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Cerebral vascular endothelial injury

Leilei Mao, Tuo Yang, Xin Li, Xia Lei, Yang Sun, Yongfang Zhao, Wenting Zhang, Yanqin Gao, Baoliang Sun, Feng Zhang
The major pathophysiological process of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) is chronic cerebral ischemia, which causes disintegration of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), neuronal death, and white matter injury. This study aims to test whether sulforaphane (Sfn), a natural activator of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), reduces the chronic ischemic injury and cognitive dysfunction after VCI. Experimental VCI was induced in rats by permanent occlusion of both common carotid arteries for six weeks...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Tamara Roitbak
Stroke-induced endothelial cell injury leads to destruction of cerebral microvasculature and significant damage to the brain tissue. A subacute phase of cerebral ischemia is associated with regeneration involving the activation of vascular remodeling, neuroplasticity, neurogenesis, and neuroinflammation processes. Effective restoration and improvement of blood supply to the damaged brain tissue offers a potential therapy for stroke. microRNAs (miRNAs) are recently identified small RNA molecules that regulate gene expression and significantly influence the essential cellular processes associated with brain repair following stroke...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Wei Bai, Ping Li, Ya-Lei Ning, Yan Peng, Ren-Ping Xiong, Nan Yang, Xing Chen, Yuan-Guo Zhou
Glutamate transporters (EAATs) on cerebral vascular endothelial cells play an important role in maintaining glutamate homeostasis in the brain. The dysfunction of endothelial EAATs is an important reason for the dramatically elevated brain glutamate levels after brain injury, such as traumatic brain injury (TBI). The adenosine A2A receptor (A2A R) plays an important role in regulating the brain glutamate level after brain injury; however, researchers have not clearly determined whether this role was related to its ability to regulate endothelial EAATs...
March 8, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Rui Xu, Wenbin Chen, Zhifen Zhang, Yang Qiu, Yong Wang, Bingchang Zhang, Wei Lu
Bone-Marrow Stromal Cells (BMSCs)-derived vascular endothelial cells (VECs) is regarded as an important therapeutic strategy for spinal cord injury, disc degeneration, cerebral ischemic disease and diabetes. The change in DNA methylation level is essential for stem cell differentiation. However, the DNA methylation related mechanisms underlying the endothelial differentiation of BMSCs are not well understood. In this study, DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) significantly elevated the endothelial markers expression (CD31/PECAM1, CD105/ENG, eNOS and VE-cadherin), as well as promoted the capacity of angiogenesis on Matrigel...
March 4, 2018: Gene
Takakuni Maki, Anna Morancho, Pablo Martinez-San Segundo, Kazuhide Hayakawa, Hajime Takase, Anna C Liang, Marina Gabriel-Salazar, Esperanza Medina-Gutiérrez, Kazuo Washida, Joan Montaner, Josephine Lok, Eng H Lo, Ken Arai, Anna Rosell
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been extensively investigated as a therapeutic approach for repairing the vascular system in cerebrovascular diseases. Beyond vascular regeneration per se, EPCs may also release factors that affect the entire neurovascular unit. Here, we aim to study the effects of the EPC secretome on oligovascular remodeling in a mouse model of white matter injury after prolonged cerebral hypoperfusion. METHODS: The secretome of mouse EPCs was analyzed with a proteome array...
March 6, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Mikhail E Sokolov, Farid V Bashirov, Vage A Markosyan, Tatyana V Povysheva, Filip O Fadeev, Andrey A Izmailov, Maxim S Kuztetsov, Zufar Z Safiullov, Maxim M Shmarov, Boris S Naroditskyi, András Palotás, Rustem R Islamov
Natural brain repair after stroke is extremely limited, and current therapeutic options are even more scarce with no clinical break-through in sight. Despite restricted regeneration in the central nervous system, we have previously proved that human umbilical cord blood mono-nuclear cells (UCB-MC) transduced with adenoviral vectors carrying genes encoding vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) successfully rescued neurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal cord injury...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Zheng-Chen Li, Ying-Ping Jia, Yuan Wang, Jin-Lian Qi, Xue-Ping Han
Brain‑derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) serves a significant role in neural protection by activating the phosphatidylinositol 3‑kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway, which also was associated with the neuroprotective the treatment with dexmedetomidine (DEX). The present study aimed to further explore whether treatment with DEX post‑IR increased the expression level of BDNF and VEGF in the rat brain. A total of 30 healthy, clean male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups: Control group, ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) group and DEX treatment group...
