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Guo-Yin Li, Wei Wang, Jian-Yong Sun, Bo Xin, Xiang Zhang, Ting Wang, Qian-Feng Zhang, Li-Bo Yao, Hua Han, Dai-Ming Fan, An-Gang Yang, Lin-Tao Jia, Lei Wang
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) has received much attention as a major inducer of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) during cancer progression, mainly by activating a set of pleiotropic transcription factors including SNAI2/Slug. However, the involvement of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in TGF-β-induced Slug activation and EMT remains largely unknown. Methods: In this study, we used microarray analysis to compare lncRNA expression profiles between TGF-β treated and untreated breast cancer cells...
2018: Theranostics
Yuina Hirose, Kota Shirai, Yohei Hirai
Spatial and temporal epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical event for the generation of asymmetric epithelial architectures. We found that only restricted cell populations in the morphogenic mammary epithelia extrude syntaxin-4, a plasmalemmal t-SNARE protein, and that epithelial cell clusters with artificial heterogenic presentation of extracellular syntaxin-4 undergo asymmetric morphogenesis. A previous study revealed that inducible expression of cell surface syntaxin-4 causes EMT-like cell behaviors in the clonal mammary epithelial cells, where laminin-mediated signals were abolished so that cells readily succumb to initiate EMT...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Shuangpo Ren, Andrew D Parsekian, Ye Zhang, Bradley J Carr
In granite aquifers, fractures can provide both storage volume and conduits for groundwater. Characterization of fracture hydraulic conductivity (K) in such aquifers is important for predicting flow rate and calibrating models. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) well logging is a method to quickly obtain near-borehole hydraulic conductivity (i.e., KNMR ) at high vertical resolution. On the other hand, FLUTe flexible liner technology can produce a K profile at comparable resolution but requires a fluid driving force between borehole and formation...
May 15, 2018: Ground Water
Roy H A van Grunsven, David Jähnichen, Maja Grubisic, Franz Hölker
Artificial illumination increases around the globe and this has been found to affect many groups of organisms and ecosystems. By manipulating nocturnal illumination using one large experimental field site with 24 streetlights and one dark control, we assessed the impact of artificial illumination on slugs over a period of 4 years. The number of slugs, primarily Arionidae, increased strongly in the illuminated site but not on the dark site. There are several nonexclusive explanations for this effect, including reduced predation and increased food quality in the form of carcasses of insects attracted by the light...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Elise Marie Jerschabek Laetz, Heike Wägele
Background: Despite widespread interest in solar-powered sea slugs (Sacoglossa: Gastropoda), relatively little is know about how they actually perform functional kleptoplasty. Sister-taxa Elysia timida and E. cornigera provide an ideal model system for investigating this phenomenon, since they feed on the same algal genus and only E. timida is capable of long-term kleptoplasty. Recent research has explored factors regarding functional kleptoplasty in E. timida , including their starvation longevity, digestive activity, autophagal response and photosynthetic efficiency under two different temperature conditions (18 °C and 21 °C)...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
Kirtiman Srivastava, Adam Pickard, Stephanie G Craig, Gerard P Quinn, Shauna M Lambe, Jacqueline A James, Simon McDade, Dennis McCance
PURPOSE: To investigate the regulation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in  Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) and its importance in tumour invasion. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We use a 3D invasive organotypic raft culture model of human foreskin keratinocytes expressing the E6/E7 genes of the Human Papilloma Virus-16, coupled with bioinformatics and immunohistochemical analysis of patient samples to investigate  the role played by EMT in invasion and identify effectors and upstream regulatory pathways...
May 8, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Pascale Kündig, Charlotte Giesen, Hartland Jackson, Bernd Bodenmiller, Bärbel Papassotirolopus, Sandra Nicole Freiberger, Catharine Aquino, Lennart Opitz, Zsuzsanna Varga
BACKGROUND: Intra-tumoral heterogeneity has been recently addressed in different types of cancer, including breast cancer. A concept describing the origin of intra-tumoral heterogeneity is the cancer stem-cell hypothesis, proposing the existence of cancer stem cells that can self-renew limitlessly and therefore lead to tumor progression. Clonal evolution in accumulated single cell genomic alterations is a further possible explanation in carcinogenesis. In this study, we addressed the question whether intra-tumoral heterogeneity can be reliably detected in tissue-micro-arrays in breast cancer by comparing expression levels of conventional predictive/prognostic tumor markers, tumor progression markers and stem cell markers between central and peripheral tumor areas...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Bin Li, Peng Chen, Jie-Hua Wang, Li Li, Jin-Lan Gong, Hui Yao
In recent years Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) has been proposed as a mechanism indispensable to acquisition of metastatic properties by tumor cells. In this study we tested the ability of Farrerol, a Chinese herb-derived compound to ablate the EMT in human lung squamous cell carcinoma cells. Human lung squamous cell carcinoma cells, Calu-1 were treated with various concentrations of Farrerol for 24 h to examine its effect on their viability by the MTT assay. Only those concentrations which showed least effect on the viability of Calu-1 cells were further used to evaluate the expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers by western blotting...
