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Body response to free radicals

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663881/recent-developments-in-drug-design-of-no-donor-hybrid-compounds
#1
Sarel Francois Malan, Rajan Sharma, Jacques Joubert
The free radical nitric oxide (NO) is considered one of the most versatile endogenous molecules and is a crucial signalling molecule in numerous biochemistry pathways of the human body. NO is directly related to pathological processes and plays an important role in many different and interrelated physiological processes. In some cases, a depletion of NO or an attenuation of its effector system could exist as in hypertension, angina and impotence; in others, an overproduction of NO may be a major cause of damage, as in circulatory shock, sepsis, neurodegenerative disorders and inflammatory responses...
April 16, 2018: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518765/from-treating-childhood-malnutrition-to-public-health-nutrition
#2
W Philip T James
BACKGROUND: This analysis sets out an overview of an IUNS presentation of a European clinician's assessment of the challenges of coping with immediate critical clinical problems and how to use metabolic and a mechanistic understanding of disease when developing nutritional policies. SUMMARY: Critically ill malnourished children prove very sensitive to both mineral and general nutritional overload, but after careful metabolic control they can cope with a high-quality, energy-rich diet provided their initial lactase deficiency and intestinal atrophy are taken into account...
March 8, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518145/hydrogen-sulfide-mediates-athero-protection-against-oxidative-stress-via-s-sulfhydration
#3
Sau Ha Cheung, James Yun Wong Lau
S-sulfhydration is a signalling pathway of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is suggested as an anti-atherogenic molecule that may protect against atherosclerosis. The identification of S-sulfhydrated proteins by proteomic approach could be a major step towards understanding the mechanisms of H2S in response to atherosclerosis. The present study studied targeted S-sulfhydrated proteins using the modified biotin switch method followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time of flight tandem mass spectrometry identification...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450805/ph-responsive-cap-co-poly-methacrylic-acid-based-hydrogel-as-an-efficient-platform-for-controlled-gastrointestinal-delivery-fabrication-characterization-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-toxicity-evaluation
#4
Syed Ahmed Shah, Muhammad Sohail, Muhammad Usman Minhas, Nisar-Ur-Rehman, Shahzeb Khan, Zahid Hussain, Mudassir, Arshad Mahmood, Mubeen Kousar, Asif Mahmood
Cellulose acetate phthalate-based pH-responsive hydrogel was synthesized for fabrication of polymeric matrix tablets for gastro-protective delivery of loxoprofen sodium. Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) was cross-linked with methacrylic acid (MAA) using free radical polymerization technique. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra confirmed the formation of cross-linked structure of CAP-co-poly(methacrylic acid). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) confirmed the thermal stability of polymeric networks, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrum (EDS) images unveiled that the prepared formulations were porous in nature and thus the developed formulations had shown better diffusibility...
February 15, 2018: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390421/comprehensive-evaluation-of-clinical-efficacy-and-safety-of-celecoxib-combined-with-chemotherapy-in-management-of-gastric-cancer
#5
Qinghong Guo, Xiaojun Liu, Linzhi Lu, Hao Yuan, Yuping Wang, Zhaofeng Chen, Rui Ji, Yongning Zhou
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of celecoxib combined with chemotherapy in the treatment of gastric cancer. METHODS: In total, 240 gastric cancer patients undergoing radical gastrectomy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy were randomly assigned into 2 groups. In the experimental group (n = 120), patients were administered with celecoxib-based chemotherapy, and chemotherapy alone was performed in the control group. Disease-free survival (DFS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were considered as the primary efficacy parameters, and objective response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS), quality of life (QOL), and safety as the secondary efficacy parameters...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374378/protective-effect-of-melatonin-on-cadmium-induced-changes-in-some-maturation-and-reproductive-parameters-of-female-prussian-carp-carassius-gibelio-b
#6
Ewa Drąg-Kozak, Magdalena Socha, Grzegorz Gosiewski, Ewa Łuszczek-Trojnar, Jarosław Chyb, Włodzimierz Popek
The aim of this study was to determine whether melatonin (Mel), which is a known antioxidant and free radical scavenger, could perform the role of a preventive agent against the toxic effects of cadmium (Cd2+) on mortality, fish growth, gonadosomatic index (GSI), luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion, the response to hormonal stimulation of spawning, and also tissue accumulation of Cd in Prussian carp females. These females received melatonin implants and were exposed to 0.4 or 4.0 mg/L of Cd (as CdCl2·2.5H2O) over either a 5- or 3-month period, followed by further 2 months of purification in clear water...
January 26, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960911/biogenic-synthesis-of-copper-oxide-nanoparticles-using-olea-europaea-leaf-extract-and-evaluation-of-their-toxicity-activities-an-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-study
#7
Ghassan M Sulaiman, Amer T Tawfeeq, Marwa D Jaaffer
Copper oxide nanoparticles (CUNPs) were synthesized using Olea europaea leaf extract as reducing and protecting agent. The formation of nanoparticles was observed through a color change from yellowish to brownish black. The CUNPs were confirmed with UV-Vis spectrophotometer, which revealed a peak absorbance at 289 nm. The synthesized CUNPs were characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM, and TEM. The XRD pattern revealed that CUNPs were crystalline in nature with a diameter around 20 nm. FTIR spectral analysis showed that CUNPs were capped with plant constituents...
