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Vascular response to free radicals

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545778/current-pharmacological-developments-in-2-3-4-5-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-o-%C3%AE-d-glucoside-tsg
#1
REVIEW
Jingjing Wu, Wenfeng Hu, Yu Gong, Peng Wang, Lijuan Tong, Xiangfan Chen, Zhuo Chen, Xiaole Xu, Wenjuan Yao, Wei Zhang, Chao Huang
2,3,4',5-tetrahydroxystilbene 2-O-β-D-glucoside (TSG), a resveratrol analog with glucoside, is purified from a traditional Chinese herbal medicine polygonum multiflorum. It has been extensively studied in last decade and known to exert strong anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-apoptotic, and free radical scavenging activities, and therefore has been listed as a potential agent for disease therapies. Recent studies extend well-beyond effects of TSG on the injury of neurons, cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells, and report important functions of TSG in a lot of pathophysiological conditions...
May 23, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525795/the-role-of-secretory-phospholipases-as-therapeutic-targets-for-the-treatment-of-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#2
REVIEW
Sriram Ravindran, Gino A Kurian
Myocardial reperfusion injury is a consequence of restoration of blood flow post ischemia. It is a complex process involving an acute inflammatory response activated by cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and mediated by free radicals, calcium overload leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. Secretory phospholipases (sPLA2) are a group of pro-inflammatory molecules associated with diseases such as atherosclerosis, which increase the risk of reperfusion injury. This acute response leads to breakdown of phospholipids such as cardiolipin, found in the mitochondrial inner membrane, leading to disruption of energy producing enzymes of the electron transport chain...
August 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493603/age-related-endothelial-dysfunction-in-human-skeletal-muscle-feed-arteries-the-role-of-free-radicals-derived-from-mitochondria-in-the-vasculature
#3
Song-Young Park, Oh Sung Kwon, Robert H I Andtbacka, John R Hyngstrom, Van Reese, Michael P Murphy, Russell S Richardson
AIM: This study sought to determine the role of free radicals derived from mitochondria in the vasculature in the recognized age-related endothelial dysfunction of human skeletal muscle feed arteries (SMFAs). METHODS: A total of 44 SMFAs were studied with and without acute exposure to the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) blockade. The relative abundance of proteins from the electron transport chain, phosphorylated (p-) to endothelial (e) NOS ratio, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), and the mitochondria-derived superoxide (O2(-) ) levels were assessed in SMFA...
May 11, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486888/endothelial-glycocalyx-basic-science-and-clinical-implications
#4
N L Pillinger, Pca Kam
The classic Starling principle proposed that microvascular fluid exchange was determined by a balance of hydrostatic and oncotic pressures relative to the vascular wall and this movement of water was regulated by gaps in the intercellular spaces. However, current literature on the endothelial glycocalyx (a jelly-like protective layer covering the luminal surface of the endothelium) has revised Starling's traditional concepts. This article aims to summarise the literature on the glycocalyx related to its basic science, clinical settings inciting injury, protective strategies and clinical perspectives...
May 2017: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450902/role-of-neural-barriers-in-the-pathogenesis-and-outcome-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-meningitis
#5
Ofer Prager, Alon Friedman, Yaffa Mizrachi Nebenzahl
Bacterial meningitis is an inflammatory disease of the meninges of the central nervous system (CNS). Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae), Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae are the major bacterial pathogens causing meningitis with S. pneumoniae being responsible for two thirds of meningitis cases in the developed world. To reach the CNS following nasopharyngeal colonization and bacteraemia, the bacteria traverse from the circulation across the blood brain barrier (BBB) and choroid plexus...
March 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438530/ferulic-acid-attenuates-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells-damage-caused-by-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-via-punctate-mitochondria-dependent-mitophagy
#6
Jun-Li Chen, Wen-Jun Duan, Si Luo, Shi Li, Xiao-Hui Ma, Bo-Nan Hou, Shu-Yi Cheng, Shu-Huan Fang, Qi Wang, Shui-Qing Huang, Yun-Bo Chen
Ferulic acid (FA) has an important effect on scavenging free radicals, which is related to the alleviation of various neurodegenerative diseases. However, there are few studies about its effects on vascular dementia. In this study, we demonstrated the effect of FA on oxidative damage of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) which underwent oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) for 2 hours. Our data showed that FA significantly reversed the oxidative stress state of OGD-treated BMECs and reduced mitochondrial dysfunction...
