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Vascular response to free radicals

Nihan Haberal Reyhan
Liver transplant is now an acceptable and effective treatment for specific nonhepatocellular malignancies. Worldwide, hilar cholangiocarcinoma accounts for 3% of all primary gastrointestinal malignancies and for 10% of primary hepatobiliary malignancies. For patients who have early-stage, unresectable cholangiocarcinoma, liver transplant preceded by neoadjuvant radiotherapy can result in tumor-free margins, accomplish a radical resection, and treat the underlying primary sclerosing cholangitis when present...
March 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Gary A Rosenberg
Vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) include a wide spectrum of chronic manifestations of vascular disease related to large vessel strokes and small vessel disease (SVD). Lacunar strokes and white matter (WM) injury are consequences of SVD. The main vascular risk factor for SVD is brain hypoperfusion from cerebral blood vessel narrowing due to chronic hypertension. The hypoperfusion leads to activation and degeneration of astrocytes with the resulting fibrosis of the extracellular matrix (ECM)...
March 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
Christian Pinna, Paolo Morazzoni, Angelo Sala
BACKGROUND: Vitis vinifera L. (grape seed extract) is a natural source of proanthocyanidins with antioxidant and free radical-scavenging activities. HYPOTHESIS: Grape seed extract supplementation may prevent vascular endothelium impairment associated with diabetes mellitus in rat pulmonary artery. STUDY DESIGN: We evaluated endothelial function of rat pulmonary artery ex-vivo at the intermediate stage (4 weeks) of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus...
February 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
P Marsanic, A Mellano, A Sottile, M De Simone
In recent years, many local ablation technologies based on thermal damage have been used in the treatment of locally advanced pancreatic carcinoma (LAPC) and borderline resectable pancreatic carcinoma (BLRPC). However, they are associated with major complications because of possible vascular and ductal damage. Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a nonthermal ablation technology that seems safe near vital vascular and ductal structures. IRE could be used as exclusive treatment of LAPC (en situ to IRE) after induction chemotherapy In BLRPC, surgery is not really radical in 6% of patients (microscopic residual) and local recurrences occur in 11-42% of apparent radical resections...
January 11, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Kala Brooke Dixon, Sean S Davies, Annet Kirabo
Hypertension is the major risk factor for morbidity and mortality from myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease. Despite its importance, the pathogenesis of essential hypertension is poorly understood. During the past several years, it has become evident that T cells contribute to hypertension. Activated T cells accumulate in the perivascular space and the kidney and release cytokines which promote vascular dysfunction and end organ damage. Although dendritic cells play a pivotal role in initiating adaptive immune responses, T cells have taken center stage in studies implicating the immune system in the genesis of hypertension...
December 16, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Masashi Tawa, Tomio Okamura
Coronary artery disease is associated with oxidative stress due to the excessive generation of free radicals in the vascular wall. This study investigated the impact of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH), a peroxyl radical generator, on the redox state of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) in isolated monkey coronary arteries. Helically cut strips of endothelium-intact monkey coronary arteries treated with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (10 μmol/L) were exposed for approximately 60 min to either no drug or t-BuOOH (100 μmol/L) in the presence and absence of α-tocopherol (300 μmol/L)...
October 2016: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
Miguel Diaz, Hans Degens, Luc Vanhees, Clare Austin, May Azzawi
Aging is a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Despite a significant reduction in the mortality and morbidity rates over the last decade, the socio-economic burden of cardiovascular disease is still substantial. Consequently, there is a considerable need for alternative strategies, such as nutraceutical supplementation, that delay the functional vascular decline present in the elderly. Compromised autophagy and oxidative stress (OS) are considered major causes of the age-related endothelial dysfunction...
September 22, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
X Li, W M Kong, C Han, Z Yan, H Zhao, W Y Zhang, J D Wang
OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical efficacy of different treatments based on radical surgery in stage Ⅰ b2 and Ⅱ a2 cervical cancer through prospective randomized controlled study. METHODS: A total of 133 patients with stage Ⅰ b2 and Ⅱ a2 cervical cancer treated at Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Capital Medical University during January 2009 to December 2012 were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive one of the following three treatments: preoperative intracavitary irradiation(PII)group, radical hysterectomy(RH)group, and neoadjuvant chemotherapy(NACT)group...
