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Cerebral vascular endothelial injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154566/histological-architecture-underlying-brain-immune-cell-cell-interactions-and-the-cerebral-response-to-systemic-inflammation
#1
Atsuyoshi Shimada, Sanae Hasegawa-Ishii
Although the brain is now known to actively interact with the immune system under non-inflammatory conditions, the site of cell-cell interactions between brain parenchymal cells and immune cells has been an open question until recently. Studies by our and other groups have indicated that brain structures such as the leptomeninges, choroid plexus stroma and epithelium, attachments of choroid plexus, vascular endothelial cells, cells of the perivascular space, circumventricular organs, and astrocytic endfeet construct the histological architecture that provides a location for intercellular interactions between bone marrow-derived myeloid lineage cells and brain parenchymal cells under non-inflammatory conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154097/cerebral-vascular-disease-and-neurovascular-injury-in-ischemic-stroke
#2
Xiaoming Hu, T Michael De Silva, Jun Chen, Frank M Faraci
The consequences of cerebrovascular disease are among the leading health issues worldwide. Large and small cerebral vessel disease can trigger stroke and contribute to the vascular component of other forms of neurological dysfunction and degeneration. Both forms of vascular disease are driven by diverse risk factors, with hypertension as the leading contributor. Despite the importance of neurovascular disease and subsequent injury after ischemic events, fundamental knowledge in these areas lag behind our current understanding of neuroprotection and vascular biology in general...
February 3, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115138/endocannabinoid-2-arachidonoylglycerol-protects-inflammatory-insults-from-sulfur-dioxide-inhalation-via-cannabinoid-receptors-in-the-brain
#3
Ben Li, Minjun Chen, Lin Guo, Yang Yun, Guangke Li, Nan Sang
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) pollution in the atmospheric environment causes brain inflammatory insult and inflammatory-related microvasculature dysfunction. However, there are currently no effective medications targeting the harmful outcomes from chemical inhalation. Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are involved in neuronal protection against inflammation-induced neuronal injury. The 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), the most abundant eCBs and a full agonist for cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), is also capable of suppressing proinflammatory stimuli and improving microvasculature dysfunction...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114983/panaxatriol-saponins-promotes-angiogenesis-and-enhances-cerebral-perfusion-after-ischemic-stroke-in-rats
#4
Zhen Hui, Du-Juan Sha, Su-Lei Wang, Chao-Sheng Li, Jian Qian, Jing-Qing Wang, Yang Zhao, Jing-Hua Zhang, Hong-Yu Cheng, Hui Yang, Lin-Jie Yu, Yun Xu
BACKGROUND: Panaxatriol saponins (PTS), an extract from the traditional Chinese herb Panax notoginseng, which has been used to treat ischemic stroke for many years in China. However, the mechanism underlying the effects of PTS remains unclear. This study aimed to determine whether PTS can protect against ischemic brain injury by promoting angiogenesis and to explore the possible mechanism by which it promotes angiogenesis. METHODS: Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was induced in rats, and neurological deficit scores and brain infarct volumes were assessed...
January 23, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093678/changes-in-serum-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-and-endostatin-concentrations-associated-with-circulating-endothelial-progenitor-cells-after-acute-ischemic-stroke
#5
Lixia Xue, Hao Chen, Ting Zhang, Jingjiong Chen, Zhi Geng, Yuwu Zhao
Angiogenesis is an important pathophysiological response to cerebral ischemia, and can be modulated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and endostatin. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) also play an important role as an endogenous repair mechanism for ischemic injury. We sought to investigate early changes in the expression of VEGF and endostatin in serum and the circulating EPCs in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and analyzed the relations between them. The peripheral blood and serum samples were obtained from 30 patients at 1, 3, 5 and 7 d after AIS...
January 16, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000132/biomarkers-of-glycocalyx-injury-are-associated-with-delayed-cerebral-ischemia-following-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-a-case-series-supporting-a-new-hypothesis
#6
Josh D Bell, Shawn G Rhind, Alex P Di Battista, R Loch Macdonald, Andrew J Baker
BACKGROUND: Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) contributes to morbidity following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage; however, its etiology remains poorly understood. DCI is not only a consequence of angiographic vasospasm, but also involves microthrombosis and neuroinflammation, two events with unexplained phenomenology. The vascular endothelial glycocalyx mediates platelet aggregation and endothelial cell-leukocyte interactions and may play an important role in DCI pathogenesis. METHODS: We present a case series in which we conducted multiplex and singlet enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of endothelial, glycocalyx, inflammatory, and neuroinjury proteins in both CSF and plasma in three patients during active DCI following SAH...