May 4, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Weihong Qi, Maria Chiara Cascarano, Ralph Schlapbach, Pantelis Katharios, Lloyd Vaughan, Helena M B Seth-Smith
Endozoicomonas bacteria are generally beneficial symbionts of diverse marine invertebrates including reef-building corals, sponges, sea squirts, sea slugs, molluscs and Bryozoans. In contrast, the recently reported Ca. Endozoicomonas cretensis was identified as a vertebrate pathogen, causing epitheliocystis in fish larvae resulting in massive mortality. Here we described the Ca. E. cretensis draft genome, currently undergoing genome decay as evidenced by massive insertion sequence (IS element) expansion and pseudogene formation...
May 3, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Mhairi A Morris, Louise Laverick, Wenbin Wei, Alexandra M Davis, Samantha O'Neill, Liam Wood, Jack Wright, Christopher W Dawson, Lawrence S Young
The Epstein⁻Barr virus (EBV)-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) oncogene can induce profound effects on epithelial growth and differentiation including many of the features of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). To better characterise these effects, we used the well-defined Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) epithelial cell model and found that LMP1 expression in these cells induces EMT as defined by characteristic morphological changes accompanied by loss of E-cadherin, desmosomal cadherin and tight junction protein expression...
May 1, 2018: Cancers
Vincenza Ciaramella, Carminia Maria Della Corte, Concetta Di Mauro, Stefano Tomassi, Salvatore Di Maro, Teresa Troiani, Erika Martinelli, Roberto Bianco, Sandro Cosconati, Riccardo Pierantoni, Rosaria Meccariello, Rosanna Chianese, Fortunato Ciardiello, Floriana Morgillo
Purpose: Kisspeptin signaling, via its receptors GPR54, could be an essential players in the inhibition of mesothelioma progression, invasion and metastasis formation. The loss of KiSS1 by tumor cells has been associated with a metastatic phenotype but the mechanistic insights of this process are still unknown. Experimental design: The blockade of the metastatic process at early stage is a hot topic in cancer research. We studied the role of KiSS1 on proliferation, invasiveness, migration abilities of mesothelioma cell lines focusing on the effect on epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
April 10, 2018: Oncotarget
Hanqing Hu, Meng Wang, Hongwei Wang, Zheng Liu, Xu Guan, Runkun Yang, Rui Huang, Qingchao Tang, Chaoxia Zou, Guiyu Wang, Xu Gao, Xishan Wang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a malignancy that has high morbidity and mortality and is initiated from accumulative genetic events. Although much effort has been made to elucidate the genetic mechanism underlying this disease, it still remains unknown. Here, we discovered a novel role for multiple epidermal growth factor-like domains protein 6 (MEGF6) in CRC, namely, that it induces the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to promote CRC metastasis via the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ)/SMAD signaling pathway...
April 26, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Yong Wang, Donghe Fu, Yajing Chen, Jing Su, Yiting Wang, Xin Li, Wei Zhai, Yuanjie Niu, Dan Yue, Hua Geng
The chronic inflammatory microenvironment within or surrounding the primary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) site promotes oncogenic transformation as well as contributes to the development of metastasis. G3BP stress granule assembly factor 1 (G3BP1) was found to be involved in the regulation of multiple cellular functions. However, its functions in RCC have not been previously explored. Here, we first showed that the expression of G3BP1 is elevated in human RCC and correlates with RCC progression. In cultured RCC cells, knockdown of G3BP1 results in inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, consistently with the alteration of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell proliferative markers, including Cadherins, Vimentin, Snail, Slug, c-Myc, and cyclin D1...
