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Markers of endothelial injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785503/prolonged-forearm-ischemia-attenuates-endothelium-dependent-vasodilatation-and-plasma-nitric-oxide-metabolites-in-overweight-middle-aged-men
#1
Zainie Aboo Bakkar, Jonathan Fulford, Phillip E Gates, Sarah R Jackman, Andrew M Jones, Bert Bond, Joanna L Bowtell
PURPOSE: Repeated cycles of endothelial ischemia-reperfusion injury and the resulting respiratory burst contribute to the irreversible pathophysiology of vascular diseases, and yet, the effects of ischemia reperfusion on vascular function, oxidative stress, and nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability have not been assessed simultaneously. Therefore, this study sought to examine the effects of prolonged forearm occlusion and subsequent reperfusion on NO-dependent brachial artery endothelial function...
May 21, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781122/protective-effects-of-endothelial-progenitor-cell-derived-extracellular-mitochondria-in-brain-endothelium
#2
Kazuhide Hayakawa, Su Jing Chan, Emiri T Mandeville, Ji Hyun Park, Morgan Bruzzese, Joan Montaner, Ken Arai, Anna Rosell, Eng H Lo
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been pursued as a potential cellular therapy for stroke and central nervous system injury. However, their underlying mechanisms remain to be fully defined. Recent experimental studies suggest that mitochondria may be released and transferred between cells. In this proof-of-concept study, we asked whether beneficial effects of EPCs may partly involve a mitochondrial phenomenon as well. First, EPC-derived conditioned medium was collected and divided into supernatant and particle fractions after centrifugation...
May 21, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778235/immune-complexes-suppressed-autophagy-in-glomerular-endothelial-cells
#3
Linlin Wang, Helen Ka Wai Law
Lupus nephritis is an immune-complexes mediated glomerulonephritis. Vascular lesions and endothelial cell injuries are common in lupus nephritis and important for renal damage. However, the precise mechanisms by which immune complexes lead to endothelial cell injuries are still unclear. Autophagy is a conserved metabolic process and shows protective roles in many cell types and diseases. In present study, we investigated whether immune complexes could affect autophagy and participate in endothelial dysfunctions...
June 2018: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775479/acute-intermittent-hypoxia-and-rehabilitative-training-following-cervical-spinal-injury-alters-neuronal-hypoxia-and-plasticity-associated-protein-expression
#4
Atiq Hassan, Breanna M Arnold, Sally Caine, Behzad M Toosi, Valerie M K Verge, Gillian D Muir
One of the most promising approaches to improve recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) is the augmentation of spontaneously occurring plasticity in uninjured neural pathways. Acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH, brief exposures to reduced O2 levels alternating with normal O2 levels) initiates plasticity in respiratory systems and has been shown to improve recovery in respiratory and non-respiratory spinal systems after SCI in experimental animals and humans. Although the mechanism by which AIH elicits its effects after SCI are not well understood, AIH is known to alter protein expression in spinal neurons in uninjured animals...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774773/mir-711-induced-down-regulation-of-angiopoietin-1-mediates-neuronal-cell-death
#5
Boris Sabirzhanov, Alan Faden, Taryn Aubrecht, Rebecca Henry, Ethan Glaser, Bogdan A Stoica
Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) is a well-known endothelial growth factor but its effects on neurons have yet to be elucidated. We show that Ang-1 is rapidly down-regulated in the injured brain after controlled cortical impact (CCI), a mouse experimental TBI model and in etoposide-induced neuronal apoptosis in vitro. Ang-1 treatment inhibits etoposide-induced up-regulation of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members Noxa, Puma, Bim, and Bax; reduces markers of caspase-dependent (cytochrome c release/caspase activation) and caspase-independent (apoptosis-inducing factor release) pathways; and limits neuronal cell death...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771991/progenitor-renin-lineage-cells-are-not-involved-in-the-regeneration-of-glomerular-endothelial-cells-during-experimental-renal-thrombotic-microangiopathy
