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Cerebral vascular endothelial injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911398/evaluation-of-bioenergetic-function-in-cerebral-vascular-endothelial-cells
#1
Stephanie L Rellick, Heng Hu, James W Simpkins, Xuefang Ren
The integrity of the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) is critical to prevent brain injury. Cerebral vascular endothelial (CVE) cells are one of the cell types that comprise the BBB; these cells have a very high-energy demand, which requires optimal mitochondrial function. In the case of disease or injury, the mitochondrial function in these cells can be altered, resulting in disease or the opening of the BBB. In this manuscript, we introduce a method to measure mitochondrial function in CVE cells by using whole, intact cells and a bioanalyzer...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898404/prolonged-fasting-improves-endothelial-progenitor-cell-mediated-ischemic-angiogenesis-in-mice
#2
Bao Xin, Chun-Long Liu, Hong Yang, Cheng Peng, Xiao-Hui Dong, Chuan Zhang, Alex F Chen, He-Hui Xie
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Prolonged fasting (PF) was shown to be of great potency to promote optimal health and reduce the risk of many chronic diseases. This study sought to determine the effect of PF on the endothelial progenitor cell (EPC)-mediated angiogenesis in the ischemic brain and cerebral ischemic injury in mice. METHODS: Mice were subjected to PF or periodic PF after cerebral ischemia, and histological analysis and behavioral tests were performed. Mouse EPCs were isolated and examined, and the effects of EPC transplantation on cerebral ischemic injury were investigated in mice...
November 30, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894149/2-3-5-4-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-o-%C3%AE-d-glucoside-attenuates-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-brain-injury-in-rats-by-promoting-angiogenesis
#3
Ying Mu, Zhaohui Xu, Xuanxuan Zhou, Huinan Zhang, Qian Yang, Yunlong Zhang, Yanhua Xie, Juan Kang, Feng Li, Siwang Wang
Cerebral ischemia can cause brain infarcts, which are difficult to recover due to poor angiogenesis. 2,3,5,4'-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside is a natural polyphenol, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, and can protect from ischemic neuronal injury. However, little is known about the effect of 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside on brain microcirculation after stroke. This study aimed at investigating the influence of 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside on brain lesions and angiogenesis after stroke...
November 28, 2016: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864367/phaseic-acid-an-endogenous-and-reversible-inhibitor-of-glutamate-receptors-in-mouse-brain
#4
Sheng T Hou, Susan X Jiang, L Irina Zaharia, Xiumei Han, Chantel L Benson, Jacqueline Slinn, Suzanne R Abrams
Phaseic acid (PA) is a phytohormone regulating important physiological functions in higher plants. Here, we show the presence of naturally occurring (-)-PA in mouse and rat brains. (-)-PA is exclusively present in the choroid plexus and the cerebral vascular endothelial cells. Purified (-)-PA has no toxicity and protects cultured cortical neurons against glutamate toxicity through reversible inhibition of glutamate receptors. Focal occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO) elicited a significant induction in (-)-PA expression in the CSF, but not in the peripheral blood...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864280/edaravone-injection-reverses-learning-and-memory-deficits-in-a-rat-model-of-vascular-dementia
#5
Xu Li, Fen Lu, Wei Li, Lingzhi Qin, Yong Yao, Xuerong Ge, Qingkai Yu, Xinliang Liang, Dongmei Zhao, Xiaohong Li, Jiewen Zhang
Edaravone is a novel free radical scavenger that exerts neuroprotective effects by inhibiting endothelial injury and by ameliorating neuronal damage in brain ischemia. Recently, it was reported that edaravone could alleviate the pathology and cognitive deficits of Alzheimer's disease patients. However, its relevance to vascular dementia (VaD) is not clear. In this study, we partially occluded the bilateral carotid arteries of rats surgically to induce chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH), a well-known rat model of VaD...
November 17, 2016: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857745/13-methyltetradecanoic-acid-mitigates-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#6
Juan Yu, Li-Nan Yang, Yan-Yun Wu, Bao-Hua Li, Sheng-Mei Weng, Chun-Lan Hu, Yong-Ling Han
13-Methyltetradecanoic acid can stabilize cell membrane and have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects. Previous studies mainly focused on peripheral nerve injury, but seldom on the central nervous system. We investigated whether these properties of 13-methyltetradecanoic acid have a neuroprotective effect on focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, and detected the expression of basic fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor. This study established rat models of middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion injury by ischemia for 2 hours and reperfusion for 24 hours...