February 13, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Zhaobin Cai, Tingting Shi, Rangxiao Zhuang, Hongying Fang, Xiaojie Jiang, Yidan Shao, Hongping Zhou
With the development of science and technology, and development of artery bypass, methods such as cardiopulmonary cerebral resuscitation have been practiced in recent years. Despite this, some methods fail to promote or recover the function of tissues and organs, and in some cases, may aggravate dysfunction and structural damage to tissues. The latter is typical of ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Lipid peroxidation mediated by free radicals is an important process of myocardial IR injury. Myocardial IR has been demonstrated to induce the formation of large numbers of free radicals in rats, which promotes the peroxidation of lipids within unsaturated fatty acids in the myocardial cell membrane...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Jingxi Ma, Lina Zhang, Tengfei Niu, Chibo Ai, Gongwei Jia, Xinhao Jin, Lan Wen, Keming Zhang, Qinbin Zhang, Changqing Li
The recent suggestion that growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) acts as a rejuvenation factor has remained controversial. However, in addition to its role in aging, the relationship between GDF11 and cerebral ischemia is still an important area that needs more investigation. Here we examined effects of GDF11 on angiogenesis and recovery of neurological function in a rat model of stroke. Exogenous recombinant GDF11 (rGDF11) at different doses were directly injected into the tail vein in rats subjected to cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)...
February 9, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Kinga G Blecharz-Lang, Josephin Wagner, Alexa Fries, Melina Nieminen-Kelhä, Jörg Rösner, Ulf C Schneider, Peter Vajkoczy
Compromised blood-brain barrier (BBB) by dysregulation of cellular junctions is a hallmark of many cerebrovascular disorders due to the pro-inflammatory cytokines action. Interleukin 6 (IL6) is implicated in inflammatory processes and in secondary brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) but its role in the maintenance of cerebral endothelium still requires a precise elucidation. Although IL6 has been shown to exert pro-inflammatory action on brain microvascular endothelial cells (ECs), the expression of one of the IL6 receptors, the IL6R is controversially discussed...
February 10, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
K A Mander, J W Finnie
Clostridium perfringens type D epsilon toxin (ETX) is a potent neurotoxin producing a severe, and often fatal, neurological disorder in ruminant livestock. Microvascular damage appears to be the fundamental action of ETX in the brain and, recently, similar vascular injury, with subsequent severe vasogenic oedema, has been reported in the retina of rats given ETX. Endothelial barrier antigen (EBA) is a useful marker of an intact blood-brain barrier in rats and it has been shown that loss of EBA immunoreactivity is correlated with ETX-induced cerebral microvascular damage in this species...
January 2018: Journal of Comparative Pathology
Xifeng Wang, Gang Li, Wei Shen
Stroke is a leading cause of disability and death world-wide and there is currently a lack of effective treatments for acute stroke. D-Limonene is a common natural monocyclic monoterpene possessing various activities. The present study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of D-limonene against ischemia-associated cerebral injury in hypertensive SHRsp rats. Although systolic blood pressure was not altered by ischemia, D-Limonene decreased the systolic blood pressure of SHRsp rats following stroke. Induction of stroke resulted in increased escape latency time, decreased time spent in the target quadrant in the probe trial, decreased capacity to distinguish between familiar objects and novel objects, and increased sensory neglect in the SHRsp rat, however these symptoms were significantly inhibited by D-limonene...
January 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Yi Ding, Danjun Ren, Hang Xu, Wenxing Liu, Tianlong Liu, Liang Li, Jianguang Li, Yuwen Li, AiDong Wen
The nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway has been considered as a potential target for neuroprotection in stroke. The aim of present study was to determine whether corilagin, a novel Nrf2 activator, can protect against ischemia-reperfusion injury and explore the underlying mechanism involved. In vivo, rats exposed to middle cerebral artery occlusion were applied to establish an ischemic stroke model. Posttreatment of corilagin significantly reduced infarct volumes and apoptotic cells as well as improved neurologic score after reperfusion, together with increased vascular density in the ischemic penumbra...
