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Ewing sarcoma chromosome translocation

Masako Ishiguro, Mutsumi Yuki, Tomoko Fukushige, Mikio Mizoguchi, Yasuhiko Kaneko, Takeshita Morishige, Hiroshi Iwasaki
Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor/Askin's tumor (Ewing`s sarcoma family of tumors: ESFT) is the most common type of malignant tumor of bone and soft tissue in children and young adults, and morphologically is a member of a group of small round cell tumors. We report, here, on the establishment of two human ESFT cell lines, FU-PNET-3 and FU-PNET-4, from the iliac and the chest wall, respectively, the cells of both cell lines were tumorigenic in immunodeficient mice. Histologically, both original and xenograft tumors and cultured cells were composed of small round cells with positive immunoreactivity for CD99 and Nkx2...
September 9, 2016: Human Cell
Hyewon Park, Richard Galbraith, Thaddeus Turner, Justin Mehojah, Mizuki Azuma
The Ewing sarcoma family of tumors expresses aberrant EWSR1- (EWS) fusion genes that are derived from chromosomal translocation. Although these fusion genes are well characterized as transcription factors, their formation leaves a single EWS allele in the sarcoma cells, and the contribution that the loss of EWS makes towards disease pathogenesis is unknown. To address this question, we utilized zebrafish mutants for ewsa and tp53. The zebrafish tp53(M214K)(w/m) line and the ewsa(w/m), zygotic ewsa(m/m), and Maternal-Zygotic (MZ) ewsa(m/m) lines all displayed zero to low incidence of tumorigenesis...
2016: Scientific Reports
F Cidre-Aranaz, T G P Grünewald, D Surdez, L García-García, J Carlos Lázaro, T Kirchner, L González-González, A Sastre, P García-Miguel, S E López-Pérez, S Monzón, O Delattre, J Alonso
Ewing sarcoma is characterized by chromosomal translocations fusing the EWS gene with various members of the ETS family of transcription factors, most commonly FLI1. EWS-FLI1 is an aberrant transcription factor driving Ewing sarcoma tumorigenesis by either transcriptionally inducing or repressing specific target genes. Herein, we showed that Sprouty 1 (SPRY1), which is a physiological negative feedback inhibitor downstream of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors (FGFRs) and other RAS-activating receptors, is an EWS-FLI1 repressed gene...
July 4, 2016: Oncogene
Melissa D Mathias, Alexander J Chou, Paul Meyers, Neerav Shukla, Meera Hameed, Narasimhan Agaram, Lu Wang, Michael F Berger, Michael Walsh, Alex Kentsis
Poorly differentiated round cell sarcomas present diagnostic challenges because of their variable morphology and lack of specific immunophenotypic markers. We present a case of a 15-year-old female with a tibial tumor that exhibited features of Ewing-like sarcoma, including apparent rearrangement of the EWSR1 gene. Hybridization capture-based next-generation DNA sequencing showed evidence of complex genomic rearrangements, absence of known pathogenic Ewing-like chromosome translocations, and deletions RB1, PTCH1, and ATRX, supporting the diagnosis of osteosarcoma...
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Sudan N Loganathan, Nan Tang, Jonathan T Fleming, Yufang Ma, Yan Guo, Scott C Borinstein, Chin Chiang, Jialiang Wang
Ewing sarcoma is driven by characteristic chromosomal translocations between the EWSR1 gene with genes encoding ETS family transcription factors (EWS-ETS), most commonly FLI1. However, direct pharmacological inhibition of transcription factors like EWS-FLI1 remains largely unsuccessful. Active gene transcription requires orchestrated actions of many epigenetic regulators, such as the bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) family proteins. Emerging BET bromodomain inhibitors have exhibited promising antineoplastic activities via suppression of oncogenic transcription factors in various cancers...
June 1, 2016: Oncotarget
Sang Kyum Kim, Yong-Koo Park
Sarcomas have traditionally been classified according to their chromosomal alterations regardless of whether they accompany simple or complex genetic changes. Ewing sarcoma, a classic small round cell bone tumor, is a well-known mesenchymal malignancy that results from simple sarcoma-specific genetic alterations. The genetic alterations are translocations between genes of the TET/FET family (TLS/FUS, EWSR1, and TAF15) and genes of the E26 transformation-specific (ETS) family. In this review, we intend to summarize a chronicle of molecular findings of Ewing sarcoma including recent advances and explain resultant molecular pathogenesis...