September 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816754/characterizing-the-mode-of-action-of-extracellular-connexin43-channel-blocking-mimetic-peptides-in-an-in-vitro-ischemia-injury-model
#7
Yeri Kim, Jarred M Griffin, Paul W R Harris, Sin Hang Crystal Chan, Louise F B Nicholson, Margaret A Brimble, Simon J O'Carroll, Colin R Green
BACKGROUND: Non-selective Connexin43 hemichannels contribute to secondary lesion spread. The hemichannel blocking peptidomimetic Peptide5, derived from the second extracellular loop of the human Connexin43 protein, prevents lesion spread and reduces vascular permeability in preclinical models of central nervous system injury. The molecular mode of action of Peptide5, however, was unknown and is described here. METHODS: Human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells and APRE-19 cells were used...
November 3, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785755/roles-of-hif-1%C3%AE-vegf-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-in-ischemic-preconditioning-mediated-neuroprotection-of-hippocampal-ca1-pyramidal-neurons-against-a-subsequent-transient-cerebral-ischemia
#8
Jae-Chul Lee, Hyun-Jin Tae, In Hye Kim, Jeong Hwi Cho, Tae-Kyeong Lee, Joon Ha Park, Ji Hyeon Ahn, Soo Young Choi, Hui Chen Bai, Bich-Na Shin, Geum-Sil Cho, Dae Won Kim, Il Jun Kang, Young-Guen Kwon, Young-Myeong Kim, Moo-Ho Won, Eun Joo Bae
Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) provides neuroprotection against subsequent severe ischemic insults by specific mechanisms. We tested the hypothesis that IPC attenuates post-ischemic neuronal death in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) throughout hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and its associated factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). Lethal ischemia (LI) without IPC increased expressions of HIF-1α, VEGF, and p-IκB-α (/and translocation of NF-κB p65 into nucleus) in CA1 pyramidal neurons at 12 h and/or 1-day post-LI; thereafter, their expressions were decreased in the CA1 pyramidal neurons with time and newly expressed in non-pyramidal cells (pericytes), and the CA1 pyramidal neurons were dead at 5-day post-LI, and, at this point in time, their immunoreactivities were newly expressed in pericytes...
October 26, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772541/bone-marrow-stromal-cells-combined-with-sodium-ferulate-and-n-butylidenephthalide-promote-the-effect-of-therapeutic-angiogenesis-via-advancing-astrocyte-derived-trophic-factors-after-ischemic-stroke
#9
Qian Zhang, Zhen-Wei Chen, Yong-Hua Zhao, Bo-Wen Liu, Nai-Wei Liu, Chien-Chih Ke, Hong-Mei Tan
Being a potential candidate for stroke treatment, bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have been demonstrated to be able to enhance angiogenesis and proliferation of reactive astrocytes which subsequently lead to the amelioration of neurological injury. Increasing evidences further indicate combined BMSCs with certain agent such as simvastatin may have improved therapeutic effect. Sodium Ferulate (SF) and n-butylidenephthalide (BP), two main components of Radix Angelica Sinensis, are proved to be the important regulators of stem cells in cell migration, differentiation and pluripotency maintenance...
October 21, 2016: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761657/high-intensity-interval-training-enhances-mobilization-functionality-of-endothelial-progenitor-cells-and-depressed-shedding-of-vascular-endothelial-cells-undergoing-hypoxia
#10
Hsing-Hua Tsai, Chin-Pu Lin, Yi-Hui Lin, Chih-Chin Hsu, Jong-Shyan Wang
PURPOSE: Exercise training improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation, whereas hypoxic stress causes vascular endothelial dysfunction. Monocyte-derived endothelial progenitor cells (Mon-EPCs) contribute to vascular repair process by differentiating into endothelial cells. This study investigates how high-intensity interval (HIT) and moderate-intensity continuous (MCT) exercise training affect circulating Mon-EPC levels and EPC functionality under hypoxic condition. METHODS: Sixty healthy sedentary males were randomized to engage in either HIT (3-min intervals at 40 and 80 % VO2max for five repetitions, n = 20) or MCT (sustained 60 % VO2max, n = 20) for 30 min/day, 5 days/week for 6 weeks, or to a control group (CTL) that did not received exercise intervention (n = 20)...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717824/myd88-contributes-to-neuroinflammatory-responses-induced-by-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-in-mice
#11
Xinchun Ye, Delian Kong, Jun Wang, Tauheed Ishrat, Hongjuan Shi, Xiaohui Ding, Guiyun Cui, Fang Hua
Myeloid differentiation primary-response protein-88 (MyD88) is one of adaptor proteins mediating Toll-like receptors (TLRs) signaling. Activation of MyD88 results in the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) and the increase of inflammatory responses. Evidences have demonstrated that TLRs signaling contributes to cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the role of MyD88 in this mechanism of action is disputed and needs to be clarified. In the present study, in a mouse model of cerebral I/R, we examined the activities of NFκB and interferon factor-3 (IRF3), and the inflammatory responses in ischemic brain tissue using ELISA, Western blots, and real-time PCR...