April 21, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391156/comparison-of-vascular-and-non-vascular-aquatic-plant-as-indicators-of-cadmium-toxicity
#7
Jozef Kováčik, Petr Babula, Josef Hedbavny
Antioxidative and microscopic responses in non-vascular (moss Taxiphyllum barbieri) and vascular (Ceratophyllum demersum) aquatic plants exposed to short-term (24 h) cadmium (Cd) excess (10 and 100 μM) were compared. Ceratophyllum considerably accumulated Cd but less pronounced symptoms of oxidative stress were detected by confocal microscopy (at the level of general ROS, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical/peroxynitrite and superoxide) that could be related to enhanced activities of antioxidative enzymes (SOD, CAT, APX)...
April 3, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379030/the-role-of-iron-in-the-pathogenesis-of-atherosclerosis
#8
P Kraml
Ferritin and increased iron stores first appeared on the list of cardiovascular risk factors more than 30 years ago and their causal role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis has been heavily discussed since the early 1990s. It seems that besides traditional factors such as hyperlipoproteinemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, physical inactivity, smoking and family history, high iron stores represent an additional parameter that could modify individual cardiovascular risk. The role of iron in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis was originally primarily associated with its ability to catalyze the formation of highly reactive free oxygen radicals and the oxidation of atherogenic lipoproteins...
April 5, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374020/current-state-and-future-of-photodynamic-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#9
Christina Mimikos, Gal Shafirstein, Hassan Arshad
Photodynamic therapy has shown promise in the treatment of early head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In photodynamic therapy (PDT), a light sensitive drug (photosensitizer) and visible light cause cancer cell death by the creation of singlet oxygen and free radicals, inciting an immune response, and vascular collapse. In this paper, we review several studies that demonstrate the effectiveness of PDT in the treatment of early stage SCC of the head and neck, with some showing a similar response rate to surgery...
June 2016: World journal of otorhinolaryngology—head and neck surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351484/hypocapnic-hypothesis-of-leigh-disease
#10
Ewa Pronicka
Leigh syndrome (LS) is a neurogenetic disorder of children caused by mutations in at least 75 genes which impair mitochondrial bioenergetics. The changes have typical localization in basal ganglia and brainstem, and typical histological picture of spongiform appearance, vascular proliferation and gliosis. ATP deprivation, free radicals and lactate accumulation are suspected to be the causes. Hypocapnic hypothesis proposed in the paper questions the energy deprivation as the mechanism of LS. We assume that the primary harmful factor is hypocapnia (decrease in pCO2) and respiratory alkalosis (increase in pH) due to hyperventilation, permanent or in response to stress...
April 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326662/prediction-of-recurrence-following-hepatectomy-in-patients-with-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-related-hepatocellular-carcinoma-who-achieved-a-sustained-virological-response
#11
Sho Okimoto, Tsuyoshi Kobayashi, Shintaro Kuroda, Kohei Ishiyama, Kentaro Ide, Masahiro Ohira, Hiroyuki Tahara, Seiichi Shimizu, Hiroshi Iwako, Michinori Hamaoka, Naruhiko Honmyo, Megumi Yamaguchi, Hideki Ohdan
AIM: The risk of hepatitis C virus infection-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is lower, with a better prognosis, in patients who achieve a sustained virological response (SVR) than in those who do not. We aimed to identify risk factors of post-hepatectomy HCC recurrence in patients who achieved a SVR. METHODS: This retrospective study included 349 HCC patients who underwent an initial radical hepatectomy at our institution between January 2005 and December 2014...
March 21, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302003/liver-transplant-for-nonhepatocellular-carcinoma-malignancy
#12
Nihan Haberal Reyhan
Liver transplant is now an acceptable and effective treatment for specific nonhepatocellular malignancies. Worldwide, hilar cholangiocarcinoma accounts for 3% of all primary gastrointestinal malignancies and for 10% of primary hepatobiliary malignancies. For patients who have early-stage, unresectable cholangiocarcinoma, liver transplant preceded by neoadjuvant radiotherapy can result in tumor-free margins, accomplish a radical resection, and treat the underlying primary sclerosing cholangitis when present...
March 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265034/extracellular-matrix-inflammation-in-vascular-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia
#13
REVIEW
Gary A Rosenberg
Vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) include a wide spectrum of chronic manifestations of vascular disease related to large vessel strokes and small vessel disease (SVD). Lacunar strokes and white matter (WM) injury are consequences of SVD. The main vascular risk factor for SVD is brain hypoperfusion from cerebral blood vessel narrowing due to chronic hypertension. The hypoperfusion leads to activation and degeneration of astrocytes with the resulting fibrosis of the extracellular matrix (ECM)...