September 28, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839380/optimization-of-polysaccharide-ultrasonic-extraction-conditions-using-purple-sweet-potato-tubers-based-on-free-radical-scavenging-and-glycosylation-inhibitory-bioactivities
#8
Haihua Guo, Fansheng Kong, Chunyan Yan
BACKGROUND: The purple sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas, belongs to the family Convolvulaceae. It is one of the most widely consumed tubers in Asia and is found in many dishes. Many people with diabetes eat purple sweet potato tubers to help reduce blood glucose in China. OBJECTIVE: To predict the ultrasonic conditions for getting the optimal in vitro antioxidant and antiglycated activity of ultrasonic extracted polysaccharides from purple sweet potato (I. batatas) tubers, the artificial neural network (ANN) regression models was used in this study...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836018/chronic-stress-energy-transduction-and-free-radical-production-in-a-reptile
#9
Yann Voituron, Rémy Josserand, Jean-François Le Galliard, Claudy Haussy, Damien Roussel, Caroline Romestaing, Sandrine Meylan
Stress hormones, such as corticosterone, play a crucial role in orchestrating physiological reaction patterns shaping adapted responses to stressful environments. Concepts aiming at predicting individual and population responses to environmental stress typically consider that stress hormones and their effects on metabolic rate provide appropriate proxies for the energy budget. However, uncoupling between the biochemical processes of respiration, ATP production, and free-radical production in mitochondria may play a fundamental role in the stress response and associated life histories...
October 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808393/evaluation-of-the-antidiabetic-properties-of-s-1708-mulberry-variety
#10
Brijesh Ranjan, Randhir Kumar, Neeraj Verma, Swati Mittal, Pranab Lal Pakrasi, R Venkatesh Kumar
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a metabolic disease prevalent worldwide in all age group of people. The source of diabetes is due to an oxidation process that can produce free radicals. An increase in oxidative free radicals in the body is reported to be one of the several causes of diabetes. The best remedy to combat oxidative stress is the use of antioxidants, which inhibit and scavenge free radicals. AIM: This study has been undertaken to evaluate the antioxidant activity and antidiabetic effect of mulberry leaf extract in diabetic mice...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791960/role-of-copper-in-the-process-of-spermatogenesis
#11
REVIEW
Mateusz Ogórek, Łukasz Gąsior, Olga Pierzchała, Regina Daszkiewicz, Małgorzata Lenartowicz
Copper (Cu) is an essential trace element required for the normal development of living organisms. Due to its redox potential, copper is a cofactor in many enzymes responsible for important processes in cells. Copper deficiency has a significant influence on the reduction or the total eradication of copper-dependent enzymes in the body, thereby inhibiting cell life processes. On the other hand, copper is a very reactive element and in its free state, it can trigger the production of large amounts of free radicals, which will consequently lead to the damage of proteins and DNA...
August 9, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780474/protective-effect-of-p-coumaric-acid-against-1-2-dimethylhydrazine-induced-colonic-preneoplastic-lesions-in-experimental-rats
#12
Sharada H Sharma, David Raj Chellappan, Prabu Chinnaswamy, Sangeetha Nagarajan
Oxidative stress and gut microbial enzymes are intricately linked to the onset of colon carcinogenesis. Phytochemicals that modulate these two factors hold promise for the development of such agents as anticancer drugs. The present study evaluates the chemopreventive potential of p-coumaric acid (p-CA) - a phenolic acid in rats challenged with the colon specific procarcinogen DMH (1,2 di-methyl hydrazine). Rats were randomized into six groups (n=7/group). Group 1 (control); Group 2 (p-CA 200mg/kg b.w.); Group 3 (DMH 40mg/kg b...
October 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761653/individuals-with-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes-have-additional-immune-dysfunction-compared-with-obese-individuals-who-are-metabolically-healthy
#13
Caroline Richard, Michael Wadowski, Susan Goruk, Lisa Cameron, Arya M Sharma, Catherine J Field
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the current study was to compare the responses to different ex vivo immunogenic challenges between immune cells derived from metabolically healthy subjects with obesity and subjects with obesity and type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We recruited 10 metabolically healthy subjects with obesity (Edmonton Obesity Staging System (EOSS) stage 0) and 9 subjects with obesity and type 2 diabetes (EOSS stage 2) aged between 21 years and 70 years and matched for body mass index...
2017: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736916/hyaluronate-effect-on-bacterial-biofilm-in-ent-district-infections-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Alberto Vito Marcuzzo, Margherita Tofanelli, Francesca Boscolo Nata, Annalisa Gatto, Giancarlo Tirelli
Bacterial resistance is a growing phenomenon which led the scientific community to search for new therapeutic targets, such as biofilm. A bacterial biofilm is a surface-associated agglomerate of microorganisms embedded in a self-produced extracellular polymeric matrix made of polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and proteins. Scientific literature offers several reports on a biofilm's role in infections regarding various body districts. The presence of a bacterial biofilm is responsible for poor efficacy of antibiotic therapies along with bacterial infections in ear, nose, and throat (ENT) districts such as the oral cavity, ear, nasal cavities, and nasal sinuses...