September 2016: Human Pathology
Tsion Zewdu Minas, Didier Surdez, Tahereh Javaheri, Miwa Tanaka, Michelle Howarth, Hong-Jun Kang, Jenny Han, Zhi-Yan Han, Barbara Sax, Barbara E Kream, Sung-Hyeok Hong, Haydar Çelik, Franck Tirode, Jan Tuckermann, Jeffrey A Toretsky, Lukas Kenner, Heinrich Kovar, Sean Lee, E Alejandro Sweet-Cordero, Takuro Nakamura, Richard Moriggl, Olivier Delattre, Aykut Üren
Ewing sarcoma (ES) involves a tumor-specific chromosomal translocation that produces the EWS-FLI1 protein, which is required for the growth of ES cells both in vitro and in vivo. However, an EWS-FLI1-driven transgenic mouse model is not currently available. Here, we present data from six independent laboratories seeking an alternative approach to express EWS-FLI1 in different murine tissues. We used the Runx2, Col1a2.3, Col1a3.6, Prx1, CAG, Nse, NEFL, Dermo1, P0, Sox9 and Osterix promoters to target EWS-FLI1 or Cre expression...
May 15, 2016: Oncotarget
Dan Lv, Jinye Liu, Lianying Guo, Dawei Wu, Ken Matsumoto, Lin Huang
EWS expression in Ewing sarcoma family tumors (ESFTs) is decreased due to the haploinsufficiency elicited by chromosomal translocation. The abnormal expression levels of EWS and its downstream factors contribute to the manifestation of ESFTs. Previously, we reported that increased Proline-rich Akt substrate of 40 kDa (PRAS40), which is encoded by an EWS mRNA target, promotes the development of ESFTs. However, the mechanism remains elusive. To clarify the role of PRAS40 in ESFTs, we silenced PRAS40 expression in ESFT cells using siRNAs and found increased levels of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells...
2016: American Journal of Cancer Research
Camille Jacques, François Lamoureux, Marc Baud'huin, Lidia Rodriguez Calleja, Thibaut Quillard, Jérôme Amiaud, Franck Tirode, Françoise Rédini, James E Bradner, Dominique Heymann, Benjamin Ory
Ewing Sarcoma is a rare bone and soft tissue malignancy affecting children and young adults. Chromosomal translocations in this cancer produce fusion oncogenes as characteristic molecular signatures of the disease. The most common case is the translocation t (11; 22) (q24;q12) which yields the EWS-Fli1 chimeric transcription factor. Finding a way to directly target EWS-Fli1 remains a central therapeutic approach to eradicate this aggressive cancer. Here we demonstrate that treating Ewing Sarcoma cells with JQ1(+), a BET bromodomain inhibitor, represses directly EWS-Fli1 transcription as well as its transcriptional program...
April 26, 2016: Oncotarget
Carola Andersson, Henrik Fagman, Magnus Hansson, Fredrik Enlund
Comprehensive genetic profiling by massively parallel sequencing, commonly known as next generation sequencing (NGS), is becoming the foundation of personalized oncology. For sarcomas very few targeted treatments are currently in routine use. In clinical practice the preoperative diagnostic workup of soft tissue tumours largely relies on core needle biopsies. Although mostly sufficient for histopathological diagnosis, only very limited amounts of formalin fixated paraffin embedded tissue are often available for predictive mutation analysis...
April 2016: Cancer Genetics
Emily R Theisen, Kathleen I Pishas, Ranajeet S Saund, Stephen L Lessnick
Ewing sarcoma is an aggressive primary pediatric bone tumor, often diagnosed in adolescents and young adults. A pathognomonic reciprocal chromosomal translocation results in a fusion gene coding for a protein which derives its N-terminus from a FUS/EWS/TAF15 (FET) protein family member, commonly EWS, and C-terminus containing the DNA-binding domain of an ETS transcription factor, commonly FLI1. Nearly 85% of cases express the EWS-FLI protein which functions as a transcription factor and drives oncogenesis. As the primary genomic lesion and a protein which is not expressed in normal cells, disrupting EWS-FLI function is an attractive therapeutic strategy for Ewing sarcoma...
April 5, 2016: Oncotarget
Huijuan Xiao, Fengchang Bao, Hongna Tan, Bo Wang, Wei Liu, Jianbo Gao, Xianzheng Gao
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical, CT and pathological findings of paediatric peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumours (pPNETs) to enhance the recognition of these rare tumours. METHODS: The clinical, CT and pathological findings of 18 paediatric patients with pPNETs confirmed by biopsy or surgical pathology were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: The age of these 18 paediatric patients with pPNETs ranged from 4 months to 15 years, with a mean age of 7...
2016: British Journal of Radiology
Uma N M Rao, Kathleen Cieply, Carol Sherer, Urvashi Surti, Susanne M Gollin
INTRODUCTION: Sarcomas are heterogeneous, and their treatment and prognosis are driven by the morphologic subtype and the clinical stage. Classic cytogenetics and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis play an important role in their diagnostic work up. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-six cases of soft-tissue sarcoma were reviewed that underwent karyotyping and simultaneous FISH analysis at initial diagnosis. They included 10 dedifferentiated liposarcomas, 10 myxoid liposarcomas, and 14 synovial sarcomas...
