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Body response to free radicals

Suyeun Yu, Eunil Lee, Bodokhsuren Tsogbadrakh, Gwang-Ic Son, Mari Kim
Aging is a universal, irreversible process accompanied by physiological declines that culminate in death. Rapid progress in gerontology research has revealed that aging can be slowed through mild stress-induced hormesis. We previously reported that hyperbaric normoxia (HN, 2 atm absolute pressure with 10% O2) induces a cytoprotective response in vitro by regulating fibronectin. In the present study, we investigated the hormetic effects of prenatal HN exposure on Drosophila healthspan related to molecular defense mechanisms...
October 24, 2016: Aging
Wei Hu, Zhiqiang Ma, Shouyin Di, Shuai Jiang, Yue Li, Chongxi Fan, Yang Yang, Dongjin Wang
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an important intracellular membranous organelle. Previous studies have demonstrated that the ER is responsible for protein folding and trafficking, lipid synthesis, and the maintenance of calcium homeostasis. Interestingly, the morphology and structure of the ER were recently found to be important. Melatonin is a hormone that anticipates the daily onset of darkness in mammals, and it is well known that melatonin acts as an antioxidant by scavenging free radicals and increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the body...
October 19, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Kimberley S Mak, Angela B Smith, Alec Eidelman, Rebecca Clayman, Andrzej Niemierko, Jed-Sian Cheng, Jonathan Matthews, Michael R Drumm, Matthew E Nielsen, Adam S Feldman, Richard J Lee, Anthony L Zietman, Ronald C Chen, William U Shipley, Matthew I Milowsky, Jason A Efstathiou
PURPOSE: Health-related quality of life (QOL) has not been well-studied in survivors of muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). The present study compared long-term QOL in MIBC patients treated with radical cystectomy (RC) versus bladder-sparing trimodality therapy (TMT). METHODS AND MATERIALS: This cross-sectional bi-institutional study identified 226 patients with nonmetastatic cT2-cT4 MIBC, diagnosed in 1990 to 2011, who were eligible for RC and were disease free for ≥2 years...
August 24, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Qiu Jue Wu, Yu Qin Wang, Yan Xia Qi
BACKGROUND: A 2 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the protective effect of procyanidin (PCA) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute gut injury by the regulations of oxidative state for a 21-days feeding trial. METHODS: A total of 384 1-days-old broiler chicks were assigned to 8 treatments with 8 replicate of 6 broiler chickens per pen. Broiler chickens fed diets based on 4 levels of dietary PCA (0, 0.05, 0.075 and 0.1 % of the requirements)...
2016: SpringerPlus
Georgina A Rivera-Ingraham, Aude Nommick, Eva Blondeau-Bidet, Peter Ladurner, Jehan-Hervé Lignot
In the context of global change, there is an urgent need for researchers in conservation physiology to understand the physiological mechanisms leading to the acquisition of stress acclimation phenotypes. Intertidal organisms continuously cope with drastic changes in their environmental conditions, making them outstanding models for the study of physiological acclimation. As the implementation of such processes usually comes at a high bioenergetic cost, a mitochondrial/oxidative stress approach emerges as the most relevant approach when seeking to analyze whole-animal responses...
September 22, 2016: Redox Biology
Md Fuad Hossain, R R Ratnayake, Kirisnashamy Meerajini, K L Wasantha Kumara
Phytonutrients and pigments present in cyanobacteria act as antioxidants, which facilitate the formation of body's defense mechanism against free radical damage to cells. The aim of this investigation was to study the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), antioxidant activity, phycobiliproteins (PBPs), and active compounds in four cyanobacterial species, that is, Oscillatoria sp., Lyngbya sp., Microcystis sp., and Spirulina sp. isolated from fresh water bodies of Sri Lanka. In this study, Lyngbya sp...
September 2016: Food Science & Nutrition
A P Gureev, M L Shmatkova, V Yu Bashmakov, A A Starkov, V N Popov
Fenofibrate is a synthetic ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors subtype alpha (PPARa); it is used for the treatment of a wide range of metabolic diseases such as hypertriglyceridemia, dyslipidemia, diabetes and various neurodegenerative diseases. We have studied the effect of fenofibrate on b-oxidation of fatty acids and related free-radical processes. The most effective concentration of fenofibrate (0.3%) added to the chow caused a significant decrease of the body weight of mice. The data obtained by quantitative PCR demonstrated increased hepatic gene expression responsible for b-oxidation of fatty acids in peroxisomes and mitochondria...