December 29, 2017: Oncotarget
Jian-Liang Li, Kai Li, Yuan Guo, Zheng Zhao, Li-Na Chen, Xiao-Hui Jiang, Yu-Jie Li, Ya Tu, Xiao-Jun Zheng
Cerebral malaria (CM), a severe neurological syndrome caused by Plasmodium falciparum infection, is a serious life-threatening disease with a high mortality. Survivors' persistent brain injury is manifested as long-term neurocognitive disorders. The main neuropathological feature of CM is the sequestration of parasited red blood cells (pRBCs) in cerebral microvessels. Other neuropathological features of CM include petechial hemorrhage in the brain parenchyma, annular hemorrhage, extensive brain endothelial cell activation, and focal endothelial cell injury and necrosis...
December 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Meixia Liu, Yudan Wu, Yidian Liu, Zhenzhen Chen, Shujuan He, Huimei Zhang, Liang Wu, Fengxia Tu, Yun Zhao, Chan Liu, Xiang Chen
A previous in vivo study demonstrated that intracerebroventricular injection of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in middle cerebral artery occlusion rats increased the expression of caveolin-1 (cav-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in cerebral ischemia penumbra. Because astrocytes are the largest population in the brain, the aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the influence of bFGF on cav-1 and VEGF expression in rat astrocytes following oxygen glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R)...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Ling Wang, Faqi Wang, Shuang Liu, Xuening Yang, Jiajia Yang, Dong Ming
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been identified as a potential treatment for effectively improving cognitive function in several neuropathological conditions. However, the underlying mechanism and the relevant downstream protective pathways that are activated in neurons by VEGF remain elusive, especially in chronic global cerebral ischemia. In this study, we intended to investigate the signaling mechanisms of VEGF in cognitive protection and anti-apoptosis in a rat model of chronic global cerebral ischemia induced by permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (2-VO)...
December 14, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
Shen Liu, Cong Wei, Ning Kang, Qilong He, Junqing Liang, Hongtao Wang, Liping Chang, Daohong Chen, Qiuyan Zhang, Chengcheng Chang, Junfang Zhang, Hong Ren, Yiling Wu
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of Tongxinluo capsule (TXL), a Chinese medicine prescription, on cerebral microcirculatory disturbances after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) in mice using two-photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM) and further explore the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were subjected to pMCAO and orally administered with TXL (3.0, 1.5 and 0.75 g/kg/day) at 1h, 3h and 21h after pMCAO. The following parameters were examined at 6h and 24h after pMCAO: neurological deficit, infarct volume, blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, cerebral microvessel structure, brain microcirculation (TPLSM imaging), vasoactive factors and adhesion molecules...
December 15, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
Soheila Hosseinzadeh, Maryam Noroozian, Esmaeil Mortaz, Kazem Mousavizadeh
Cerebrovascular lesions, a potent stimulus for endothelial cell activation, trigger cognitive and degenerative changes and contribute to pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Circulating microparticles (MPs) are actively involved in the pathogenesis of AD and cerebrovascular diseases, which share common vascular risk factors. We examined the plasma changes of endothelial MPs (EMPs) and platelet MPs (PMPs) in AD patients with vascular risk factors. The plasma Annexin V+ CD 41a- CD144+ EMPs and Annexin V+ CD41a+ CD144- PMPs of 37 patients with AD, with or without vascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, stroke, coronary artery disease, and smoking), and 10 age-matched controls were quantified by flow cytometry...
February 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Hüseyin Özevren, Sevgi İrtegün, Engin Deveci, Fırat Aşır, Gülsüm Pektanç, Şenay Deveci
Objective: Traumatic brain injury causes tissue damage, breakdown of cerebral blood flow and metabolic regulation. This study aims to investigate the protective influence of antioxidant Ganoderma lucidum ( G. lucidum ) polysaccharides (GLPs) on brain injury in brain-traumatized rats. Methods: Sprague-Dawley conducted a head-traumatized method on rats by dropping off 300 g weight from 1 m height. Groups were categorized as control, G. lucidum , trauma, trauma+ G...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
Hameed Al-Sarraf, Slava Malatiali, Mariam Al-Awadi, Zoran Redzic
Studies on animals revealed neuroprotective effects of exogenously applied erythropoietin (EPO) during cerebral ischemia/hypoxia. Yet, application of exogenous EPO in stroke patients often lead to haemorrhagic transformation. To clarify potential mechanism of this adverse effect we explored effects of EPO on viabilities of astrocytes and brain endothelial cells (BECs) in primary culture during anoxia of various durations, in the presence or absence of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin-1 (Ang1), which are cytokines that are also released from the neurovascular unit during hypoxia...
February 2018: Neurochemistry International
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