October 4, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693818/correlation-of-homocysteine-with-cerebral-hemodynamic-abnormality-endothelial-dysfunction-markers-and-cognition-impairment-in-patients-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
Masoud Hatefi, Someyeh Behzadi, Masoud Moghadas Dastjerdi, Alireza Abootalebi Ghahnavieh, Asghar Rahmani, Fatemeh Madizadeh, Mohammad Reza Hafezi Ahmadi, Khairollah Asadollahi
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess any correlation between serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy) with markers of cerebral hemodynamic, endothelial dysfunction and cognition impairment in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: By a cross-sectional study, all clinical data and serum levels of homocysteine of 85 TBI patients were collected. The pulsatility indices (PI) of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) were recorded by transcranial color-coded doppler ultrasonography (TCD) and cereberovascular reactivity (CVR)...
September 29, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683007/peroxynitrite-formed-during-a-transient-episode-of-brain-ischaemia-increases-endothelium-derived-hyperpolarization-type-dilations-in-thromboxane-prostaglandin-receptor-stimulated-rat-cerebral-arteries
#13
Y Onetti, A P Dantas, B Pérez, A J McNeish, E Vila, F Jiménez-Altayó
AIM: Increased thromboxane A2 and peroxynitrite are hallmarks of cerebral ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R). Stimulation of thromboxane/prostaglandin receptors (TP) attenuates endothelium-derived hyperpolarization (EDH). We investigated whether EDH-type middle cerebral artery (MCA) relaxations following TP stimulation are altered after I/R and the influence of peroxynitrite. METHODS: Vascular function was determined by wire myography after TP stimulation with the thromboxane A2 mimetic 9,11-dideoxy-9α, 11α -methano-epoxy prostaglandin F2α (U46619) in MCA of Sprague Dawley rats subjected to MCA occlusion (90 min)/reperfusion (24 h) or sham operation, and in non-operated (control) rats...
September 28, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677851/parp-inhibition-in-leukocytes-diminishes-inflammation-via-effects-on-integrins-cytoskeleton-and-protects-the-blood-brain-barrier
#14
Slava Rom, Viviana Zuluaga-Ramirez, Nancy L Reichenbach, Holly Dykstra, Sachin Gajghate, Pal Pacher, Yuri Persidsky
BACKGROUND: Blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction/disruption followed by leukocyte infiltration into the brain causes neuroinflammation and contributes to morbidity in multiple sclerosis, encephalitis, traumatic brain injury, and stroke. The identification of pathways that decreases the inflammatory potential of leukocytes would prevent such injury. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP) controls various genes via its interaction with myriad transcription factors. Selective PARP inhibitors have appeared lately as potent anti-inflammatory tools...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642277/blockade-of-apoptosis-signal-regulating-kinase-1-attenuates-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-activity-in-brain-endothelial-cells-and-the-subsequent-apoptosis-in-neurons-after-ischemic-injury
#15
So Y Cheon, Kyoung J Cho, So Y Kim, Eun H Kam, Jong E Lee, Bon-Nyeo Koo
Conditions of increased oxidative stress including cerebral ischemia can lead to blood-brain barrier dysfunction via matrix metalloproteinase (MMP). It is known that MMP-9 in particular is released from brain endothelial cells is involved in the neuronal cell death that occurs after cerebral ischemia. In the intracellular signaling network, apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is the main activator of the oxidative stress that is part of the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia. ASK1 also promotes apoptotic cell death and brain infarction after ischemia and is associated with vascular permeability and the formation of brain edema...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614253/bacterial-toxins-activation-of-abbreviated-urea-cycle-in-porcine-cerebral-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#16
Rajesh G Mishra, Tzu-Ling Tseng, Mei-Fang Chen, Po-Yi Chen, Tony J-F Lee
Nitric oxide (NO) overproduction via induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is implicated in vasodilatory shock in sepsis, leading to septic encephalopathy and accelerating cerebral ischemic injury. An abbreviated urea-cycle (L-citrulline-L-arginine-NO cycle) has been demonstrated in cerebral perivascular nitrergic nerves and endothelial cells but not in normal cerebral vascular smooth muscle cell (CVSMC). This cycle indicates that argininosuccinate synthase (ASS) catalyzes L-citrulline (L-cit) conversion to form argininosuccinate (AS), and subsequent AS cleavage by argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) forms L-arginine (L-arg), the substrate for NO synthesis...