May 2016: Biomedit︠s︡inskai︠a︡ Khimii︠a︡
Ergul Belge Kurutas
Remarkable interest has risen in the idea that oxidative/nitrosative stress is mediated in the etiology of numerous human diseases. Oxidative/Nitrosative stress is the result of an disequilibrium in oxidant/antioxidant which reveals from continuous increase of Reactive Oxygen and Reactive Nitrogen Species production. The aim of this review is to emphasize with current information the importance of antioxidants which play the role in cellular responce against oxidative/nitrosative stress, which would be helpful in enhancing the knowledge of any biochemist, pathophysiologist, or medical personnel regarding this important issue...
2016: Nutrition Journal
I Marczell, A Hrabak, G Nyiro, A Patocs, J Stark, E Dinya, Z Kukor, S Toth, Z S Tulassay, K Racz, G Bekesi
Neutrophil granulocytes form the biggest free radical producing system of the human body. The importance of this system in atherosclerotic plaque formation and other free radical mediated disorders is confirmed by both in vivo and in vitro studies. Estrogen's effect on free radical production involves multiple estrogen receptors and occurs both on transcriptional and on protein phosphorylational level. Estrogen decreases the superoxide production of neutrophil granulocytes in such a short time frame it is unlikely to be mediated by transcription regulation...
July 20, 2016: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Rita Perfeito, Márcio Ribeiro, A Cristina Rego
Alpha-synuclein (α-syn) is a major component of Lewy bodies found in sporadic and inherited forms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Mutations in the gene encoding α-syn and duplications and triplications of wild-type (WT) α-syn have been associated with PD. Several mechanisms have been implicated in the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in PD, including oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Here we defined the occurrence of oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y cells overexpressing WT α-syn in a doxycycline (Dox) regulated manner, before and after exposure to iron (500 µM), and determined the changes in proteins involved in the intracellular antioxidant defense system...
July 16, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
R Ali, A Shahid, N Ali, S K Hasan, F Majed, S Sultana
Naringenin is a naturally occurring flavanones and has been found to exhibit free radical scavenging, enzyme inhibition, antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. Present study was designed to evaluate the protective role of naringenin against benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)-induced oxidative stress and pulmonary toxicity. Rats were treated with naringenin at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight (b. wt.), by oral gavage. B[a]P in a single dose of 50 mg/kg b. wt. was given intraperitoneally. Total protein, total cell counts, lactate dehydrogenase, lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, antioxidant enzymes activities, lung histology and expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), and cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) was assessed to evaluate protective effects of naringenin...
May 20, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Elizabeth A Beaven, Kay L Colthorpe, Jereme G Spiers, Hsiao-Jou Cortina Chen, Nickolas A Lavidis, Julie Albrecht
BACKGROUND: This study examined the efficacy of the combination antioxidant, Formula 42 (F42), on cellular stress indicators in animal and human models of stress-induced oxidative stress. METHODS: A sub-chronic psychological stress model in rodents was used to induce stress and oxidative stress indicators over a 10-day period during which animals received oral doses of F42 or water. Following treatment, body weight, plasma stress hormone corticosterone, and oxidative capacity were evaluated...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Hao-Xin Zhou, Bing Han, Li-Min Hou, Ting-Ting An, Guang Jia, Zhuo-Xin Cheng, Yong Ma, Yi-Nan Zhou, Rui Kong, Shuang-Jia Wang, Yong-Wei Wang, Xue-Jun Sun, Shang-Ha Pan, Bei Sun
Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease mediated by damage to acinar cells and pancreatic inflammation. In patients with AP, subsequent systemic inflammatory responses and multiple organs dysfunction commonly occur. Interactions between cytokines and oxidative stress greatly contribute to the amplification of uncontrolled inflammatory responses. Molecular hydrogen (H2) is a potent free radical scavenger that not only ameliorates oxidative stress but also lowers cytokine levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of H2 gas on AP both in vitro and in vivo...
2016: PloS One
H Younus, S Anwar
Non-enzymatic glycosylation (glycation) plays an important role in the development of physiological and pathophysiological processes such as aging, diabetes, atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative diseases and chronic renal failure. Preventing glycation can minimize diabetic complications. Glycation can be prevented by the natural defence system in the body, synthetic inhibitors and natural inhibitors. Synthetic inhibitors may prevent glycation through several possible mechanisms. They might inhibit the glycation by interfering with the attachment of sugars with proteins, by inhibiting the late stage of glycation or by preventing Amadori product formation...