March 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190469/proanthocyanidins-from-vitis-vinifera-inhibit-oxidative-stress-induced-vascular-impairment-in-pulmonary-arteries-from-diabetic-rats
#14
Christian Pinna, Paolo Morazzoni, Angelo Sala
BACKGROUND: Vitis vinifera L. (grape seed extract) is a natural source of proanthocyanidins with antioxidant and free radical-scavenging activities. HYPOTHESIS: Grape seed extract supplementation may prevent vascular endothelium impairment associated with diabetes mellitus in rat pulmonary artery. STUDY DESIGN: We evaluated endothelial function of rat pulmonary artery ex-vivo at the intermediate stage (4 weeks) of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus...
February 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078482/irreversible-electroporation-as-treatment-of-locally-advanced-and-as-margin-accentuation-in-borderline-resectable-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma
#15
P Marsanic, A Mellano, A Sottile, M De Simone
In recent years, many local ablation technologies based on thermal damage have been used in the treatment of locally advanced pancreatic carcinoma (LAPC) and borderline resectable pancreatic carcinoma (BLRPC). However, they are associated with major complications because of possible vascular and ductal damage. Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a nonthermal ablation technology that seems safe near vital vascular and ductal structures. IRE could be used as exclusive treatment of LAPC (en situ to IRE) after induction chemotherapy In BLRPC, surgery is not really radical in 6% of patients (microscopic residual) and local recurrences occur in 11-42% of apparent radical resections...
January 11, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986660/dendritic-cells-and-isolevuglandins-in-immunity-inflammation-and-hypertension
#16
Kala Brooke Dixon, Sean S Davies, Annet Kirabo
Hypertension is the major risk factor for morbidity and mortality from myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease. Despite its importance, the pathogenesis of essential hypertension is poorly understood. During the past several years, it has become evident that T cells contribute to hypertension. Activated T cells accumulate in the perivascular space and the kidney and release cytokines which promote vascular dysfunction and end organ damage. Although dendritic cells play a pivotal role in initiating adaptive immune responses, T cells have taken center stage in studies implicating the immune system in the genesis of hypertension...
December 16, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713826/soluble-guanylate-cyclase-redox-state-under-oxidative-stress-conditions-in-isolated-monkey-coronary-arteries
#17
Masashi Tawa, Tomio Okamura
Coronary artery disease is associated with oxidative stress due to the excessive generation of free radicals in the vascular wall. This study investigated the impact of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH), a peroxyl radical generator, on the redox state of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) in isolated monkey coronary arteries. Helically cut strips of endothelium-intact monkey coronary arteries treated with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (10 μmol/L) were exposed for approximately 60 min to either no drug or t-BuOOH (100 μmol/L) in the presence and absence of α-tocopherol (300 μmol/L)...
October 2016: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666185/the-effects-of-resveratrol-on-aging-vessels
#18
Miguel Diaz, Hans Degens, Luc Vanhees, Clare Austin, May Azzawi
Aging is a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Despite a significant reduction in the mortality and morbidity rates over the last decade, the socio-economic burden of cardiovascular disease is still substantial. Consequently, there is a considerable need for alternative strategies, such as nutraceutical supplementation, that delay the functional vascular decline present in the elderly. Compromised autophagy and oxidative stress (OS) are considered major causes of the age-related endothelial dysfunction...
September 22, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465872/-comparison-of-the-clinical-efficacy-of-different-treatments-based-on-radical-surgery-in-stage-%C3%A2-b2-and-%C3%A2-a2-cervical-cancer-a-prospective-randomized-control-study
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
X Li, W M Kong, C Han, Z Yan, H Zhao, W Y Zhang, J D Wang
OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical efficacy of different treatments based on radical surgery in stage Ⅰ b2 and Ⅱ a2 cervical cancer through prospective randomized controlled study. METHODS: A total of 133 patients with stage Ⅰ b2 and Ⅱ a2 cervical cancer treated at Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Capital Medical University during January 2009 to December 2012 were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive one of the following three treatments: preoperative intracavitary irradiation(PII)group, radical hysterectomy(RH)group, and neoadjuvant chemotherapy(NACT)group...
July 25, 2016: Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27097960/diverse-effects-of-taurine-on-vascular-response-and-inflammation-in-gsh-depletion-model-in-rabbits
#20
G Ozsarlak-Sozer, G Sevin, H H Ozgur, G Yetik-Anacak, Z Kerry
OBJECTIVE: A reduction in GSH and an increase in free radicals are observed in inflammatory diseases, indicating oxidative stress. Taurine protects cells from the cytotoxic effects of inflammation. There have been limited studies to date evaluating the effect of taurine in oxidative stress-induced vascular dysfunction and its role in vascular inflammatory diseases. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of taurine on the regulation of vascular tonus and vascular inflammatory markers in rabbit aortae and carotid arteries in oxidative stress-induced by GSH depletion...
April 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
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