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Robert T Dillon
Despite the utility of gastropod models for the study of evolutionary processes of great generality and importance, their effective population size has rarely been estimated in the field. Here, we report allele frequency variance at three allozyme-encoding loci monitored over 7 years in a population of the invasive freshwater pulmonate snail Physa acuta (Draparnaud 1805), estimating effective population size with both single-sample and two-sample approaches. Estimated N e declined from effectively infinite in 2009 to approximately 40-50 in 2012 and then rose back to infinity in 2015, corresponding to a striking fluctuation in the apparent census size of the population...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Michael Ibrahim, Audrey E Spelde, Timothy I Carter, Prakash A Patel, Nimesh Desai
The normal aortic valve is a sophisticated and dynamic structure whose equal replacement has not yet been actualized by modern technology. The use of the pulmonary autograft as a substitute for a diseased aortic valve (the Ross procedure) has been in practice for several decades in many types of patient. In the adult, it has not been adopted widely due to concerns about its technical challenge, complex perioperative care, the development of pulmonic valve disease, and concerns about long-term dilatation of the neo-aortic root, among others...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Chloe Grace Meyer, Thomas Paul Vacek, Amit Bansal, Ravi Gurujal, Analkumar Parikh
This report illustrates a case of a 42-year-old male with a history of intravenous drug abuse who presented with septic shock. Diagnostic studies, including a transthoracic echocardiogram, chest computed tomography angiography, transesophageal echocardiogram, and blood cultures ultimately revealed Serratia marcescens pulmonic valve infective endocarditis that was treated with intravenous antibiotics. In addition to the rare form of endocarditis and bacterium involved, this case brings into awareness the dynamic nature of the hospital course that requires vigilance in responding to hypotensive episodes for consideration of pulmonary embolism...
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
Miriama Malcicka, Bertanne Visser, Jacintha Ellers
The diet of organisms generally provides a sufficient supply of energy and building materials for healthy growth and development, but should also contain essential nutrients. Species differ in their exogenous requirements, but it is not clear why some species are able to synthesize essential nutrients, while others are not. The unsaturated fatty acid, linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6) plays an important role in functions such as cell physiology, immunity, and reproduction, and is an essential nutrient in diverse organisms...
2018: Evolutionary Biology
Mohsen Ahmed, Karl Reyes, Michael Brock, Mark Bleiweis
Double outlet right ventricle with subpulmonic ventricular septal defect is a very rare form of congenital heart disease. Surgical correction involves closure of the ventricular septal defect with baffling of blood flow from the left ventricle to the pulmonic valve and arterial switch of the usually side-by-side great arteries. In this tutorial, we present our surgical technique for single-stage repair of this complex anomaly.
January 25, 2018: Multimedia Manual of Cardiothoracic Surgery: MMCTS
Zhen-Fang Zhou, Xiao-Lu Li, Li-Gong Yao, Jia Li, Margherita Gavagnin, Yue-Wei Guo
Two additional new members of the onchidione family, 16-epi-onchidione (1) and 4-epi-onchidione (2), co-occurring with six previously reported bis-γ-pyrone polypropionates including onchidione (3), were isolated from the marine pulmonate Onchidium sp. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis and by comparison with 3 and onchidione-related derivatives. The absolute configuration of 1 was established by X-ray diffraction analysis employing graphite monochromated Cu Kα radiation (λ = 0...
February 8, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Mónica Morales, Pedro Martínez-Paz, Paloma Sánchez-Argüello, Gloria Morcillo, José Luis Martínez-Guitarte
Bisphenol A (BPA), a known endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) that can mimic the action of oestrogens by interacting with hormone receptors, is potentially able to influence reproductive functions in vertebrates and invertebrates. The freshwater pulmonate Physa acuta is a sensitive organism to xenobiotics appropriate for aquatic toxicity testing in environmental studies. This study was conducted to explore the effects of BPA on the Gastropoda endocrine system. The effects following a range of exposure times (5-96h) to BPA in P...
