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Yi Li, Li-Hui Wang, Hao-Tian Zhang, Ya-Ting Wang, Shuai Liu, Wen-Long Zhou, Xiang-Zhong Yuan, Tian-Yang Li, Chun-Fu Wu, Jing-Yu Yang
Late-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) usually has a low survival rate because of the high risk of metastases and the lack of an effective cure. Disulfiram (DSF) has copper (Cu)-dependent anticancer properties in vitro and in vivo. The present work aims to explore the anti-metastasis effects and molecular mechanisms of DSF/Cu on HCC cells both in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that DSF inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of HCC cells. Cu improved the anti-metastatic activity of DSF, while Cu alone had no effect...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Satoko Sugahara, Tooru Fujimoto, Hisato Kondoh, Masanori Uchikawa
Transcription factor gene Sox2 is expressed throughout sensory development, but the enhancers that regulate the gene vary depending on the developmental stages and tissues. To gain new insights into the gene regulatory network in sensory placode specification, regulation of the nasal-otic bispecific NOP1 enhancer of Sox2 was investigated in chicken embryos. Deletion and mutational analyses using electroporation showed that transcriptional repression mechanisms in combination with activation mechanisms determine placodal specificity...
November 11, 2017: Developmental Biology
Pei Wang, Dong Chen, Hongbing Ma, Yong Li
Small nucleolar RNA host gene 12 (SNHG12), as one of the long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), plays an oncogenic role in various cancers, however, its role in the chemoresistance of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of SNHG12 on multidrug resistance (MDR) in NSCLC. The results showed that SNHG12 was high-expressed and miR-181a was low-expressed in NSCLC tumor tissues and cell lines. Knockdown of SNHG12 reversed the resistance to cisplatin, paclitaxel and gefitinib in A549/DDP, A549/PTX and PC9/AB2 cells through inducing cell apoptosis...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
Chiara Giacomelli, Simona Daniele, Letizia Natali, Caterina Iofrida, Guido Flamini, Alessandra Braca, M Letizia Trincavelli, Claudia Martini
A high cell proliferation rate, invasiveness and resistance to chemotherapy are the main features of glioblastoma (GBM). GBM aggressiveness has been widely associated both with a minor population of cells presenting stem-like properties (cancer stem-like cells, CSCs) and with the ability of tumor cells to acquire a mesenchymal phenotype (epithelial-mesenchymal transition, EMT). Carnosol (CAR), a natural inhibitor of MDM2/p53 complex, has been attracted attention for its anti-cancer effects on several tumor types, including GBM...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
Diego Carrillo, Juan P Muñoz, Hernán Huerta, Gabriel Leal, Alejandro Corvalán, Oscar León, Gloria M Calaf, Ulises Urzúa, Enrique Boccardo, Julio C Tapia, Francisco Aguayo
The hallmark of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV)-related carcinogenesis is E6 and E7 oncogene overexpression. The aim of this work was to characterize epithelial oral and cervical cancer cells that express HR-HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins. Transcriptomic assay using DNA microarrays revealed that PIR gene expression was detected in oral cells in an HR-HPV E6/E7-dependent manner. In addition, PIR was overexpressed in HPV-positive SiHa and Ca Ski cells, whereas it was undetectable in HPV-negative C33A cells...
November 2017: Open Biology
Huapeng Lin, Bin Yang, Mujian Teng
T-cell immunoglobulin mucin (TIM)-3 is an important member of the TIM gene family, which was thought to contribute to the progression of numerous types of cancer, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, the mechanism underlying TIM-3 functions in HCC progression has not yet been extensively investigated. The present study aimed to investigate the function of TIM-3 in the metastasis of HCC and to determine whether the alteration of TIM-3 expression levels regulated the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) occurrence of HCC, using epithelial (E)-cadherin, neuronal (N)-cadherin, matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9), Twist 1, Slug, Snail, and Smad as EMT biomarkers...
November 2017: Oncology Letters
I González-Chavarría, E Fernandez, N Gutierrez, E E González-Horta, F Sandoval, P Cifuentes, C Castillo, R Cerro, O Sanchez, Jorge R Toledo
Obesity is related to an increased risk of developing prostate cancer with high malignancy stages or metastasis. Recent results demonstrated that LOX-1, a receptor associated with obesity and atherosclerosis, is overexpressed in advanced and metastatic prostate cancer. Furthermore, high levels of oxLDL, the main ligand for LOX-1, have been found in patients with advanced prostate cancer. However, the role of LOX-1 in prostate cancer has not been unraveled completely yet. Here, we show that LOX-1 is overexpressed in prostate cancer cells and its activation by oxLDL promotes an epithelial to mesenchymal transition, through of lowered expression of epithelial markers (E-cadherin and plakoglobin) and an increased expression of mesenchymal markers (vimentin, N-cadherin, snail, slug, MMP-2 and MMP-9)...
