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Body response to free radicals

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238121/leukocyte-inos-is-required-for-inflammation-and-pathological-remodeling-in-ischemic-heart-failure
#1
Justin R Kingery, Tariq Hamid, Robert K Lewis, Mohamed Ameen Ismahil, Shyam S Bansal, Gregg Rokosh, Tim M Townes, Suzanne T Ildstad, Steven P Jones, Sumanth D Prabhu
In the failing heart, iNOS is expressed by both macrophages and cardiomyocytes. We hypothesized that inflammatory cell-localized iNOS exacerbates left ventricular (LV) remodeling. Wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice underwent total body irradiation and reconstitution with bone marrow from iNOS(-/-) mice (iNOS(-/-)c) or WT mice (WTc). Chimeric mice underwent coronary ligation to induce large infarction and ischemic heart failure (HF), or sham surgery. After 28 days, as compared with WTc sham mice, WTc HF mice exhibited significant (p < 0...
March 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236190/protective-role-of-tetrahydrocurcumin-an-active-polyphenolic-curcuminoid-on-cadmium-inducedoxidative-damage-in-rats
#2
Ramalingam Ramakrishnan, Perumal Elangovan, Leelavinothan Pari
In the present work, protective effect of tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) against oxidative damages in cadmium (Cd)-induced toxicity in rats was evaluated. Cd is an important environmental and industrial toxicant that affects almost all the organs, especially liver. Liver is the major organ responsible for the metabolism and the primary target for many toxic chemicals and drugs. Effect of THC, the curcumin-derived polyphenolic compound on Cd-induced oxidative stress and hepatic damage was evaluated using male albino Wistar rats...
February 24, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190469/proanthocyanidins-from-vitis-vinifera-inhibit-oxidative-stress-induced-vascular-impairment-in-pulmonary-arteries-from-diabetic-rats
#3
Christian Pinna, Paolo Morazzoni, Angelo Sala
BACKGROUND: Vitis vinifera L. (grape seed extract) is a natural source of proanthocyanidins with antioxidant and free radical-scavenging activities. HYPOTHESIS: Grape seed extract supplementation may prevent vascular endothelium impairment associated with diabetes mellitus in rat pulmonary artery. STUDY DESIGN: We evaluated endothelial function of rat pulmonary artery ex-vivo at the intermediate stage (4 weeks) of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus...
February 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149008/transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1-smad3-signaling-and-redox-status-in-experimentally-induced-nephrotoxicity-impact-of-carnosine
#4
Walaa Arafa Keshk, Mohamed Alaa Katary
Exposure to various organic compounds including drugs and environmental toxins causes cellular damage through generation of free radicals. Carnosine a dipeptide was used in this study to evaluate its effect against CCl4-induced nephrotoxicity. Sixty male albino rats were involved in this study and were equally divided into four groups. CCl4 (3 ml/kg body weight; biweekly for 4 weeks) was given to group II and III. Carnosine (10 mg/kg body weight; once daily for 4 weeks) was given to group III and VI. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) level by immunoassay and Smad3 mRNA level by real-time PCR were estimated in addition to cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) activity, renal functions, redox status assessment and histopathological examination of the kidney...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111973/efficacy-of-crocin-and-safranal-as-protective-agents-against-genotoxic-stress-induced-by-gamma-radiation-urethane-and-procarbazine-in-mice
#5
A Koul, S K Abraham
Crocin (CRO) and safranal (SAF) are bioactive constituents of saffron (dried stigma of Crocus sativus flower), an expensive spice with medicinal properties. Aqueous extract of saffron is known for its antigenotoxic effect against environmental genotoxins/carcinogens. However, there is need to identify saffron constituents responsible for this antigenotoxic effect. The aim of our investigation was to ascertain the role of CRO and SAF as inhibitors of in vivo genotoxic stress. For this purpose, Swiss albino mice were pretreated with CRO (50-mg/kg body weight (bw))/SAF (0...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002829/reduced-serum-levels-of-zinc-and-superoxide-dismutase-in-obese-individuals
#6
Khadijeh Torkanlou, Bahram Bibak, Alireza Abbaspour, Hamid Abdi, Masoud Saleh Moghaddam, Maryam Tayefi, Elham Mohammadzadeh, Hamideh Safarian Bana, Maliheh Aghasizade, Gordon A Ferns, Amir Avan, Majid Ghayour Mobarhan
The oxidant-stress (OS) has an essential role to play in the pathogenesis and progression of many diseases. OS is the outcome when the level of free-radical-formation is increased or protective-antioxidant-mechanisms are compromised. Its value is expected to increase, although its emerging roles have not been conclusive in different studies. The objective of this study was to explore the level of zinc, copper, and antioxidant in response to obesity-related-stress by measuring superoxide-dismutase (SOD) levels as a key antioxidant-enzyme in 706 individuals with/without obesity...
