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endothelial dysfunction in PIH

Meenakshi Singh, Mauchumi Saikia Pathak, Anindita Paul
INTRODUCTION: Pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) includes Gestational hypertension, Pre-eclampsia and Eclampsia and is one of the most common obstetric complication. Worldwide about 76,000 pregnant women die each year from pre-eclampsia and related hypertensive disorders. The aetiology of Pre-eclampsia is unknown but it is thought to be related to abnormal development of placenta. Several studies have shown the presence of reduced endothelial function in pre-eclamptic pregnancy. Endothelial dysfunction is also a feature of atherosclerosis...
July 2015: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Silvia Visentin, Francesca Grumolato, Giovanni Battista Nardelli, Barbara Di Camillo, Enrico Grisan, Erich Cosmi
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes still represent the main cause of mortality and morbidity in the industrialized world. Low birth weight (LBW), caused by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), was recently known to be associated with increased rates of CVD and non-insulin dependent diabetes in adult life (Barker's hypothesis). Well-established animal models have shown that environmentally induced IUGR (diet, diabetes, hormone exposure, hypoxia) increases the risk of a variety of diseases later in life with similar phenotypic outcomes in target organs...
December 2014: Atherosclerosis
Kathryn E Lillegard, Alex C Loeks-Johnson, Jonathan W Opacich, Jenna M Peterson, Ashley J Bauer, Barbara J Elmquist, Ronald R Regal, Jeffrey S Gilbert, Jean F Regal
Early-onset pre-eclampsia is characterized by decreased placental perfusion, new-onset hypertension, angiogenic imbalance, and endothelial dysfunction associated with excessive activation of the innate immune complement system. Although our previous studies demonstrated that inhibition of complement activation attenuates placental ischemia-induced hypertension using the rat reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) model, the important product(s) of complement activation has yet to be identified. We hypothesized that antagonism of receptors for complement activation products C3a and C5a would improve vascular function and attenuate RUPP hypertension...
November 2014: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Devika Tayal, Binita Goswami, S K Patra, Reva Tripathi, Alka Khaneja
Preeclampsia is a multisystem disorder associated with maternal hypertension, placental abnormalities and adverse fetal outcomes. The various pathways involved in its etiology include endothelial dysfunction, inflammatory milieu, lipid peroxidation and immunological imbalance. The present study was conducted to evaluate the causative and predictive role of nitric oxide, lipid peroxidation end products (MDA) and inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α) in clinical presentation, severity and fetal outcome in preeclampsia...
April 2014: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
Jerzy Heimrath, Maria Paprocka, Andrzej Czekanski, Agata Ledwozyw, Aneta Kantor, Danuta Dus
Maternal endothelial dysfunction is one of the main features of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH). It is generally accepted that circulating endothelial cells (CECs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) reflect the state of the endothelium, its injury and/or repair possibilities. The objective of this study was to determine whether the CECs and EPCs numbers in the circulation of women with PIH reflect the presence of this pathology. Peripheral blood cells of PIH and normotensive pregnant women were labeled with specific monoclonal antibodies...
August 2014: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
Ana C P T Henriques, Francisco H C Carvalho, Helvécio N Feitosa, Raimunda H M Macena, Rosa M S Mota, Júlio C G Alencar
OBJECTIVE: To carry out long-term analysis of the presence of endothelial dysfunction after the development of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH). METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study, data were analyzed from 60 women who delivered at a tertiary maternity hospital in Fortaleza, Ceara, Brazil, between 1992 and 2002. Thirty women had a history of PIH and 30 had no history of complications. Anthropometric and laboratory data were collected, and endothelial function was evaluated by flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery...
March 2014: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
Xu Fei, Zhuge Hongxiang, Chen Qi, Chen Daozhen
BACKGROUND: Pre-eclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder of widespread vascular endothelial dysfunction that occurs after twenty weeks of gestation. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to compare maternal circulating levels of endothelial dysfunction mediators, including the vascular actions of adrenomedullin (AM) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), the angiogenic factor of soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and the pro-oxidant activity factor of total homocysteine (tHcy), in the plasma of normal and pre-eclampsia pregnancies...
