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Cerebral vascular endothelial injury

Qian Zhang, Zhen-Wei Chen, Yong-Hua Zhao, Bo-Wen Liu, Nai-Wei Liu, Chien-Chih Ke, Hong-Mei Tan
Being a potential candidate for stroke treatment, bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have been demonstrated to be able to enhance angiogenesis and proliferation of reactive astrocytes which subsequently lead to the amelioration of neurological injury. Increasing evidences further indicate combined BMSCs with certain agent such as simvastatin may have improved therapeutic effect. Sodium Ferulate (SF) and n-butylidenephthalide (BP), two main components of Radix Angelica Sinensis, are proved to be the important regulators of stem cells in cell migration, differentiation and pluripotency maintenance...
October 21, 2016: Cell Transplantation
Hsing-Hua Tsai, Chin-Pu Lin, Yi-Hui Lin, Chih-Chin Hsu, Jong-Shyan Wang
PURPOSE: Exercise training improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation, whereas hypoxic stress causes vascular endothelial dysfunction. Monocyte-derived endothelial progenitor cells (Mon-EPCs) contribute to vascular repair process by differentiating into endothelial cells. This study investigates how high-intensity interval (HIT) and moderate-intensity continuous (MCT) exercise training affect circulating Mon-EPC levels and EPC functionality under hypoxic condition. METHODS: Sixty healthy sedentary males were randomized to engage in either HIT (3-min intervals at 40 and 80 % VO2max for five repetitions, n = 20) or MCT (sustained 60 % VO2max, n = 20) for 30 min/day, 5 days/week for 6 weeks, or to a control group (CTL) that did not received exercise intervention (n = 20)...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Xinchun Ye, Delian Kong, Jun Wang, Tauheed Ishrat, Hongjuan Shi, Xiaohui Ding, Guiyun Cui, Fang Hua
Myeloid differentiation primary-response protein-88 (MyD88) is one of adaptor proteins mediating Toll-like receptors (TLRs) signaling. Activation of MyD88 results in the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) and the increase of inflammatory responses. Evidences have demonstrated that TLRs signaling contributes to cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the role of MyD88 in this mechanism of action is disputed and needs to be clarified. In the present study, in a mouse model of cerebral I/R, we examined the activities of NFκB and interferon factor-3 (IRF3), and the inflammatory responses in ischemic brain tissue using ELISA, Western blots, and real-time PCR...
October 4, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Masoud Hatefi, Someyeh Behzadi, Masoud Moghadas Dastjerdi, Alireza Abootalebi Ghahnavieh, Asghar Rahmani, Fatemeh Madizadeh, Mohammad Reza Hafezi Ahmadi, Khairollah Asadollahi
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess any correlation between serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy) with markers of cerebral hemodynamic, endothelial dysfunction and cognition impairment in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: By a cross-sectional study, all clinical data and serum levels of homocysteine of 85 TBI patients were collected. The pulsatility indices (PI) of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) were recorded by transcranial color-coded doppler ultrasonography (TCD) and cereberovascular reactivity (CVR)...
September 29, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Y Onetti, A P Dantas, B Pérez, A J McNeish, E Vila, F Jiménez-Altayó
AIM: Increased thromboxane A2 and peroxynitrite are hallmarks of cerebral ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R). Stimulation of thromboxane/prostaglandin receptors (TP) attenuates endothelium-derived hyperpolarization (EDH). We investigated whether EDH-type middle cerebral artery (MCA) relaxations following TP stimulation are altered after I/R and the influence of peroxynitrite. METHODS: Vascular function was determined by wire myography after TP stimulation with the thromboxane A2 mimetic 9,11-dideoxy-9α, 11α -methano-epoxy prostaglandin F2α (U46619) in MCA of Sprague Dawley rats subjected to MCA occlusion (90 min)/reperfusion (24 h) or sham operation, and in non-operated (control) rats...