2016: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965752/ascorbate-peroxidase-activity-of-aranda-broga-blue-orchid-protocorm-like-bodies-plbs-in-response-to-pvs2-cryopreservation-method
#7
Khor Soo Ping, Rahmad Zakaria, Sreeramanan Subramaniam
Throughout the cryopreservation process, plants were exposed to a series of abiotic stresses such as desiccation and osmotic pressure due to highly concentrated vitrification solution. Abiotic stress stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which include hydrogen peroxide, superoxide radicals, and singlet oxygen. Higher production of ROS may lead to oxidative stress which contributes to the major injuries in cryopreserved explants. Antioxidant enzymes in plant such as ascorbate peroxidase (APX) can protect plants from cell damage by scavenging the free radicals...
November 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927194/melastoma-malabathricum-linn-attenuates-complete-freund-s-adjuvant-induced-chronic-inflammation-in-wistar-rats-via-inflammation-response
#8
Vikas Kumar, Prakash Chandra Bhatt, Mahfoozur Rahman, Dinesh Kumar Patel, Nikunj Sethi, Atul Kumar, Nikhil Kumar Sachan, Gaurav Kaithwas, F A Al-Abbasi, Firoz Anwar, Amita Verma
BACKGROUND: Natural products use for arthritis treatment is gaining importance in the medical worldt. Various studies reports medical importance of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. (MM) (Melastomataceae), also known as "putki," has a broad range of health benefits, for its free radical scavenging constituents. The current investigation scrutinizes the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of MM against adjuvant-induced arthritis in experimental rats. METHODS: High-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) was used for estimation of phytochemical-constituents present in the MM extract...
December 7, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810732/tailored-poly-ethylene-glycol-dimethacrylate-based-shape-memory-polymer-for-orthopedic-applications
#9
G Jerald Maria Antony, Chethan S Jarali, S T Aruna, S Raja
Shape-memory polymers (SMPs) are stimuli-responsive materials known for their outstanding ability to be actuated from temporary shape into original shape. Because of this unique functionality SMPs are promising materials for diverse technological applications including smart biomedical devices. In this article, the work has been focused towards tailoring the SMP precursor and crosslinker wt% to obtain biocompatible acrylate based shape memory polymer with glass transition temperature (Tg) close to human body temperature...
January 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781114/coenzyme-q10-ameliorates-trimethyltin-chloride-neurotoxicity-in-experimental-model-of-injury-in-dentate-gyrus-of-hippocampus-a-histopathological-and-behavioral-study
#10
Mohammad Hassan Sakhaie, Mansoureh Soleimani, Vahid Pirhajati, Sara Soleimani Asl, Zahra Madjd, Mehdi Mehdizadeh
BACKGROUND: Coenzyme Q10 has antioxidative and free radical scavenging effects. CoQ10 supplementation is known to have neuroprotective effects in some neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate both histopathologic and behavioral whether Coenzyme Q10 is protective against trimethyltin chloride (TMT) induced hippocampal damage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was an experimental study...
August 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777382/prenatal-hyperbaric-normoxia-treatment-improves-healthspan-and-regulates-chitin-metabolic-genes-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#11
Suyeun Yu, Eunil Lee, Bodokhsuren Tsogbadrakh, Gwang-Ic Son, Mari Kim
Aging is a universal, irreversible process accompanied by physiological declines that culminate in death. Rapid progress in gerontology research has revealed that aging can be slowed through mild stress-induced hormesis. We previously reported that hyperbaric normoxia (HN, 2 atm absolute pressure with 10% O2) induces a cytoprotective response in vitro by regulating fibronectin. In the present study, we investigated the hormetic effects of prenatal HN exposure on Drosophila healthspan related to molecular defense mechanisms...
October 24, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759160/snapshot-implications-for-melatonin-in-endoplasmic-reticulum-homeostasis
#12
REVIEW
Wei Hu, Zhiqiang Ma, Shouyin Di, Shuai Jiang, Yue Li, Chongxi Fan, Yang Yang, Dongjin Wang
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an important intracellular membranous organelle. Previous studies have demonstrated that the ER is responsible for protein folding and trafficking, lipid synthesis and the maintenance of calcium homeostasis. Interestingly, the morphology and structure of the ER were recently found to be important. Melatonin is a hormone that anticipates the daily onset of darkness in mammals, and it is well known that melatonin acts as an antioxidant by scavenging free radicals and increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the body...