April 2016: International Journal of Health Sciences
Tao Xu, Yan Luo, Shuting Hu, Ling Hou, Jianguo Niu, Guanghua Li
Vasoreactivity is the most basic and direct indicator to reflect the artery vascular functional state in the body. The majority of previous studies have shown that a high-fat diet (HD) is often associated with a variety of cardiovascular diseases. However, the type of exercise that improves vasoreactivity, as is induced by a HD, remains to be elucidated. In the present study, the effects of aerobic moderate-intensity intermittent exercise through swimming were investigated on thoracic aorta vascular ring contraction and free radical metabolism using Sprague-Dawley rat models of common diet (CD; 23 g protein, 49 g carbohydrate, 4 g fat, 5 g fiber, 7 g bone meal and 6 g vitamins per 100 g), HD (peanuts, milk chocolate and sweet biscuits, in a weight ratio of 3:2:2:1), CD with intermittent exercise (CIE) and HD with intermittent exercise (HIE)...
April 2016: Biomedical Reports
Xiao-Dong Zhang, Jinxuan Zhang, Junying Wang, Jiang Yang, Jie Chen, Xiu Shen, Jiao Deng, Dehui Deng, Wei Long, Yuan-Ming Sun, Changlong Liu, Meixian Li
Ionizing radiation (gamma and X-ray) is widely used in industry and medicine, but it can also pose a significant hazardous effect on health and induce cancer, physical deformity, and even death, due to DNA damage and invasion of free radicals. There is therefore an urgent unmet demand in designing highly efficient radioprotectants with synergetic integration of effective renal clearance and low toxicity. In this study, we designed ultrasmall (sub-5 nm) highly catalytically active and cysteine-protected MoS2 dots as radioprotectants and investigated their application in protection against ionizing radiation...
April 26, 2016: ACS Nano
Ahmad H Alghadir, Sami A Gabr, Einas S Al-Eisa, Muaz H Alghadir
BACKGROUND: Life style and physical activity play a pivotal role in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. The mechanism for better bone metabolism and improvement of physical disorders is not clear yet. Trace minerals such as Ca, Mn, Cu, and Zn are essential precursors for most vital biological process, especially those of bone health. OBJECTIVE: The main target of this study was evaluating the effective role of supervised aerobic exercise for 1 hour/day, 3 days/week for 12 weeks in the functions of trace elements in bone health through measuring bone mineral density (BMD), osteoporosis (T-score), bone markers, and trace element concentrations in healthy subjects aged 30-60 years with age average of 41...
2016: Clinical Interventions in Aging
Tejinder Kataria, Deepak Gupta, Shikha Goyal, Shyam S Bisht, Trinanjan Basu, Ashu Abhishek, Kushal Narang, Susovan Banerjee, Shahida Nasreen, Sasikumar Sambasivam, Aruj Dhyani
OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of adaptive radiotherapy (RT) among patients with head and neck cancer. METHODS: 36 patients eligible for radical RT underwent RT planning scans and were planned for 54-Gy dose to both high-risk and low-risk target volumes in Phase I. All patients underwent a second (adaptive) scan during the fifth week of RT. Phase II plans for 16 Gy to high-risk planning target volume were developed on these mid-treatment scans...
June 2016: British Journal of Radiology
Barbara Nieradko-Iwanicka, Andrzej Borzęcki
BACKGROUND: Fenpropathrin (Fen) is a pyrethroid (Pyr) insecticide. Pyrs are used in veterinary medicine, in agriculture and for domestic purposes. As their use increases, new questions about their side effects and mode of action in non-target organisms arise. The objective of this work was to characterize dose-response relationship for in vivo motor function and memory in mice exposed to Fen for 28 days and to assess its influence on activity of antioxidant enzymes in mice brains. METHODS: The experiment was performed using 64 female mice...
April 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Seong-Soo Roh, O Jun Kwon, Jae Heon Yang, You Suk Kim, Sung Hyun Lee, Jong-Sik Jin, Yong-Deok Jeon, Takako Yokozawa, Hyun Ju Kim
BACKGROUND: Water extract from the root of Allium hookeri (AH) shows anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and free radical scavenging effects. In this study, the ameliorating effects of AH on oxidative stress-induced inflammatory response and β-cell damage in the pancreas of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic rats were investigated. METHODS: AH (100 mg/kg body weight/day) was orally administered every day for 2 weeks to STZ-induced diabetic rats. After the final administration of AH, biochemical parameters including glucose, insulin, reactive oxygen species levels, and protein expressions related to antioxidant defense system in the pancreas of STZ-induced diabetic rats...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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