#6
Leo Ruhnke, Jan Sradnick, Moath Al-Mekhlafi, Michael Gerlach, Florian Gembardt, Bernd Hohenstein, Vladimir T Todorov, Christian Hugo
Endothelial cells (EC) frequently undergo primary or secondary injury during kidney disease such as thrombotic microangiopathy or glomerulonephritis. Renin Lineage Cells (RLCs) serve as a progenitor cell niche after glomerular damage in the adult kidney. However, it is not clear whether RLCs also contribute to endothelial replenishment in the glomerulus following endothelial injury. Therefore, we investigated the role of RLCs as a potential progenitor niche for glomerular endothelial regeneration. We used an inducible tet-on triple-transgenic reporter strain mRen-rtTAm2/LC1/LacZ to pulse-label the renin-producing RLCs in adult mice...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771268/hiv-disease-is-associated-with-increased-biomarkers-of-endothelial-dysfunction-despite-viral-suppression-on-long-term-antiretroviral-therapy-in-botswana
#7
Mosepele Mosepele, Terence Mohammed, Lucy Mupfumi, Sikhulile Moyo, Kara Bennett, Shahin Lockman, Linda C Hemphill, Virginia A Triant
BACKGROUND: Untreated HIV infection is associated with increased biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction. However, the predictors and degree of endothelial dysfunction among virally suppressed HIV-infected adults on long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) have not been well studied in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). METHODS: We enrolled 112 HIV-infected adults with virological suppression on long-term ART and 84 HIV-uninfected controls in Botswana. We measured plasma levels of markers of endothelial injury [soluble vascular adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and E-selectin] and plasma levels of biomarkers of inflammation [interleukin 6 (IL-6)] and monocyte activation (sCD163)...
May 14, 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766570/melatonin-improves-endothelial-function-in-vitro-and-prolongs-pregnancy-in-women-with-early-onset-preeclampsia
#8
Sebastian R Hobson, Seshi Gurusinghe, Rebecca Lim, Nicole O Alers, Suzanne L Miller, John C Kingdom, Euan M Wallace
Preeclampsia remains a leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. There have been no material advances in the treatment of preeclampsia for nearly 50 years. Combining in vitro studies and a clinical trial, we aimed to determine if melatonin could be a useful adjuvant therapy. In a xanthine/xanthine oxidase (X/XO) placental explant model, melatonin reduced oxidative stress (8-isoprostane) and enhanced antioxidant markers (Nrf2 translocation, HO-1), but did not affect explant production of anti-angiogenic factors (sFlt, sEng, activin A)...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764588/-correlations-between-ape1-ref-1-icam-1-and-il-17a-levels-in-serum-and-radiation-pneumonitis-for-local-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients
#9
Leiming Guo, Gaofeng Ding, Wencai Xu, Hong Ge, Yue Jiang, Yufei Lu
BACKGROUND: The main manifestations of radiation pneumonitis are injury of alveolar epithelial and endothelial cells, abnormal expression of cytokines, abnormal proliferation of fibroblasts and synthesis of fibrous matrix. The occurrence of radiation pneumonitis is associated with multiplecytokine level abnormality. These cytokines can also be used as bio-markers to predict the occurrence of radiation pneumonitis. This study was to evaluate the correlation between the change of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (Ape1/Ref-1), intercellular adhesion molecules 1 (ICAM-1) and interleukin-17A (IL-17A) before and after radiotherapy and radiation pneumonitis for local advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with concurrent chemoradiotherapy...