May 2, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Kyoung Ah Kang, Yea Seong Ryu, Mei Jing Piao, Kristina Shilnikova, Hee Kyoung Kang, Joo Mi Yi, Mathias Boulanger, Rosa Paolillo, Guillaume Bossis, Sung Young Yoon, Seong Bong Kim, Jin Won Hyun
The therapeutic benefits offered by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) are limited because of the acquisition of drug resistance, the main cause of treatment failure and metastasis. The ability of the cancer cells to undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) contributes significantly to cancer metastatic potential and chemo-resistance. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of 5-FU-resistance have remained elusive. Here, we show that reactive oxygen species (ROS), produced by dual oxidase 2 (DUOX2), promote 5-FU-induced EMT...
April 23, 2018: Redox Biology
Yao Xiao, Wei-Wei Deng, Lei-Lei Yang, Hao Li, Guang-Tao Yu, Wen-Feng Zhang, Zhi-Jun Sun
AIM: p21-activated kinase 2 (PAK2) is overexpressed in several tumors but the expression of PAK2 in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) remains unclear. MATERIALS & METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was performed on human tissue microarrays containing 165 primary OSCC, 48 oral epithelial dysplasia and 43 normal oral mucosa. RESULTS: PAK2 expression was increased in primary OSCC compared with normal mucosa and significantly increased in primary OSCC grade III compared with grade I, but independent of overall survival rate...
May 1, 2018: Future Oncology
Paulo Cartaxana, Luca Morelli, Carla Quintaneiro, Gonçalo Calado, Ricardo Calado, Sónia Cruz
Some sacoglossan sea slugs incorporate intracellular functional algal chloroplasts (kleptoplasty) for periods ranging from a few days to several months. Whether this association modulates the photobehaviour of solar-powered sea slugs is unknown. In this study, the long-term retention species Elysia viridis showed avoidance of dark independently of light acclimation state. On the contrary, Placida dendritica , which shows non-functional retention of kleptoplasts, showed no preference over dark, low or high light...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Daniel Blackwood, William Ketterhagen, John Kresevic, Joseph Kushner, Jeffrey Moriarty, Matthew P Mullarney
The purpose of this work was to develop a methodology that quantifies the extent of shear induced during an encapsulation process and show how formulation composition and manufacturing process designs can be changed to reduce the negative impact on drug product quality attributes. The powder feed system used in a dosing disk type pharmaceutical capsule filling machine induced additional shear of the powder prior to slug formation. The shear occurred both in the hopper portion, via the rotation of the feed auger and impeller, and in the powder bowl via the tamping pin agitation and/or shear against the stationary surfaces such as the powder level scraper...
May 1, 2018: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
Nelson G M Gomes, Fátima Fernandes, Áurea Madureira-Carvalho, Patrícia Valentão, Alexandre Lobo-da-Cunha, Gonçalo Calado, Paula B Andrade
Bioprospection of marine invertebrates has been predominantly biased by the biological richness of tropical regions, thus neglecting macro-organisms from temperate ecosystems. Species that were not the object of studies on their biochemical composition include the Heterobranchia gastropods Armina maculata , Armina tigrina and Aglaja tricolorata , inhabitants of the Portuguese Atlantic coastal waters. Here, we present for the first time the fatty acid profile of neutral lipids and homarine content of these three species...
April 27, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Mengxue Yu, Yingzhun Chen, Xuelian Li, Rui Yang, Lijia Zhang, Longtao Huangfu, Nan Zheng, Xiaoguang Zhao, Lifang Lv, Yaozhen Hong, Haihai Liang, Hongli Shan
Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) contributes to the development of multiple tumors, but the mechanism underlying YAP1 deregulation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains unclear. By performing immunohistochemistry (IHC) assays, we found that YAP1 was significantly upregulated in NSCLC compared with adjacent tissues; therefore, we sought to elucidate whether the upregulation of YAP1 contributes to NSCLC progression. MTT and transwell assays showed that YAP1 overexpression promoted proliferation, migration, and invasion in the NSCLC cell lines A549 and H460; YAP1 overexpression also promoted the significant differential expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related markers...
April 27, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
So Ra Choe, Yu Na Kim, Chang Gyo Park, Kyung Hwa Cho, Do Yeun Cho, Hoi Young Lee
Rab coupling protein (RCP) aggravates cancer cell metastasis and has been implicated in various cancer patient outcomes. Recently, we showed that RCP induces Slug expression and cancer cell invasion by stabilizing the β1 integrin protein. In the present study, we demonstrated that FAK is implicated in RCP-induced EGFR phosphorylation and ovarian cancer cell invasion with inhibition by curcumin. Ectopic expression of RCP induced FAK phosphorylation, which links β1 integrin with EGFR and participates in a positive regulation loop with EGFR...
April 27, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
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