January 22, 2016: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
David J Elzi, Meihua Song, Peter J Houghton, Yidong Chen, Yuzuru Shiio
Ewing sarcoma is a cancer of bone and soft tissue in children that is characterized by a chromosomal translocation involving EWS and an Ets family transcription factor, most commonly FLI-1. The EWS-FLI-1 fusion oncogene is widely believed to play a central role in Ewing sarcoma. The EWS-FLI-1 gene product regulates the expression of a number of genes important for cancer progression, can transform mouse cells such as NIH3T3 and C3H10T1/2, and is necessary for proliferation and tumorigenicity of Ewing sarcoma cells, suggesting that EWS-FLI-1 is the causative oncogene...
November 2015: Genes & Cancer
David Reisner, Deborah Brahee, Shweta Patel, Matthew Hartman
Desmoplastic small round cell tumor is a rare, aggressive tumor primarily affecting young males. It is considered a childhood cancer, and is characterized by a unique chromosomal translocation which leads to failure to suppress tumor growth. It is classified as a soft tissue sarcoma, sharing some features with other small round cell tumors such as Ewing's Sarcoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Typical imaging findings include multiple heterogeneous, lobular abdominal masses, which can grow very large...
August 2015: Journal of Radiology Case Reports
Tim Hensel, Chiara Giorgi, Oxana Schmidt, Julia Calzada-Wack, Frauke Neff, Thorsten Buch, Felix K Niggli, Beat W Schäfer, Stefan Burdach, Günther H S Richter
Ewing sarcomas (ES) are highly malignant bone or soft tissue tumors. Genetically, ES are defined by balanced chromosomal EWS/ETS translocations, which give rise to chimeric proteins (EWS-ETS) that generate an oncogenic transcriptional program associated with altered epigenetic marks throughout the genome. By use of an inhibitor (JQ1) blocking BET bromodomain binding proteins (BRDs) we strikingly observed a strong down-regulation of the predominant EWS-ETS protein EWS-FLI1 in a dose dependent manner. This was further enhanced by co-treatment with an inhibitor of the PI3K pathway...
January 12, 2016: Oncotarget
Tsion Zewdu Minas, Jenny Han, Tahereh Javaheri, Sung-Hyeok Hong, Michaela Schlederer, Yasemin Saygideğer-Kont, Haydar Çelik, Kristina M Mueller, Idil Temel, Metin Özdemirli, Heinrich Kovar, Hayriye Verda Erkizan, Jeffrey Toretsky, Lukas Kenner, Richard Moriggl, Aykut Üren
Ewing sarcoma is an aggressive tumor of bone and soft tissue affecting predominantly children and young adults. Tumor-specific chromosomal translocations create EWS-FLI1 and similar aberrant ETS fusion proteins that drive sarcoma development in patients. ETS family fusion proteins and over-expressed ETS proteins are also found in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients. Transgenic expression of EWS-FLI1 in mice promotes high penetrance erythroid leukemia with dense hepatic and splenic infiltrations...
November 10, 2015: Oncotarget
Marco Fidaleo, Francesca Svetoni, Elisabetta Volpe, Belén Miñana, Daniela Caporossi, Maria Paola Paronetto
Alternative splicing plays a key role in the DNA damage response and in cancer. Ewing Sarcomas (ES) are aggressive tumors caused by different chromosomal translocations that yield in-frame fusion proteins driving transformation. RNA profiling reveals genes differentially regulated by UV light irradiation in two ES cell lines exhibiting different sensitivity to genotoxic stress. In particular, irradiation induces a new isoform of the RNA helicase DHX9 in the more sensitive SK-N-MC cells, which is targeted to nonsense-mediated decay (NMD), causing its downregulation...
October 13, 2015: Oncotarget
Alyssa L Kennedy, Mounica Vallurupalli, Liying Chen, Brian Crompton, Glenn Cowley, Francisca Vazquez, Barbara A Weir, Aviad Tsherniak, Sudha Parasuraman, Sunkyu Kim, Gabriela Alexe, Kimberly Stegmaier
Ewing sarcoma is an aggressive bone and soft tissue tumor in children and adolescents, with treatment remaining a clinical challenge. This disease is mediated by somatic chromosomal translocations of the EWS gene and a gene encoding an ETS transcription factor, most commonly, FLI1. While direct targeting of aberrant transcription factors remains a pharmacological challenge, identification of dependencies incurred by EWS/FLI1 expression would offer a new therapeutic avenue. We used a combination of super-enhancer profiling, near-whole genome shRNA-based and small-molecule screening to identify cyclin D1 and CDK4 as Ewing sarcoma-selective dependencies...
October 6, 2015: Oncotarget
Florencia Cidre-Aranaz, Javier Alonso
Ewing sarcoma is an aggressive bone malignancy that affect children and young adults. Ewing sarcoma is the second most common primary bone malignancy in pediatric patients. Although significant progress has been made in the treatment of Ewing sarcoma since it was first described in the 1920s, in the last decade survival rates have remained unacceptably invariable, thus pointing to the need for new approaches centered in the molecular basis of the disease. Ewing sarcoma driving mutation, EWS-FLI1, which results from a chromosomal translocation, encodes an aberrant transcription factor...
2015: Frontiers in Oncology
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