May 20, 2018: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764475/a-potential-gliovascular-mechanism-for-microglial-activation-differential-phenotypic-switching-of-microglia-by-endothelium-versus-astrocytes
#10
Changhong Xing, Wenlu Li, Wenjun Deng, MingMing Ning, Eng H Lo
BACKGROUND: Activation of microglia can result in phenotypic and functional diversity. However, the pathways that trigger different states of microglial activation remain to be fully understood. Here, we hypothesized that after injury, astrocytes and endothelium may contribute to a gliovascular switch for microglial activation. METHODS: Astrocytes or cerebral endothelial cells were subjected to oxygen glucose deprivation, then conditioned media were transferred to microglia...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760447/the-role-of-platelets-in-acute-kidney-injury
#11
REVIEW
Marcel P B Jansen, Sandrine Florquin, Joris J T H Roelofs
Acute kidney injury (AKI), a major public health problem associated with high mortality and increased risk of progression towards end-stage renal disease, is characterized by the activation of intra-renal haemostatic and inflammatory processes. Platelets, which are present in high numbers in the circulation and can rapidly release a broad spectrum of bioactive mediators, are important acute modulators of inflammation and haemostasis, as they are the first cells to arrive at sites of acute injury, where they interact with endothelial cells and leukocytes...
May 14, 2018: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755348/the-fibrin-cleavage-product-b%C3%AE-15-42-channels-endothelial-and-tubular-regeneration-in-the-post-acute-course-during-murine-renal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#12
Dania Fischer, Christopher Seifen, Patrick Baer, Michaela Jung, Christina Mertens, Bertram Scheller, Kai Zacharowski, Rainer Hofmann, Thorsten J Maier, Anja Urbschat
Early and adequate restoration of endothelial and tubular renal function is a substantial step during regeneration after ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury, occurring, e.g., in kidney transplantation, renal surgery, and sepsis. While tubular epithelial cell injury has long been of central importance, recent perception includes the renal vascular endothelium. In this regard, the fibrin cleavage product fibrinopeptide Bβ15-42 mitigate IR injury by stabilizing interendothelial junctions through its affinity to VE-cadherin...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750307/exosomal-malat1-derived-from-oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein-treated-endothelial-cells-promotes-m2-macrophage-polarization
#13
Chaoyang Huang, Jie Han, Yutao Wu, Shan Li, Qiwen Wang, Wenjuan Lin, Jianhua Zhu
Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced injury and apoptosis of endothelial cells are important initial events in numerous cardiovascular diseases. Following activation by oxLDL, monocytes adhere to endothelial cells, migrate into the subendothelial spaces and then undergo differentiation into macrophages, which subsequently induces the formation of atherosclerotic lesions. However, the mechanisms underlying the activation of macrophage differentiation by oxLDL-treated endothelial cells remain unclear...
May 7, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745426/human-neural-stem-cells-dispersed-in-artificial-ecm-form-cerebral-organoids-when-grafted-in-vivo
#14
Reem Basuodan, Anna P Basu, Gavin J Clowry
Human neural stem cells (hNSC) derived from induced pluripotent stem cells can be differentiated into neurons that could be used for transplantation to repair brain injury. In this study we dispersed such hNSC in a three-dimensional artificial extracellular matrix (aECM) and compared their differentiation in vitro and following grafting into the sensorimotor cortex (SMC) of postnatal day (P)14 rat pups lesioned by localised injection of endothelin-1 at P12. After 10-43 days of in vitro differentiation, a few cells remained as PAX6+ neuroprogenitors but many more resembled post-mitotic neurons expressing doublecortin, β-tubulin and MAP2...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740320/amifostine-analog-drde-30-attenuates-bleomycin-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-mice
#15
Aastha Arora, Vikas Bhuria, Puja P Hazari, Uma Pathak, Sweta Mathur, Bal G Roy, Rajat Sandhir, Ravi Soni, Bilikere S Dwarakanath, Anant N Bhatt
Bleomycin (BLM) is an effective curative option in the management of several malignancies including pleural effusions; but pulmonary toxicity, comprising of pneumonitis and fibrosis, poses challenge in its use as a front-line chemotherapeutic. Although Amifostine has been found to protect lungs from the toxic effects of radiation and BLM, its application is limited due to associated toxicity and unfavorable route of administration. Therefore, there is a need for selective, potent, and safe anti-fibrotic drugs...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729718/development-and-evaluation-of-a-tissue-engineered-fibrin-based-canine-mitral-valve-three-dimensional-cell-culture-system
#16
M-M Liu, T C Flanagan, S Jockenhovel, A Black, C-C Lu, A T French, D J Argyle, B M Corcoran
Myxomatous mitral valve disease is the most common cardiac disease of the dog, but examination of the associated cellular and molecular events has relied on the use of cadaveric valve tissue, in which functional studies cannot be undertaken. The aim of this study was to develop a three-dimensional (3D) cell co-culture model as an experimental platform to examine disease pathogenesis. Mitral valve interstitial (VIC) and endothelial (VEC) cells were cultured from normal and diseased canine (VIC only) valves. VICs were embedded in a fibrin-based hydrogel matrix and one surface was lined with VECs...