September 2012: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Vijayakumar Chinnathambi, Meena Balakrishnan, Jayanth Ramadoss, Chandrasekhar Yallampalli, Kunju Sathishkumar
Sex steroid hormones estradiol and progesterone play an important role in vascular adaptations during pregnancy. However, little is known about the role of androgens. Plasma testosterone (T) levels are elevated in preeclampsia, mothers with polycystic ovary, and pregnant African American women, who have endothelial dysfunction and develop gestational hypertension. We tested whether increased T alters vascular adaptations during pregnancy and whether these alterations depend on endothelium-derived factors, such as prostacyclin, endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor, and NO...
March 2013: Hypertension
Gh Gluhovschi, A Gluhovschi, Ligia Petrica, D Anastasiu, Cristina Gluhovschi, Silvia Velciov
Hypertension is in 85 to 90% of cases of unknown etiology, in spite of efforts undertaken by modern medicine to elucidate it. Numerous experimental studies were conducted in order to explain the pathogeny of this disease. Recent observations revealed that during therapy with anti-VEGF medication,used in treating different forms of cancer, hypertension and proteinuria occur, and at kidney level endothelial injuries appear similar to pregnancy-related hypertension. Antiangiogenic factors, such as sFlt-1, are produced during pregnancy-induced hypertension, especially in preeclampsia...
January 2012: Romanian Journal of Internal Medicine, Revue Roumaine de Médecine Interne
David M Carty, Lesley A Anderson, Catherine N Duncan, David P Baird, Laura K Rooney, Anna F Dominiczak, Christian Delles
OBJECTIVE: Endothelial dysfunction is known to play a key role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia, but the majority of methods for its detection are too invasive to be used in pregnancy. In this study we report a novel method - peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) - for examining microcirculatory function in pregnancy. METHODS: One hundred and eighty women with at least two risk factors for preeclampsia were examined at gestational weeks 16 and 28; 80 women were examined at 6-9 months postnatally...
January 2012: Journal of Hypertension
Melita Kosanovic, Milan Jokanovic
Oxidative stress has been postulated as major contributor to endothelial dysfunction and pregnancy-induced hypertension. We have examined the association of exposure to cadmium through cigarette smoke with hypertension disorders during pregnancy in the selenium deficient population. Markers of lipid peroxidation and antioxidative defense were measured and correlated with cadmium blood concentration in normotensive and hypertensive pregnant smokers and nonsmokers. We have observed significantly higher blood Cd in hypertensive smokers and significant differences in all other parameters...
July 2007: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Eric M George, Joey P Granger
Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorder characterized by proteinuria and widespread maternal endothelial dysfunction. It remains one of the most common disorders in pregnancy and remains one of the leading causes of maternal and fetal morbidity. Recent research has revealed that placental insufficiency, resulting in hypoxia and ischemia, is a central causative pathway in the development of the disorder. In response, the placenta secretes soluble substances into the maternal circulation which are responsible for the symptomatic phase of the disease...
September 2011: American Journal of Hypertension
Marc R Parrish, Michael J Ryan, Porter Glover, Justin Brewer, Lillian Ray, Ralf Dechend, James N Martin, Babbette B Lamarca
BACKGROUND: Previous investigations suggested that agonistic autoantibodies to the angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1-AA) might mediate a hypertensive response through dysregulation of the endothelin-1 system. AT1-AA induced hypertension was attenuated by the AT1 receptor and/or endothelin-1 type A receptor antagonists. OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to determine if AT1-AA induced hypertension was associated with renal endothelial dysfunction. METHODS: We compared the vascular reactivity of renal interlobar arteries from normal pregnant control rats and AT1-AA long-term infused pregnant rats in the presence and absence of endothelin type A (ET(A)) receptor antagonism...