September 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723064/doxorubicin-intracellular-remote-release-from-biocompatible-oligo-ethylene-glycol-methyl-ether-methacrylate-based-magnetic-nanogels-triggered-by-magnetic-hyperthermia
#15
Esther Cazares-Cortes, Ana Espinosa, Jean-Michel Guigner, Aude Michel, Nébéwia Griffete, Claire Wilhelm, Christine Ménager
Hybrid nanogels, composed of thermoresponsive polymers and superparamagnetic nanoparticles, are attractive nanocarriers for biomedical applications, being able-as a polymer matrix-to uptake and release high quantities of chemotherapeutic agents and-as magnetic nanoparticles-to be heated when exposed to an alternative magnetic field (AMF), better known as magnetic hyperthermia. Herein, biocompatible, pH-responsive, magnetoresponsive, and thermoresponsive nanogels, based on oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate monomers and a methacrylic acid comonomer were prepared by conventional precipitation radical copolymerization in water, post-assembled by complexation with iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) of maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), and loaded with an anticancer drug (doxorubicin, DOX), for remotely controlled drug release by a "hot spot", as an athermal magnetic hyperthermia strategy against cancer...
August 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670276/potential-protective-effects-of-ursolic-acid-against-gamma-irradiation-induced-damage-are-mediated-through-the-modulation-of-diverse-inflammatory-mediators
#16
Hong Wang, Meng-Kwoon Sim, Weng Keong Loke, Arunachalam Chinnathambi, Sulaiman Ali Alharbi, Feng Ru Tang, Gautam Sethi
This study was aimed to evaluate the possible protective effects of ursolic acid (UA) against gamma radiation induced damage both in vitro as well as in vivo. It was observed that the exposure to gamma radiation dose- and time-dependently caused a significant decrease in the cell viability, while the treatment of UA attenuated this cytotoxicity. The production of free radicals including reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NO increased significantly post-irradiation and further induced lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage in cells...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648040/-effects-of-seawater-immersion-on-the-inflammatory-response-and-oxygen-free-radical-injury-of-rats-with-superficial-partial-thickness-scald-at-early-stage
#17
Y X Yang, J H Wang, L Liu, Q Zou, Y Zhang, Z Bai
Objective: To study the effects of seawater immersion on the inflammatory response and oxygen free radical injury of rats with superficial-thickness scald at early stage. Methods: Seventy Wistar rats were divided into healthy control group (HC, n=7), pure scald group (PS, n=21), scald+ fresh water immersion group (SF, n=21), and scald+ seawater immersion group (SS, n=21) according to the random number table. Rats in group HC did not receive any treatment, while 5% total body surface area superficial partial-thickness scald was made on the back of rats in the latter three groups...
June 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566638/prevention-of-uv-induced-melanin-production-by-accumulation-of-redox-nanoparticles-in-the-epidermal-layer-via-iontophoresis
#18
Kanako Shiota, Susumu Hama, Toru Yoshitomi, Yukio Nagasaki, Kentaro Kogure
UV rays induce melanin production in the skin, which, from a cosmetic point of view, is problematic. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated in the skin upon UV irradiation are thought to be responsible for melanin production. Thus, effective antioxidants are recognized as useful tools for prevention of UV-induced melanin production. Redox nanoparticles (RNPs) containing nitroxide radicals as free radical scavengers were previously developed, and shown to be effective ROS scavengers in the body. RNPs are therefore expected to be useful for effective protection against UV-induced melanin production...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539682/the-human-body-as-an-energetic-hybrid-new-perspectives-for-chronic-disease-treatment
#19
REVIEW
Michał Gajewski, Przemysław Rzodkiewicz, Sławomir Maśliński
Inflammatory response is accompanied by changes in cellular energy metabolism. Proinflammatory mediators like plasma C-reactive protein, IL-6, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, TNF-α or monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 released in the site of inflammation activates immune cells and increase energy consumption. Increased demand for energy creates local hypoxia and lead in consequence to mitochondrial dysfunction. Metabolism of cells is switched to anaerobic glycolysis. Mitochondria continuously generate free radicals that what result in imbalance that causes oxidative stress, which results in oxidative damage...
2017: Reumatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525944/oxidative-stress-and-some-biochemical-alterations-due-to-scorpion-leiurus-quinquestriatus-crude-venom-in-rats
#20
Muhammad M A Salman, Seddik Hammad
Scorpion envenomation is a common medical problem in many countries; it is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The venom of Leiurus quinquestriatus (LQ) is responsible for a number of deaths in children and adults. It has been stated that specific pathophysiological conditions such as generation of oxygen free radicals may trigger the onset of multiple organ dysfunction; therefore, the present study aimed to assess the oxidative stress mediated by LQ crude venom and its effect on the biochemical parameters in rats...
July 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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