September 28, 2016: Acta Physiologica
Slava Rom, Viviana Zuluaga-Ramirez, Nancy L Reichenbach, Holly Dykstra, Sachin Gajghate, Pal Pacher, Yuri Persidsky
BACKGROUND: Blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction/disruption followed by leukocyte infiltration into the brain causes neuroinflammation and contributes to morbidity in multiple sclerosis, encephalitis, traumatic brain injury, and stroke. The identification of pathways that decreases the inflammatory potential of leukocytes would prevent such injury. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP) controls various genes via its interaction with myriad transcription factors. Selective PARP inhibitors have appeared lately as potent anti-inflammatory tools...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
So Y Cheon, Kyoung J Cho, So Y Kim, Eun H Kam, Jong E Lee, Bon-Nyeo Koo
Conditions of increased oxidative stress including cerebral ischemia can lead to blood-brain barrier dysfunction via matrix metalloproteinase (MMP). It is known that MMP-9 in particular is released from brain endothelial cells is involved in the neuronal cell death that occurs after cerebral ischemia. In the intracellular signaling network, apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is the main activator of the oxidative stress that is part of the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia. ASK1 also promotes apoptotic cell death and brain infarction after ischemia and is associated with vascular permeability and the formation of brain edema...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Rajesh G Mishra, Tzu-Ling Tseng, Mei-Fang Chen, Po-Yi Chen, Tony J-F Lee
Nitric oxide (NO) overproduction via induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is implicated in vasodilatory shock in sepsis, leading to septic encephalopathy and accelerating cerebral ischemic injury. An abbreviated urea-cycle (L-citrulline-L-arginine-NO cycle) has been demonstrated in cerebral perivascular nitrergic nerves and endothelial cells but not in normal cerebral vascular smooth muscle cell (CVSMC). This cycle indicates that argininosuccinate synthase (ASS) catalyzes L-citrulline (L-cit) conversion to form argininosuccinate (AS), and subsequent AS cleavage by argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) forms L-arginine (L-arg), the substrate for NO synthesis...
September 7, 2016: Vascular Pharmacology
Fadhel Alomar, Jaipaul Singh, Hee-Seong Jang, George J Rozanzki, Chun Hong Shao, Babu J Padanilam, William G Mayhan, Keshore R Bidasee
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Endothelial cell-mediated vasodilatation of cerebral arterioles is impaired in individuals with Type 1 diabetes (T1D). This defect compromises haemodynamics and can lead to hypoxia, microbleeds, inflammation and exaggerated ischaemia-reperfusion injuries. The molecular causes for dysregulation of cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (cECs) in T1D remains poorly defined. This study tests the hypothesis that cECs dysregulation in T1D is triggered by increased generation of the mitochondrial toxin, methylglyoxal, by smooth muscle cells in cerebral arterioles (cSMCs)...
September 9, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Mohammad A Anwar, Ali H Eid
Stroke and other neurovascular derangements are main causes of global death. They, along with spinal cord injuries, are responsible for being the principal cause of disability due to neurological and cognitive problems. These problems then lead to a burden on scarce financial resources and societal care facilities as well as have a profound effect on patients' families. The mechanism of action in these debilitating diseases is complex and unclear. An important component of these problems arises from derangement of blood vessels, such as blockage due to clotting/embolism, endothelial dysfunction, and overreactivity to contractile agents, as well as alteration in endothelial permeability...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Chuyi Huang, Chuanfu Dai, Kai Gong, Huancong Zuo, Heling Chu
Apelin-13 has protective effects on many neurological diseases, including cerebral ischemia. Here, we aimed to test Apelin-13's effects on ischemic neurovascular unit (NVU) injuries and investigate whether the effects were dependent on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We detected the expression of VEGF and its receptors (VEGFRs) induced by Apelin-13 injection at 1d, 3d, 7d and 14d after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Meanwhile, we examined the effects of Apelin-13 on NVU in both in vivo and in vitro experiments as well as whether the effects were VEGF dependent by using VEGF antibody...
August 16, 2016: Neuropeptides
Mimily Harsono, Massroor Pourcyrous, Elliott J Jolly, Amy de Jongh Curry, Alexander L Fedinec, Jianxiong Liu, Shymali Basuroy, Daming Zhuang, Charles W Leffler, Helena Parfenova
Epileptic seizures in neonates cause cerebrovascular injury and impairment of cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation. In the bicuculline model of seizures in newborn pigs, we tested the hypothesis that selective head cooling prevents deleterious effects of seizures on cerebral vascular functions. Preventive or therapeutic ictal head cooling was achieved by placing two head ice packs during the preictal and/or ictal states, respectively, for the ~2-h period of seizures. Head cooling lowered the brain and core temperatures to 25...
September 2, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Xiangyi Kong, Jian Guan, Jun Li, Junji Wei, Renzhi Wang
Growing evidence shows that acute and chronic overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased oxidants under pathophysiologic circumstances are of vital importance in the development of cardio-cerebral vascular diseases (CCVDs). It has been revealed that the impact of ROS can be suppressed by sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a member of the highly conserved nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent class III histone deacetylases through protecting endothelial cells from oxidative injury. Plenty of evidences indicate that p66Shc stimulates mitochondrial ROS generation through its oxidoreductase activity and plays a vital role in the pathophysiology of CCVDs...