December 20, 2016: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995510/mechanisms-of-global-cerebral-edema-formation-in-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#7
Erik G Hayman, Aaron Wessell, Volodymyr Gerzanich, Kevin N Sheth, J Marc Simard
A growing body of clinical literature emphasizes the impact of cerebral edema in early brain injury following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Aneurysm rupture itself initiates global cerebral edema in up to two thirds of cases. Although cerebral edema is not a universal feature of aSAH, it portends a poor clinical course, with quantitative analysis revealing a direct correlation between cerebral edema and poor outcome, including mortality and cognitive deficits. Mechanistically, global cerebral edema has been linked to global ischemia at the time of aneurysm rupture, dysfunction of autoregulation, blood breakdown products, neuroinflammation, and hyponatremia/endocrine abnormalities...
December 19, 2016: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939902/cilostazol-protects-against-microvascular-brain-injury-in-a-rat-model-of-type-2-diabetes
#8
Yuko Tsukamoto, Eiichiro Nagata, Naoto Fukuyama, Yoshiko Itoh, Hiroko Yuzawa, Saori Kohara, Mie Shimizu, Yoko Takahari, Shunya Takizawa
Cilostazol, a pluripotent phosphodiesterase III-specific inhibitor with anti-platelet and vasculogenic effects, is useful for preventing recurrent brain vascular events, particularly in stroke patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). However, it is unclear whether cilostazol affects autoregulatory responses in small cerebral arteries. Thus, we investigated the effect of cilostazol on diabetic brain vasculopathy in a model of type II DM using male OLETF rats. OLETF rats were treated with either cilostazol (CG) or vehicle (VG) and subjected to microangiography with monochromatic synchrotron radiation to investigate middle cerebral artery (MCA) vasoreactivity following an injection of acetylcholine (Ach)...
December 8, 2016: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911398/evaluation-of-bioenergetic-function-in-cerebral-vascular-endothelial-cells
#9
Stephanie L Rellick, Heng Hu, James W Simpkins, Xuefang Ren
The integrity of the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) is critical to prevent brain injury. Cerebral vascular endothelial (CVE) cells are one of the cell types that comprise the BBB; these cells have a very high-energy demand, which requires optimal mitochondrial function. In the case of disease or injury, the mitochondrial function in these cells can be altered, resulting in disease or the opening of the BBB. In this manuscript, we introduce a method to measure mitochondrial function in CVE cells by using whole, intact cells and a bioanalyzer...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898404/prolonged-fasting-improves-endothelial-progenitor-cell-mediated-ischemic-angiogenesis-in-mice
#10
Bao Xin, Chun-Long Liu, Hong Yang, Cheng Peng, Xiao-Hui Dong, Chuan Zhang, Alex F Chen, He-Hui Xie
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Prolonged fasting (PF) was shown to be of great potency to promote optimal health and reduce the risk of many chronic diseases. This study sought to determine the effect of PF on the endothelial progenitor cell (EPC)-mediated angiogenesis in the ischemic brain and cerebral ischemic injury in mice. METHODS: Mice were subjected to PF or periodic PF after cerebral ischemia, and histological analysis and behavioral tests were performed. Mouse EPCs were isolated and examined, and the effects of EPC transplantation on cerebral ischemic injury were investigated in mice...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894149/2-3-5-4-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-o-%C3%AE-d-glucoside-attenuates-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-brain-injury-in-rats-by-promoting-angiogenesis
#11
Ying Mu, Zhaohui Xu, Xuanxuan Zhou, Huinan Zhang, Qian Yang, Yunlong Zhang, Yanhua Xie, Juan Kang, Feng Li, Siwang Wang
Cerebral ischemia can cause brain infarcts, which are difficult to recover due to poor angiogenesis. 2,3,5,4'-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside is a natural polyphenol, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, and can protect from ischemic neuronal injury. However, little is known about the effect of 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside on brain microcirculation after stroke. This study aimed at investigating the influence of 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside on brain lesions and angiogenesis after stroke...
