
Minghua Zhu, Deirdre M Fuller, Weiguo Zhang
The RasGRP (Ras guanine nucleotide-releasing protein) family proteins are guanine nucleotide exchange factors that activate Ras GTPases, ultimately leading to MAPK activation and many cellular processes. The RasGRP family has four members. Published studies demonstrate that RasGRP1, RasGRP2, and RasGRP3 play critical roles in T cells, platelets, and B cells, respectively. RasGRP4 is highly expressed in mast cells. Although previous data suggest that it is important in mast cell development and function, the role of RasGRP4 in mast cells and allergic responses has not been clearly demonstrated...
March 9, 2012: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Aws Alshamsan
Thymocytes are subjected to processes of selection during their life in the thymus; negative selection for autoreactive thymocytes and positive selection for self-MHC restricted self-tolerant cells. Interestingly, signals for positive or negative selection originate from the same receptor. More importantly, evidence showed that both death and survival signals are mediated by the MAPK pathway. The degree and order of ERK activation, but not other MAPK proteins, has been found to be different in either cases of cell fate...
2011: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
T Oki, J Kitaura, N Watanabe-Okochi, K Nishimura, A Maehara, T Uchida, Y Komeno, F Nakahara, Y Harada, T Sonoki, H Harada, T Kitamura
Ras guanyl nucleotide-releasing proteins (RasGRPs) are activators of Ras. Previous studies have indicated the possible involvement of RasGRP1 and RasGRP4 in leukemogenesis. Here, the predominant role of RasGRP1 in T-cell leukemogenesis is clarified. Notably, increased expression of RasGRP1, but not RasGRP4, was frequently observed in human T-cell malignancies. In a mouse bone marrow transplantation model, RasGRP1 exclusively induced T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (T-ALL) after a shorter latency when compared with RasGRP4...
May 2012: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
M J Rapoport, O Bloch, M Amit-Vasina, E Yona, Y Molad
OBJECTIVE: Defective expression of Ras guanil releasing protein-1 (RasGRP-1) and increased apoptosis have been reported in lymphocytes from SLE patients. Whether these aberrations are correlated and linked to disease activity has not been elucidated. METHODS: Expression of normal 90 kDa RasGRP-1, its most prevalent 86 kDa isoform and full PARP-1 116 kDa and its cleavage fragment 84 kDa were determined in whole protein lysates of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in correlation with mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity and SLE clinical status in a large group of SLE patients during 1 year follow-up...
December 2011: Lupus
Evan Markegard, Evan Trager, Chih-wen Ou Yang, Weiguo Zhang, Arthur Weiss, Jeroen P Roose
In contrast to the well-characterized T cell receptor (TCR) signaling pathways that induce genes that drive T cell development or polarization of naïve CD4 T cells into the diverse T(H)1, T(H)2, T(H)17 and T(reg) lineages, it is unclear what signals maintain specific gene expression in mature resting T cells. Resting T cells residing in peripheral lymphoid organs exhibit low-level constitutive signaling. Whereas tonic signals in B cells are known to be critical for survival, the roles of tonic signals in peripheral T cells are unknown...
2011: PloS One
Sujit V Janardhan, Kesavannair Praveen, Reinhard Marks, Thomas F Gajewski
CD28 costimulation is a critical event in the full activation of CD4(+) T cells that augments cytokine gene transcription, promotes cytokine mRNA stability, prevents induction of anergy, increases cellular metabolism, and increases cell survival. However, despite extensive biochemical analysis of the signaling events downstream of CD28, molecular pathways sufficient to functionally replace the diverse aspects of CD28-mediated costimulation in normal T cells have not been identified. Ras/MAPK signaling is a critical pathway downstream of T cell receptor stimulation, but its role in CD28-mediated costimulation has been controversial...
2011: PloS One
James C Stone
Ras guanyl nucleotide releasing proteins (RasGRPs) are guanyl nucleotide exchange factors that activate Ras and related GTPases such as Rap. Like Sos proteins, RasGRPs have a catalytic region composed of a Ras exchange motif (REM) and a CDC25 domain. RasGRPs also possess a pair of atypical EF hands that may bind calcium in vivo and a C1 domain resembling the diacylglycerol (DAG)-binding domain of protein kinase C. DAG directly activates RasGRPs by a membrane recruitment mechanism as well as indirectly by PKC-mediated phosphorylation...
March 2011: Genes & Cancer
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"