January 31, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
McKenzie Hollon, Kathyrn Glas, Michele Sumler
Carcinoid heart disease is a rare form of heart disease due to secretion of vasoactive compounds, including serotonin, from gastrointestinal tumors. This E-challenge examines the case of a patient with advanced carcinoid heart disease who presented to the operating room (OR) for a tricuspid valve replacement. Once the patient was in the OR, intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography was used to discover a patent foramen ovale and involvement of all 4 valves with regurgitant lesions. The patient underwent tricuspid valve replacement, pulmonic valve replacement, right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction, and patent foramen closure in the OR and experienced subsequent fulminant right heart failure...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
De-Li Chen, Wei Zheng, Jian Feng, Guo-Xu Ma, Yang-Yang Liu, Xu-Dong Xu
A new bis-γ-pyrone polypropionate compound onchidione II (1), together with three known compounds, was isolated from a marine pulmonate mollusc Onchidium struma, collected at Hainan Island of China. The structure of new compound was determined by extensive spectroscopic analyses including IR, 1D and 2D NMR techniques, and chemical methods. Compounds 1-4 were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against human tumor cell lines HepG-2, A549, and MCF-2. The results showed that compounds 1 and 2 were moderate cytotoxic against HepG-2, A549, and MCF-2 cell lines, with IC50 values from 13...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Asian Natural Products Research
Kevin J Um, Graham R McCLURE, Emilie P Belley-Cote, Saurabh Gupta, Ismail Bouhout, Hugo Lortie, Hatim Alraddadi, Ali Alsagheir, Matthias Bossard, William F McINTYRE, Alexandra Lengyel, John W Eikelboom, Maral Ouzounian, Michael W Chu, Dominic Parry, Ismail El-Hamamsy, Richard P Whitlock
INTRODUCTION: Life expectancy in young adults undergoing mechanical or bioprosthetic aortic valve replacement (AVR) may be reduced by up to 20 years compared to age matched controls. The Ross procedure is a durable, anticoagulation-sparing alternative. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the valve hemodynamics of the Ross procedure versus other AVR. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We searched Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE from inception to February 2017 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies (n≥10 Ross)...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
Christine H Attenhofer Jost, Nicholas Y Tan, Abdalla Hassan, Emily R Vargas, David O Hodge, Joseph A Dearani, Heidi Connolly, Samuel J Asirvatham, Christopher J McLeod
Aims: Ventricular dysfunction or structural alteration of either ventricle is a well-established risk factor for sudden death (SD). Ebstein anomaly (EA) can present with both right and left heart abnormalities; however, predictors of SD have not been described. We therefore sought to characterize the incidence and risk factors of SD among a large cohort of patients with EA. Methods and results: All EA patients who underwent evaluation at a high-volume institution over a 4-decade period were retrospectively reviewed...
January 5, 2018: European Heart Journal
Irfan Tasoglu, Atakan Atalay, Omer Nuri Aksoy, Vural Polat
Pulmonary valvular stenosis is a relatively common disorder, accounting for approximately 10% of all CHDs. Pulmonic valvular disease can get clinically detected at different ages of life. The more severe the obstruction, the earlier detected the valvular abnormality. Surgical pulmonary valvotomy has been available as a treatment since 1956. This article is about a case of pulmonary annular and valvular stenosis in a 1-year-old child, and it also explores surgical operation of this condition. Transannular patches are usually used within the 1st year of age in pulmonary annular and valvular stenosis...
March 2018: Cardiology in the Young
Abdel Anabtawi, Judith Mondragon, Diane Dodendorf, Warren K Laskey
Objective: Left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) in adult survivors of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) repair in childhood has been observed, although the relationship with long-term outcome remains inadequately described. Methods: A cohort of 44 consecutive adult patients with TOF repair in childhood were followed prospectively from January 2001 through June 2016. LVSD was defined as an echocardiographically derived left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction <0...
2017: Open Heart
P Bristow, J Sargent, V Luis Fuentes, D Brockman
OBJECTIVES: To describe the outcome for nine dogs with pulmonic stenosis treated by open patch grafting using expanded polytetrafluoroethylene under cardiopulmonary bypass. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected from the hospital records of all dogs that had undergone right ventricular outflow tract grafting with an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene patch under cardiopulmonary bypass between 2006 and 2012 for the treatment of pulmonic stenosis. Echocardiographic images were reviewed and the pressure gradient across the right ventricular outflow tract re-measured...