September 7, 2016: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611446/smooth-muscle-generated-methylglyoxal-impairs-endothelial-cell-mediated-vasodilatation-of-cerebral-microvessels-in-type-1-diabetic-rats
#17
Fadhel Alomar, Jaipaul Singh, Hee-Seong Jang, George J Rozanzki, Chun Hong Shao, Babu J Padanilam, William G Mayhan, Keshore R Bidasee
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Endothelial cell-mediated vasodilatation of cerebral arterioles is impaired in individuals with Type 1 diabetes (T1D). This defect compromises haemodynamics and can lead to hypoxia, microbleeds, inflammation and exaggerated ischaemia-reperfusion injuries. The molecular causes for dysregulation of cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (cECs) in T1D remains poorly defined. This study tests the hypothesis that cECs dysregulation in T1D is triggered by increased generation of the mitochondrial toxin, methylglyoxal, by smooth muscle cells in cerebral arterioles (cSMCs)...
September 9, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604741/determination-of-vascular-reactivity-of-middle-cerebral-arteries-from-stroke-and-spinal-cord-injury-animal-models-using-pressure-myography
#18
Mohammad A Anwar, Ali H Eid
Stroke and other neurovascular derangements are main causes of global death. They, along with spinal cord injuries, are responsible for being the principal cause of disability due to neurological and cognitive problems. These problems then lead to a burden on scarce financial resources and societal care facilities as well as have a profound effect on patients' families. The mechanism of action in these debilitating diseases is complex and unclear. An important component of these problems arises from derangement of blood vessels, such as blockage due to clotting/embolism, endothelial dysfunction, and overreactivity to contractile agents, as well as alteration in endothelial permeability...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592408/apelin-13-protects-neurovascular-unit-against-ischemic-injuries-through-the-effects-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor
#19
Chuyi Huang, Chuanfu Dai, Kai Gong, Huancong Zuo, Heling Chu
Apelin-13 has protective effects on many neurological diseases, including cerebral ischemia. Here, we aimed to test Apelin-13's effects on ischemic neurovascular unit (NVU) injuries and investigate whether the effects were dependent on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We detected the expression of VEGF and its receptors (VEGFRs) induced by Apelin-13 injection at 1d, 3d, 7d and 14d after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Meanwhile, we examined the effects of Apelin-13 on NVU in both in vivo and in vitro experiments as well as whether the effects were VEGF dependent by using VEGF antibody...
December 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591217/selective-head-cooling-during-neonatal-seizures-prevents-postictal-cerebral-vascular-dysfunction-without-reducing-epileptiform-activity
#20
Mimily Harsono, Massroor Pourcyrous, Elliott J Jolly, Amy de Jongh Curry, Alexander L Fedinec, Jianxiong Liu, Shyamali Basuroy, Daming Zhuang, Charles W Leffler, Helena Parfenova
Epileptic seizures in neonates cause cerebrovascular injury and impairment of cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation. In the bicuculline model of seizures in newborn pigs, we tested the hypothesis that selective head cooling prevents deleterious effects of seizures on cerebral vascular functions. Preventive or therapeutic ictal head cooling was achieved by placing two head ice packs during the preictal and/or ictal states, respectively, for the ∼2-h period of seizures. Head cooling lowered the brain and core temperatures to 25...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
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