July 25, 2016: Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke za Zhi
G Ozsarlak-Sozer, G Sevin, H H Ozgur, G Yetik-Anacak, Z Kerry
OBJECTIVE: A reduction in GSH and an increase in free radicals are observed in inflammatory diseases, indicating oxidative stress. Taurine protects cells from the cytotoxic effects of inflammation. There have been limited studies to date evaluating the effect of taurine in oxidative stress-induced vascular dysfunction and its role in vascular inflammatory diseases. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of taurine on the regulation of vascular tonus and vascular inflammatory markers in rabbit aortae and carotid arteries in oxidative stress-induced by GSH depletion...
April 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Ekrem Darendelioglu, Gurkan Aykutoglu, Musa Tartik, Giyasettin Baydas
Chronic cardiovascular and neurodegenerative complications induced by hyperhomocysteinemia have been most relatively associated with endothelial cell injury. Elevated homocysteine (Hcy) generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) accompanying with oxidative stress which is hallmarks of the molecular mechanisms responsible for cardiovascular disease. Propolis is a natural product, obtained by honeybee from various oils, pollens, special resins and wax materials, conventionally used with the purpose of treatment by folks Propolis has various biological activities and powerful antioxidant capacity...
May 2016: Acta Histochemica
Tao Xu, Yan Luo, Shuting Hu, Ling Hou, Jianguo Niu, Guanghua Li
Vasoreactivity is the most basic and direct indicator to reflect the artery vascular functional state in the body. The majority of previous studies have shown that a high-fat diet (HD) is often associated with a variety of cardiovascular diseases. However, the type of exercise that improves vasoreactivity, as is induced by a HD, remains to be elucidated. In the present study, the effects of aerobic moderate-intensity intermittent exercise through swimming were investigated on thoracic aorta vascular ring contraction and free radical metabolism using Sprague-Dawley rat models of common diet (CD; 23 g protein, 49 g carbohydrate, 4 g fat, 5 g fiber, 7 g bone meal and 6 g vitamins per 100 g), HD (peanuts, milk chocolate and sweet biscuits, in a weight ratio of 3:2:2:1), CD with intermittent exercise (CIE) and HD with intermittent exercise (HIE)...
April 2016: Biomedical Reports
Andrea Boccatonda, Romina Tripaldi, Giovanni Davì, Francesca Santilli
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress is involved in different pathophysiological states, such as aging, inflammatory, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, by damaging several cellular and tissue components including proteins, DNA and lipids. On the other hand, free radicals generated during physical activity are important modulators of muscle contraction, antioxidant protection, and oxidative damage repair. Indeed, ROS, generated during physical activity, are likely main mediators of antioxidant molecules upregulation, as reflected by increased glutathione reductase levels after exercise training...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Giuseppe Maulucci, Bareket Daniel, Ofir Cohen, Yossef Avrahami, Shlomo Sasson
Nutrient sensing mechanisms of carbohydrates, amino acids and lipids operate distinct pathways that are essential for the adaptation to varying metabolic conditions. The role of nutrient-induced biosynthesis of hormones is paramount for attaining metabolic homeostasis in the organism. Nutrient overload attenuate key metabolic cellular functions and interfere with hormonal-regulated inter- and intra-organ communication, which may ultimately lead to metabolic derangements. Hyperglycemia and high levels of saturated free fatty acids induce excessive production of oxygen free radicals in tissues and cells...
June 2016: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Surajit Bhattacharya, R K Mishra
Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a non-malignant fibro-osseous bony lesion in which the involved bone/bones gradually get converted into expanding cystic and fibrous tissue. The underlying defect in FD is post-natal mutation of GNAS1 gene, which leads to the proliferation and activation of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells arresting the bone development in woven phase and ultimately converting them into fibro-osseous cystic tissue. Cherubism is a hereditary form of fibrous dysplasia in which the causative factor is transmission of autosomal dominant SH3BP2 gene mutation...