January 2018: Journal of Small Animal Practice
Erkan Yildirim, Murat Celik, Uygar Cagdas Yuksel, Mutlu Gungor, Baris Bugan, Deniz Dogan, Yalcin Gokoglan, Hasan Kutsi Kabul, Suat Gormel, Salim Yasar, Mustafa Koklu, Cem Barcin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Functional capacity varies significantly among patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), and it remains unclear why functional capacity is severely compromised in some patients with HFrEF while it is preserved in others. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the role of pulmonary artery stiffness (PAS) in the functional status of patients with HFrEF. METHODS: A total of 46 heart failure (HF) patients without overt pulmonary hypertension or right HF and 52 controls were enrolled in the study...
November 2017: Korean Circulation Journal
Ryan Joynson, Leighton Pritchard, Ekenakema Osemwekha, Natalie Ferry
Some eukaryotes are able to gain access to well-protected carbon sources in plant biomass by exploiting microorganisms in the environment or harbored in their digestive system. One is the land pulmonate Arion ater , which takes advantage of a gut microbial consortium that can break down the widely available, but difficult to digest, carbohydrate polymers in lignocellulose, enabling them to digest a broad range of fresh and partially degraded plant material efficiently. This ability is considered one of the major factors that have enabled A...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Maryam Nabati, Mozhdeh Dabirian
Congenitally corrected transposition of great arteries (CCTGA) is a rare anomaly described by atrioventricular and ventriculoarterial discordance. On the other hand, mesocardia that is extremely rare includes two relatively well-defined apexes defined by each ventricle with the major axis of the heart lies in the midline. We describe a rare case of an asymptomatic 20-year-old woman with mesocardia, CCTGA, and severe subvalvular pulmonic stenosis due to a ball-shaped accessory tissue in left ventricular outflow tract...
November 17, 2017: Echocardiography
Wendy F Li, Heidi Pollard, Mohsen Karimi, Jeremy D Asnes, William E Hellenbrand, Veronika Shabanova, Constance G Weismann
OBJECTIVE: Trans-catheter (TC) pulmonary valve replacement (PVR) has become common practice for patients with right ventricular outflow tract obstruction (RVOTO) and/or pulmonic insufficiency (PI). Our aim was to compare PVR and right ventricular (RV) function of patients who received TC vs surgical PVR. DESIGN: Retrospective review of echocardiograms obtained at three time points: before, immediately after PVR, and most recent. PATIENTS: Sixty-two patients (median age 19 years, median follow-up 25 months) following TC (N = 32) or surgical (N = 30) PVR at Yale-New Haven Hospital were included...
November 17, 2017: Congenital Heart Disease
Andrew B Goldstone, Christopher W Jensen, Mary Sheridan Bilbao, Y Joseph Woo
Approximately 25% of patients require reoperation within 15 yrs of a Ross procedure. Increasing experience with valve-sparing root replacement (VSRR) has led some surgeons to spare the autograft valve. Here, we demonstrate that all valves can be surgically repaired or replaced safely during autograft VSRR. As more patients are considered for this operation, coexistent mitral, tricuspid, and pulmonic valve dysfunction should not preclude salvage of the autograft valve, nor should autograft leaflet prolapse.
December 20, 2017: Annals of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
James N Gerson, Ronald M Witteles, Daniel T Chang, Ramin E Beygui, Andrei H Iagaru, Pamela L Kunz
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) comprise a heterogeneous group of neoplasms. These tumors can produce a wide variety of hormones that can lead to syndromes of hormone excess, such as carcinoid syndrome. We present the case of a 47-year-old man who presented with right upper quadrant abdominal pain and emesis. He was found to have metastatic pancreatic NET and was treated with systemic chemotherapy. He subsequently developed dyspnea on exertion and was found to have severe right-sided heart disease secondary to elevated levels of serum serotonin...
November 2017: Pancreas
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