August 30, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Xiaosheng Yang, Shiting Li, Jun Zhong, Wenchuan Zhang, Xuming Hua, Bin Li, Hui Sun
Crosstalk between the nervous and vascular systems is important during development and in response to injury, and the laminin-like axonal guidance protein netrin-1 has been studied for its involvement in angiogenesis and vascular remodelling. In this study, we examined the role of netrin-1 in angiogenesis and explored the underlying mechanisms. The effect of netrin-1 on brain tissues and endothelial cells was examined by immunohistochemistry and western blotting in a middle cerebral artery occlusion model and in human umbilical vein endothelial cells...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Wen Mei, Guangda Xiang, Yixiang Li, Huan Li, Lingwei Xiang, Junyan Lu, Lin Xiang, Jing Dong, Min Liu
Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) reduces cardiac hypertrophy, improves cerebral vasculature and enhances neurogenesis in ageing mice. Higher growth differentiation factor 11/8 (GDF11/8) is associated with lower risk of cardiovascular events in humans. Here, we showed that adeno-associated viruses-GDF11 and recombinant GDF11 protein improve endothelial dysfunction, decrease endothelial apoptosis, and reduce inflammation, consequently decrease atherosclerotic plaques area in apolipoprotein E(-/-) mice...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Wei Wei, Shi-chao Lai, Yong Xie, Bo-fu Liu, Ya-rong He, Hai Hu, Zhia Wan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the protective effect of target temperature management (TTM) combined with prostaglandin E₁ (PGE₁) on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury of cerebral micro-vascular endothelium cell (CMEC) in the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) rats with successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation. METHODS: Transoesophageal cardiac pacing with alternating current was used to induce ventricular fibrillation in rats. Five groups were set: Sham group (S group), ROSC group (R group), PGE₁ group (P group), TTM group (T group) and PGE₁/TTM group (PT group)...
May 2016: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
Elena Zenaro, Gennj Piacentino, Gabriela Constantin
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the pathological accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides and neurofibrillary tangles containing hyperphosphorylated neuronal tau protein. AD pathology is also characterized by chronic brain inflammation, which promotes disease pathogenesis. In this context, the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a highly specialized endothelial cell membrane that lines cerebral microvessels, represents the interface between neural cells and circulating cells of the immune system...
July 15, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
Xinghu Qin, Hong You, Fang Cao, Yue Wu, Jianhua Peng, Jinwei Pang, Hong Xu, Yue Chen, Ligang Chen, Michael Vitek, Fengqiao Li, Xiaochuan Sun, Yong Jiang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) disrupts the blood brain barrier (BBB) and reduces cerebral glucose uptake. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is believed to play a key role in TBI and COG1410 demonstrated neuroprotective activity in several models of TBI. However, the effects of COG1410 on VEGF and glucose metabolism following TBI are unknown. The current study aimed to investigate the expression of VEGF and glucose metabolism effects in C57BL/6J male mice subjected to experimental TBI. The results showed that CCI-induced vestibulomotor deficits were accompanied by increases in brain edema and the expression of VEGF, with a decrease in cerebral glucose uptake...
July 13, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Jian Zhang, Haiyan Zou, Qiuxia Zhang, Lei Wang, Jianfeng Lei, Yali Wang, Junyao Ouyang, Yi Zhang, Hui Zhao
BACKGROUND: Buyang Huanwu Decoction (BYHWD) is a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula for treating stroke-induced disability. Xiaoshuan enteric-coated capsule (XSECC), derived from the formula BYHWD, is a drug approved by the China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) for stroke management. To further investigate the potential protective effects of XSECC on neurovascular functions, we endeavour to monitor the neurovascular functions using multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and evaluated histopathological changes of neurovascular unit (NVU) after stroke...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
David K Wright, Jack Trezise, Alaa Kamnaksh, Ramsey Bekdash, Leigh A Johnston, Roger Ordidge, Bridgette D Semple, Andrew J Gardner, Peter Stanwell, Terence J O'Brien, Denes V Agoston, Sandy R Shultz
Repeated mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) may lead to serious neurological consequences, especially if re-injury occurs within the period of increased cerebral vulnerability (ICV) triggered by the initial insult. MRI and blood proteomics might provide objective measures of pathophysiological changes in mTBI, and indicate when the brain is no longer in a state of ICV. This study assessed behavioral, MRI, and blood-based markers in a rat model of mTBI. Rats were given a sham or mild fluid percussion injury (mFPI), and behavioral testing, MRI, and blood collections were conducted up to 30 days post-injury...
2016: Scientific Reports
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