November 14, 2017: Cancer Letters
Warangkana Lohcharoenkal, Kunal Das Mahapatra, Lorenzo Pasquali, Caitrin Crudden, Lara Kular, Yeliz Z Akkaya Ulum, Lingyun Zhang, Ning Xu Landén, Leonard Girnita, Maja Jagodic, Mona Ståhle, Enikö Sonkoly, Andor Pivarcsi
Melanoma is one of the deadliest human cancers with no effective cure. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs regulating gene expression post-transcriptionally. Here, we compared the miRNome of primary and metastatic melanomas in TCGA dataset and found lower miR-203 abundance in metastatic melanoma. Lower level of miR-203 is associated with poor overall survival in metastatic disease. We found that the methylation levels of several CpGs in the MIR203 promoter negatively correlated with miR-203 expression and that treatment with the demethylating agent 5-azaC induced miR-203 expression, which is associated with demethylation of promoter CpGs, in melanoma cell lines...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Miriam A Zemanova, Eva Knop, Gerald Heckel
Hybridization with invasive species is one of the major threats to the phenotypic and genetic persistence of native organisms worldwide. Arion vulgaris (syn. lusitanicus) is a major agricultural pest slug that successfully invaded many European countries in recent decades, but its impact on closely related native species remains unclear. Here, we hypothesized that the regional decline of native A. rufus is connected with the spread of invasive A. vulgaris, and tested whether this can be linked to hybridization between the two species by analyzing 625 Arion sp...
November 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
(no author information available yet)
Nitrifying granules were grown in a sidestream reactor fed municipal anaerobic digestion centrate and added in an initial slug dose and subsequent smaller daily doses to a non-nitrifying mainstream activated sludge system at 12C and 2.5-day aerobic solids retention time (SRT) to increase its nitrification capacity. Effluent NH3-N concentrations less than 1 mg/L were achieved with bioaugmentation, and nitrification was immediately lost when granules were removed after 30 days of bioaugmentation. Molecular microbial analyses indicated that nitrifying organisms remained attached to granules in the mainstream system with little loss to the flocculent sludge...
November 1, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
Fan Pu, Wenpeng Zhang, Kevin P Bateman, Yong Liu, Roy Helmy, Zheng Ouyang
AIM: Preclinical pharmacokinetic studies are an essential part of modern drug development. In this work, we explored a new solution with onsite analysis using a miniature MS system, which can significantly improve the efficiency of the preclinical study. Materials & methods: A miniature mass spectrometer was used with an automatic blood sampler for onsite quantitation of drug compounds in whole blood samples. Slug-flow microextraction was used to replace the in-lab sample preparation...
November 2017: Bioanalysis
Clint J Perry, Luigi Baciadonna
Until recently, whether invertebrates might exhibit emotions was unknown. This possibility has traditionally been dismissed by many as emotions are frequently defined with reference to human subjective experience, and invertebrates are often not considered to have the neural requirements for such sophisticated abilities. However, emotions are understood in humans and other vertebrates to be multifaceted brain states, comprising dissociable subjective, cognitive, behavioural and physiological components. In addition, accumulating literature is providing evidence of the impressive cognitive capacities and behavioural flexibility of invertebrates...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
Marco Ferrante, Gábor L Lövei, Serena Magagnoli, Lenka Minarcikova, Elena Larisa Tomescu, Giovanni Burgio, Ludovit Cagan, Mihael Cristin Ichim
Humankind draws important benefits from large-scale ecological processes, termed ecosystem services yet the status of several of them is declining. Reliable monitoring methods are essential for tracking the status of ecosystem services. Predation is the mainstay of natural pest control, a key ecosystem service. We used green plasticine caterpillars to monitor predation pressure, and to obtain baseline data on predator activity in transgenic Bt vs. non-Bt maize fields in Old and New World countries. Predation pressure was measured at ground and canopy levels using an identical, small-plot experimental design in four European countries (Denmark, Slovakia, Romania, Italy) and Argentina...