September 2015: Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery: Official Publication of the Association of Plastic Surgeons of India
Alessandro Pini, Giulia Boccalini, Maria Caterina Baccari, Matteo Becatti, Rachele Garella, Claudia Fiorillo, Laura Calosi, Daniele Bani, Silvia Nistri
Smoking is regarded as a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This study investigates whether serelaxin (RLX, recombinant human relaxin-2) endowed with promising therapeutic properties in CVD, can be credited of a protective effect against cigarette smoke (CS)-induced vascular damage and dysfunction. Guinea pigs exposed daily to CS for 8 weeks were treated with vehicle or RLX, delivered by osmotic pumps at daily doses of 1 or 10 μg. Controls were non-smoking animals. Other studies were performed on primary guinea pig aortic endothelial (GPAE) cells, challenged with CS extracts (CSE) in the absence and presence of 100 ng/ml (17 nmol/l) RLX...
May 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Ulrich Ronellenfitsch, Antonia Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, Jens Jakob, Bernd Kasper, Kai Nowak, Lothar R Pilz, Ulrike Attenberger, Timo Gaiser, Gerlinde Egerer, Stefan Fröhling, Hans-Günter Derigs, Matthias Schwarzbach, Peter Hohenberger
INTRODUCTION: For resectable soft tissue sarcoma (STS), radical surgery, usually combined with radiotherapy, is the mainstay of treatment and the only potentially curative modality. Since surgery is often complicated by large tumour size and extensive tumour vasculature, preoperative treatment strategies with the aim of devitalising the tumour are being explored. One option is treatment with antiangiogenic drugs. The multikinase inhibitor pazopanib, which possesses pronounced antiangiogenic effects, has shown activity in metastatic and unresectable STS, but has so far not been tested in the preoperative setting...
January 6, 2016: BMJ Open
Valter Lubrano, Silvana Balzan
In biological systems there is a balance between the production and neutralization of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This balance is maintained by the presence of natural antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase. The enhancement of lipid peroxidation or the decrease of antioxidant protection present in metabolic diseases or bad lifestyle can induce endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Clinical studies have shown that oxidative stress can increase ROS reducing the formation of antioxidant defences, especially in subjects with coronary artery disease (CAD)...
November 20, 2015: World Journal of Experimental Medicine
Erzsébet Rőth
The reperfusion of acute ischaemic myocardium is essential for myocardial salvage, so-called "gold standard" therapy, however it can result in serious damage to the myocardium. Functional alterations occur, including depressed contractile function and decreased coronary flow as well as altered vascular reactivity. Over several decades it has been demonstrated that oxygen radical formation is greatly increased in the post-ischaemic heart and serves as a critical central mechanism of ischaemic-reperfusion injury...
November 22, 2015: Orvosi Hetilap
Angela Esposito, Carmen Criscitiello, Giuseppe Curigliano
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Antigens recognized by T cells in tumors include differentiation antigens, overexpressed antigens, cancer-testis, and mutated tumor neoantigens. Ionizing radiation causes damage to multiple biomolecules by direct energy deposition or by generation of free radicals, leading to cell death when the damage cannot be repaired. Tumor cell death induced by radiation will generate specific molecular signals that are sensed by antigen-presenting cells and stimulate their maturation and ability to cross-present tumor-derived antigens to T cells...
November 2015: Current Opinion in Oncology
Elaine Uchima Uehara, Beatriz de Stefano Shida, Cyro Alves de Brito
INTRODUCTION: Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical produced during L-arginine metabolism. In addition to its physiological activities in vascular and neuronal functions, its role in the immune system as a microbicide and tumor-killing mediator has been well described, as well as its release by activated macrophages. Furthermore, NO is produced by a variety of immune and non-immune cells and is involved in the regulation of several immune functions, such as T-cell polarization and suppression...
November 2015: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
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