June 2011: Gender Medicine
Suseela Yelumalai, Sekaran Muniandy, Siti Zawiah Omar, Rajes Qvist
Preeclampsia (PE) is a major contributor to maternal and fetal mortality. The cause of preeclampsia remains unclear, but oxidative stress on the endothelium leading to endothelial dysfunction is said to be the root cause of the disease. The aim of this study was to measure and determine the plasma levels of key angiogenic factors in pregnancy as an indicator for the early onset of preeclampsia in pregnancy. Plasma levels of circulating a soluble fms like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), an anti-angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placental growth factor (PIGF), both pro-angiogenic factors were analyzed in normal pregnant Malaysian women (control group, n = 34), women with pregnant induced hypertension (PIH, n = 34) and women with preeclampsia (PE, n = 34) all at three gestational ages, 24-28 weeks (early pregnancy: EP), 32-36 weeks (late pregnancy: LP) and 6 weeks after delivery (postpartum: PN)...
November 2010: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
John H Tinsley, Sanique South, Valorie L Chiasson, Brett M Mitchell
Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are characterized by systemic and placental inflammation; however, treatment for these conditions has remained elusive. We tested whether administration of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) during pregnancy would attenuate the hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, proteinuria, and inflammation seen in pregnant DOCA/saline-treated (PDS) rats. Normal pregnant (NP) rats and PDS were given daily intraperitoneal injections of recombinant IL-10 from gestational day 13 until death on day 20...
March 2010: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
John H Tinsley, Valorie L Chiasson, Sanique South, Ashutosh Mahajan, Brett M Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, including preeclampsia (PE), affect approximately 7-10% of pregnancies in the US. Clinical and experimental studies strongly suggest that the maternal immune system plays a role in the development of these disorders; however, few therapeutic options exist aside from delivery. METHODS: Using a deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)/salt-low renin rat model, which exhibits hypertension, proteinuria, endothelial dysfunction, and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), we measured serum cytokine levels as an indication of immune system activation...
October 2009: American Journal of Hypertension
Mitsuko Furuya, Junji Ishida, Ichiro Aoki, Akiyoshi Fukamizu
During embryogenesis and development, the fetus obtains oxygen and nutrients from the mother through placental microcirculation. The placenta is a distinctive organ that develops and differentiates per se, and that organizes fetal growth and maternal condition in the entire course of gestation. Several life-threatening diseases during pregnancy, such as pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) and eclampsia, are closely associated with placental dysfunction. Genetic susceptibilities and poor placentation have been investigated intensively to understand the pathophysiology of PIH...
2008: Vascular Health and Risk Management
Robinson Joannides, Jeremy Bellien, Celine Thurlure, Michele Iacob, Murielle Abeel, Christian Thuillez
BACKGROUND: Fixed combination of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) with thiazide-type diuretics at low dose has been used as first-line therapy for the treatment of essential hypertension but their effect on conduit artery endothelial dysfunction remains unknown. METHODS: Thirteen hypertensive patients were assessed after acute administration of a placebo, fixed combination of perindopril-indapamide at low dose: D1 (2 mg/0.625 mg) and twice this dose: D2 (4 mg/1...
June 2008: American Journal of Hypertension
Svein Rasmussen, Lorentz M Irgens
We assessed whether fetal growth restriction without pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is associated with the different clinical subgroups of PIH in the subsequent pregnancy. We also assessed the maternal and paternal contributions to this effect. Pairs of first and second, second and third, third and fourth, and fourth and fifth births were identified among all of the births in Norway: 137 375 pairs with same mother and father, 18 376 pairs with same mother and different fathers, and 18 916 pairs with same father and different mothers...
April 2008: Hypertension
Brett M Mitchell, Leslie G Cook, Svitlana Danchuk, Jules B Puschett
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia is a human pregnancy-associated syndrome associated with hypertension, proteinuria, and endothelial dysfunction. We tested whether increased reactive oxygen species (superoxide and peroxynitrite) production and decreased bioavailability of the endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) contributes to maternal endothelial dysfunction in rats with pregnancy-induced hypertension and several characteristics of preeclampsia. METHODS: Nonpregnant (DS) and pregnant (PDS) rats were treated with deoxycorticosterone acetate and 0...
December 2007: American Journal of Hypertension
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