November 1, 2017: Insect Science
Fengling Li, Aihua Liang, Yan Lv, Guohong Liu, Aili Jiang, Peishu Liu
BACKGROUND MicroRNA-200c (miR-200c) is a short non-coding RNA that has a role in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. The aims of this study were to investigate the role of miR-200c in cell migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in endometrial carcinoma cells in vitro. MATERIAL AND METHODS Potential direct targets of miR-200c were identified through the TargetScan database. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used study the expression of miR-200c in the endometrial carcinoma cell lines, Ishikawa and JEC, in vitro...
October 28, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Yixiang Xu, Dong-Kee Lee, Zhen Feng, Yan Xu, Wen Bu, Yi Li, Lan Liao, Jianming Xu
Twist1 is an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-inducing transcription factor (TF) that promotes cell migration and invasion. To determine the intrinsic role of Twist1 in EMT and breast cancer initiation, growth, and metastasis, we developed mouse models with an oncogene-induced mammary tumor containing wild-type (WT) Twist1 or tumor cell-specific Twist1 knockout (Twist1(TKO)). Twist1 knockout showed no effects on tumor initiation and growth. In both models with early-stage tumor cells, Twist1, and mesenchymal markers were not expressed, and lung metastasis was absent...
October 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Hong Wang, Chunlei Wang, Wenling Tian, Yanfen Yao
In recent years, the insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and serine-arginine protein kinase 1 (SRPK1) have been reported to be implicated in the pithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in many kinds of malignancies. However, the potential roles of IGF-1-SRPK1 signaling in the EMT of gastric cancer (GC) have not been investigated. In the present study, the in-vitro assays were used to investigate the molecular role of SRPK1 in cell cycle, motility and invasiveness. We demonstrated that the expressions of SRPK1 or insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 (IGF1R) were significantly increased in GC tissues and cells than those in normal tissues and GES-1 cells, and closely associated with metastasis, stage and prognosis...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
Subhransu S Sahoo, Min Yuan Quah, Sarah Nielsen, Joshua Atkins, Gough G Au, Murray J Cairns, Pravin Nahar, Janine M Lombard, Pradeep S Tanwar
Although aggressive invasion and distant metastases are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with endometrial cancer (EC), the requisite events determining this propensity are currently unknown. Using organotypic three-dimensional culture of endometrial cancer cell lines, we demonstrated anti-correlated TGF-β signalling gene expression patterns that arise among extracellular matrix (ECM)-attached cells. TGF-β pathway seemed to be active in EC cells forming non-glandular colonies in 3D-matrix but weaker in glandular colonies...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
Omar Elaskalani, Marco Falasca, Niamh Moran, Michael C Berndt, Pat Metharom
Platelets have been demonstrated to be vital in cancer epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), an important step in metastasis. Markers of EMT are associated with chemotherapy resistance. However, the association between the development of chemoresistance, EMT, and the contribution of platelets to the process, is still unclear. Here we report that platelets regulate the expression of (1) human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1) and (2) cytidine deaminase (CDD), markers of gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic cancer...
October 24, 2017: Cancers
Amit V Patel, Takayuki Kawai, Liping Wang, Stanislav S Rubakhin, Jonathan V Sweedler
d-Amino acids (d-AAs) are endogenous molecules found throughout the metazoan, the functions of which remain poorly understood. Measurements of low abundance and heterogeneously distributed d-AAs in complex biological samples, such as cells and multicellular structures of the central nervous system (CNS), require the implementation of sensitive and selective analytical approaches. In order to measure the d- and l-forms of aspartate and glutamate, we developed and applied a stacking chiral capillary electrophoresis (CE) with laser-induced fluorescence detection method...
November 8, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Qingyu Shen, Jung Woo Eun, Kyungbun Lee, Hyung Seok Kim, Hee Doo Yang, Sang Yean Kim, Eun Kyung Lee, Taemook Kim, Keunsoo Kang, Seongchan Kim, Dal-Hee Min, Soon-Nam Oh, Young-Joon Lee, Hyuk Moon, Simon Weonsang Ro, Won Sang Park, Jung Young Lee, Suk Woo Nam
An accurate tool enabling early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is clinically important, since early detection of HCC markedly improves survival. We aimed to investigate the molecular markers underlying early progression of HCC that can be detected in precancerous lesions. We designed a gene selection strategy to identify potential driver genes by integrative analysis of transcriptome and clinicopathologic data of human multi-stage HCC tissues including precancerous lesions, low- and high-grade dysplastic nodules...
October 23, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
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