December 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727064/quality-of-life-in-long-term-survivors-of-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#13
Kimberley S Mak, Angela B Smith, Alec Eidelman, Rebecca Clayman, Andrzej Niemierko, Jed-Sian Cheng, Jonathan Matthews, Michael R Drumm, Matthew E Nielsen, Adam S Feldman, Richard J Lee, Anthony L Zietman, Ronald C Chen, William U Shipley, Matthew I Milowsky, Jason A Efstathiou
PURPOSE: Health-related quality of life (QOL) has not been well-studied in survivors of muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). The present study compared long-term QOL in MIBC patients treated with radical cystectomy (RC) versus bladder-sparing trimodality therapy (TMT). METHODS AND MATERIALS: This cross-sectional bi-institutional study identified 226 patients with nonmetastatic cT2-cT4 MIBC, diagnosed in 1990 to 2011, who were eligible for RC and were disease free for ≥2 years...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722063/the-protective-effect-of-procyanidin-against-lps-induced-acute-gut-injury-by-the-regulations-of-oxidative-state
#14
Qiu Jue Wu, Yu Qin Wang, Yan Xia Qi
BACKGROUND: A 2 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the protective effect of procyanidin (PCA) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute gut injury by the regulations of oxidative state for a 21-days feeding trial. METHODS: A total of 384 1-days-old broiler chicks were assigned to 8 treatments with 8 replicate of 6 broiler chickens per pen. Broiler chickens fed diets based on 4 levels of dietary PCA (0, 0.05, 0.075 and 0.1 % of the requirements)...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689738/salinity-stress-from-the-perspective-of-the-energy-redox-axis-lessons-from-a-marine-intertidal-flatworm
#15
Georgina A Rivera-Ingraham, Aude Nommick, Eva Blondeau-Bidet, Peter Ladurner, Jehan-Hervé Lignot
In the context of global change, there is an urgent need for researchers in conservation physiology to understand the physiological mechanisms leading to the acquisition of stress acclimation phenotypes. Intertidal organisms continuously cope with drastic changes in their environmental conditions, making them outstanding models for the study of physiological acclimation. As the implementation of such processes usually comes at a high bioenergetic cost, a mitochondrial/oxidative stress approach emerges as the most relevant approach when seeking to analyze whole-animal responses...
September 22, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625779/antioxidant-properties-in-some-selected-cyanobacteria-isolated-from-fresh-water-bodies-of-sri-lanka
#16
Md Fuad Hossain, R R Ratnayake, Kirisnashamy Meerajini, K L Wasantha Kumara
Phytonutrients and pigments present in cyanobacteria act as antioxidants, which facilitate the formation of body's defense mechanism against free radical damage to cells. The aim of this investigation was to study the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), antioxidant activity, phycobiliproteins (PBPs), and active compounds in four cyanobacterial species, that is, Oscillatoria sp., Lyngbya sp., Microcystis sp., and Spirulina sp. isolated from fresh water bodies of Sri Lanka. In this study, Lyngbya sp...
September 2016: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562996/-the-effect-of-fenofibrate-on-expression-of-genes-involved-in-fatty-acids-beta-oxidation-and-associated-free-radical-processes
#17
A P Gureev, M L Shmatkova, V Yu Bashmakov, A A Starkov, V N Popov
Fenofibrate is a synthetic ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors subtype alpha (PPARa); it is used for the treatment of a wide range of metabolic diseases such as hypertriglyceridemia, dyslipidemia, diabetes and various neurodegenerative diseases. We have studied the effect of fenofibrate on b-oxidation of fatty acids and related free-radical processes. The most effective concentration of fenofibrate (0.3%) added to the chow caused a significant decrease of the body weight of mice. The data obtained by quantitative PCR demonstrated increased hepatic gene expression responsible for b-oxidation of fatty acids in peroxisomes and mitochondria...
May 2016: Biomedit︠s︡inskai︠a︡ Khimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27456681/the-importance-of-antioxidants-which-play-the-role-in-cellular-response-against-oxidative-nitrosative-stress-current-state
#18
REVIEW
Ergul Belge Kurutas
Remarkable interest has risen in the idea that oxidative/nitrosative stress is mediated in the etiology of numerous human diseases. Oxidative/Nitrosative stress is the result of an disequilibrium in oxidant/antioxidant which reveals from continuous increase of Reactive Oxygen and Reactive Nitrogen Species production. The aim of this review is to emphasize with current information the importance of antioxidants which play the role in cellular responce against oxidative/nitrosative stress, which would be helpful in enhancing the knowledge of any biochemist, pathophysiologist, or medical personnel regarding this important issue...
2016: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27437916/17-%C3%AE-estradiol-decreases-neutrophil-superoxide-production-through-rac1
#19
I Marczell, A Hrabak, G Nyiro, A Patocs, J Stark, E Dinya, Z Kukor, S Toth, Z S Tulassay, K Racz, G Bekesi
Neutrophil granulocytes form the biggest free radical producing system of the human body. The importance of this system in atherosclerotic plaque formation and other free radical mediated disorders is confirmed by both in vivo and in vitro studies. Estrogen's effect on free radical production involves multiple estrogen receptors and occurs both on transcriptional and on protein phosphorylational level. Estrogen decreases the superoxide production of neutrophil granulocytes in such a short time frame it is unlikely to be mediated by transcription regulation...
November 2016: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27424009/alpha-synuclein-induced-oxidative-stress-correlates-with-altered-superoxide-dismutase-and-glutathione-synthesis-in-human-neuroblastoma-sh-sy5y-cells
#20
Rita Perfeito, Márcio Ribeiro, A Cristina Rego
Alpha-synuclein (α-syn) is a major component of Lewy bodies found in sporadic and inherited forms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Mutations in the gene encoding α-syn and duplications and triplications of wild-type (WT) α-syn have been associated with PD. Several mechanisms have been implicated in the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in PD, including oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Here we defined the occurrence of oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y cells overexpressing WT α-syn in a doxycycline (Dox) regulated manner, before and after exposure to iron (500 µM), and determined the changes in proteins involved in the intracellular antioxidant defense system...
March 2017: Archives of Toxicology
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