November 28, 2016: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864367/phaseic-acid-an-endogenous-and-reversible-inhibitor-of-glutamate-receptors-in-mouse-brain
#12
Sheng Tao Hou, Susan X Jiang, L Irina Zaharia, Xiumei Han, Chantel L Benson, Jacqueline Slinn, Suzanne R Abrams
Phaseic acid (PA) is a phytohormone regulating important physiological functions in higher plants. Here, we show the presence of naturally occurring (-)-PA in mouse and rat brains. (-)-PA is exclusively present in the choroid plexus and the cerebral vascular endothelial cells. Purified (-)-PA has no toxicity and protects cultured cortical neurons against glutamate toxicity through reversible inhibition of glutamate receptors. Focal occlusion of the middle cerebral artery elicited a significant induction in (-)-PA expression in the cerebrospinal fluid but not in the peripheral blood...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864280/edaravone-injection-reverses-learning-and-memory-deficits-in-a-rat-model-of-vascular-dementia
#13
Xu Li, Fen Lu, Wei Li, Lingzhi Qin, Yong Yao, Xuerong Ge, Qingkai Yu, Xinliang Liang, Dongmei Zhao, Xiaohong Li, Jiewen Zhang
Edaravone is a novel free radical scavenger that exerts neuroprotective effects by inhibiting endothelial injury and by ameliorating neuronal damage in brain ischemia. Recently, it was reported that edaravone could alleviate the pathology and cognitive deficits of Alzheimer's disease patients. However, its relevance to vascular dementia (VaD) is not clear. In this study, we partially occluded the bilateral carotid arteries of rats surgically to induce chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH), a well-known rat model of VaD...
January 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857745/13-methyltetradecanoic-acid-mitigates-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#14
Juan Yu, Li-Nan Yang, Yan-Yun Wu, Bao-Hua Li, Sheng-Mei Weng, Chun-Lan Hu, Yong-Ling Han
13-Methyltetradecanoic acid can stabilize cell membrane and have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects. Previous studies mainly focused on peripheral nerve injury, but seldom on the central nervous system. We investigated whether these properties of 13-methyltetradecanoic acid have a neuroprotective effect on focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, and detected the expression of basic fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor. This study established rat models of middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion injury by ischemia for 2 hours and reperfusion for 24 hours...
September 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816754/characterizing-the-mode-of-action-of-extracellular-connexin43-channel-blocking-mimetic-peptides-in-an-in-vitro-ischemia-injury-model
#15
Yeri Kim, Jarred M Griffin, Paul W R Harris, Sin Hang Crystal Chan, Louise F B Nicholson, Margaret A Brimble, Simon J O'Carroll, Colin R Green
BACKGROUND: Non-selective Connexin43 hemichannels contribute to secondary lesion spread. The hemichannel blocking peptidomimetic Peptide5, derived from the second extracellular loop of the human Connexin43 protein, prevents lesion spread and reduces vascular permeability in preclinical models of central nervous system injury. The molecular mode of action of Peptide5, however, was unknown and is described here. METHODS: Human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells and APRE-19 cells were used...
February 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785755/roles-of-hif-1%C3%AE-vegf-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-in-ischemic-preconditioning-mediated-neuroprotection-of-hippocampal-ca1-pyramidal-neurons-against-a-subsequent-transient-cerebral-ischemia
#16
Jae-Chul Lee, Hyun-Jin Tae, In Hye Kim, Jeong Hwi Cho, Tae-Kyeong Lee, Joon Ha Park, Ji Hyeon Ahn, Soo Young Choi, Hui Chen Bai, Bich-Na Shin, Geum-Sil Cho, Dae Won Kim, Il Jun Kang, Young-Guen Kwon, Young-Myeong Kim, Moo-Ho Won, Eun Joo Bae
Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) provides neuroprotection against subsequent severe ischemic insults by specific mechanisms. We tested the hypothesis that IPC attenuates post-ischemic neuronal death in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) throughout hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and its associated factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). Lethal ischemia (LI) without IPC increased expressions of HIF-1α, VEGF, and p-IκB-α (/and translocation of NF-κB p65 into nucleus) in CA1 pyramidal neurons at 12 h and/or 1-day post-LI; thereafter, their expressions were decreased in the CA1 pyramidal neurons with time and newly expressed in non-pyramidal cells (pericytes), and the CA1 pyramidal neurons were dead at 5-day post-LI, and, at this point in time, their immunoreactivities were newly expressed in pericytes...