April 2018: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724533/targeting-phosphodiesterase-5-by-vardenafil-improves-vascular-graft-function
#17
Gábor Veres, Martin Hagenhoff, Harald Schmidt, Tamás Radovits, Sivakkanan Loganathan, Yang Bai, Sevil Korkmaz-Icöz, Paige Brlecic, Alex Ali Sayour, Matthias Karck, Gábor Szabó
OBJECTIVES: Ischaemia reperfusion (IR) injury occurs during vascular graft harvesting and implantation during vascular/cardiac surgery. Elevated intracellular cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels contribute to an effective endothelial protection in different pathophysiological conditions. The hypothesis that the phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor vardenafil would protect vascular grafts against IR injury by upregulating the nitric oxide-cGMP pathway in the vessel wall of the bypass graft was investigated...
May 1, 2018: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722317/exendin-4-inhibits-high-altitude-cerebral-edema-by-protecting-against-neurobiological-dysfunction
#18
Zhong-Lei Sun, Xian-Feng Jiang, Yuan-Chi Cheng, Ying-Fu Liu, Kai Yang, Shuang-Long Zhu, Xian-Bin Kong, Yue Tu, Ke-Feng Bian, Zhen-Lin Liu, Xu-Yi Chen
The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of exendin-4 (Ex-4) have been reported previously. However, whether (Ex-4) has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects on high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE) remains poorly understood. In this study, two rat models of HACE were established by placing rats in a hypoxic environment with a simulated altitude of either 6000- or 7000-m above sea level (MASL) for 72 hours. An altitude of 7000 MASL with 72-hours of hypoxia was found to be the optimized experimental paradigm for establishing HACE models...
April 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719300/unfractionated-heparin-alleviates-human-lung-endothelial-barrier-dysfunction-induced-by-high-mobility-group-box-1-through-regulation-of-p38-gsk3%C3%AE-snail-signaling-pathway
#19
Zhenggang Luan, Bo Hu, Lei Wu, Shanzi Jin, Xiaochun Ma, Jun Zhang, Aiping Wang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) has been regarded as an important inflammatory mediator. Previous studies showed the involvement of HMGB1 protein in the dysfunction of endothelial barrier function during acute lung injury. However, the molecular mechanism remains unclear. METHODS: In this study, we used recombinant human HMGB1 (rhHMGB1) and HMGB1 plasmid to treat human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell (HPMECs). We examined endothelial permeability by measuring TEER value and HRP flux...
April 26, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713320/a-conformational-change-in-c-reactive-protein-enhances-leukocyte-recruitment-and-reactive-oxygen-species-generation-in-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#20
Jan R Thiele, Johannes Zeller, Jurij Kiefer, David Braig, Sheena Kreuzaler, Yvonne Lenz, Lawrence A Potempa, Florian Grahammer, Tobias B Huber, M Huber-Lang, Holger Bannasch, G Björn Stark, Karlheinz Peter, Steffen U Eisenhardt
Introduction: C-reactive protein circulates as a pentameric protein (pCRP). pCRP is a well-established diagnostic marker as plasma levels rise in response to tissue injury and inflammation. We recently described pro-inflammatory properties of CRP, which are mediated by conformational changes from pCRP to bioactive isoforms expressing pro-inflammatory neo-epitopes [pCRP* and monomeric C-reactive protein (mCRP)]. Here, we investigate the role of CRP isoforms in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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