October 26, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772541/bone-marrow-stromal-cells-combined-with-sodium-ferulate-and-n-butylidenephthalide-promote-the-effect-of-therapeutic-angiogenesis-via-advancing-astrocyte-derived-trophic-factors-after-ischemic-stroke
#17
Qian Zhang, Zhen-Wei Chen, Yong-Hua Zhao, Bo-Wen Liu, Nai-Wei Liu, Chien-Chih Ke, Hong-Mei Tan
Being a potential candidate for stroke treatment, bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have been demonstrated to be able to enhance angiogenesis and proliferation of reactive astrocytes which subsequently lead to the amelioration of neurological injury. Increasing evidences further indicate combined BMSCs with certain agent such as simvastatin may have improved therapeutic effect. Sodium Ferulate (SF) and n-butylidenephthalide (BP), two main components of Radix Angelica Sinensis, are proved to be the important regulators of stem cells in cell migration, differentiation and pluripotency maintenance...
October 21, 2016: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761657/high-intensity-interval-training-enhances-mobilization-functionality-of-endothelial-progenitor-cells-and-depressed-shedding-of-vascular-endothelial-cells-undergoing-hypoxia
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Hsing-Hua Tsai, Chin-Pu Lin, Yi-Hui Lin, Chih-Chin Hsu, Jong-Shyan Wang
PURPOSE: Exercise training improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation, whereas hypoxic stress causes vascular endothelial dysfunction. Monocyte-derived endothelial progenitor cells (Mon-EPCs) contribute to vascular repair process by differentiating into endothelial cells. This study investigates how high-intensity interval (HIT) and moderate-intensity continuous (MCT) exercise training affect circulating Mon-EPC levels and EPC functionality under hypoxic condition. METHODS: Sixty healthy sedentary males were randomized to engage in either HIT (3-min intervals at 40 and 80 % VO2max for five repetitions, n = 20) or MCT (sustained 60 % VO2max, n = 20) for 30 min/day, 5 days/week for 6 weeks, or to a control group (CTL) that did not received exercise intervention (n = 20)...
December 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717824/myd88-contributes-to-neuroinflammatory-responses-induced-by-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-in-mice
#19
Xinchun Ye, Delian Kong, Jun Wang, Tauheed Ishrat, Hongjuan Shi, Xiaohui Ding, Guiyun Cui, Fang Hua
Myeloid differentiation primary-response protein-88 (MyD88) is one of adaptor proteins mediating Toll-like receptors (TLRs) signaling. Activation of MyD88 results in the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) and the increase of inflammatory responses. Evidences have demonstrated that TLRs signaling contributes to cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the role of MyD88 in this mechanism of action is disputed and needs to be clarified. In the present study, in a mouse model of cerebral I/R, we examined the activities of NFκB and interferon factor-3 (IRF3), and the inflammatory responses in ischemic brain tissue using ELISA, Western blots, and real-time PCR...
October 4, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693818/correlation-of-homocysteine-with-cerebral-hemodynamic-abnormality-endothelial-dysfunction-markers-and-cognition-impairment-in-patients-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Masoud Hatefi, Someyeh Behzadi, Masoud Moghadas Dastjerdi, Alireza Abootalebi Ghahnavieh, Asghar Rahmani, Fatemeh Mahdizadeh, Mohammad Reza Hafezi Ahmadi, Khairollah Asadollahi
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess any correlation between serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy) and markers of cerebral hemodynamics, endothelial dysfunction, and cognition impairment in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: By a cross-sectional study, all clinical data and serum levels of homocysteine of 85 TBI patients were collected. The pulsatility indices (PIs) of the middle cerebral artery were recorded by transcranial color-coded Doppler ultrasonography and cerebrovascular reactivity was measured by the increase in middle cerebral artery flow velocity in response to 5% inhaled CO2...
January 2017: World Neurosurgery
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