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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453563/reproductive-success-is-energetically-linked-to-foraging-efficiency-in-antarctic-fur-seals
#1
Tiphaine Jeanniard-du-Dot, Andrew W Trites, John P Y Arnould, Christophe Guinet
The efficiency with which individuals extract energy from their environment defines their survival and reproductive success, and thus their selective contribution to the population. Individuals that forage more efficiently (i.e., when energy gained exceeds energy expended) are likely to be more successful at raising viable offspring than individuals that forage less efficiently. Our goal was to test this prediction in large long-lived mammals under free-ranging conditions. To do so, we equipped 20 lactating Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) breeding on Kerguelen Island in the Southern Ocean with tags that recorded GPS locations, depth and tri-axial acceleration to determine at-sea behaviours and detailed time-activity budgets during their foraging trips...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448910/exposure-to-2-2-4-4-tetrabromodiphenyl-ether-at-late-gestation-modulates-placental-signaling-molecules-in-the-mouse-model
#2
Yun Zhu, Yan Qin Tan, Lai K Leung
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants generally employed in manufacturing household items. Surface water may remove and carry these chemicals to the drainage upon disposal of the items, and ultimately the chemicals enter our food chain. 2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) is a PBDE congener commonly found in contaminated seafood. The placenta is the site of nutrient exchange and is responsible for reproductive hormone secretion during pregnancy. In the present study, pregnant ICR mice were given p...
April 22, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448306/open-glenohumeral-joint-reduction-and-latissimus-dorsi-and-teres-major-tendon-transfers-for-infants-and-children-following-brachial-plexus-birth-palsy
#3
Joshua M Abzug, Scott H Kozin, Peter M Waters
Glenohumeral dysplasia can occur in brachial plexus birth palsy due to an imbalance of muscle forces. Most commonly this occurs in C5-C6 injuries where the shoulder external rotators are weak compared with the shoulder internal rotators. Treatment of the dysplasia with open reduction of the glenohumeral joint in combination with rebalancing the muscles can improve the development of the joint. Furthermore, the tendon transfer can improve shoulder function by decreasing the internal rotation forces about the shoulder while increasing the external rotation forces...
April 26, 2017: Techniques in Hand & Upper Extremity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447764/sevoflurane-anesthesia-in-pregnant-rats-negatively-affects-nerve-function-in-offspring-potentially-via-inhibition-of-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#4
Yiyao Wang, Yu Li, Qunzhi Xing, Xuechan G Han, Xu Dong, Yiping Lu, Mintao Zhou
Due to the rapid development of medical technology used to perform intrauterine procedures during pregnancy, the number of patients receiving fetal surgery under general anesthesia is increasing. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of anesthetics on the offspring of rats, and to identify the potential mechanisms underlying these effects. On day 14 of pregnancy, Sprague‑Dawley rats were equally divided into the following 3 groups (n=9): Control group (n=3), 3% sevoflurane group (n=3) and 4% sevoflurane group (n=3)...
March 13, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443524/risk-factors-for-prelacteal-feeding-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-multilevel-analysis-of-population-data-from-twenty-two-countries
#5
Anselm S Berde, Hilal Ozcebe
OBJECTIVE: To examine the risk factors of prelacteal feeding (PLF) among mothers in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). DESIGN: We pooled data from Demographic and Health Surveys in twenty-two SSA countries. The key outcome variable was PLF. A multilevel logistic regression model was used to explore factors associated with PLF. SETTING: Demographic and Health Surveys in twenty-two SSA countries. SUBJECTS: Mother-baby pairs (n 95348)...
April 26, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438986/transient-enalapril-attenuates-the-reduction-in-glomerular-filtration-rate-in-prenatally-programmed-rats
#6
Asifhusen Mansuri, Ayah Elmaghrabi, Issa Alhamoud, Susan K Legan, Jyothsna Gattineni, Michel Baum
A maternal low-protein diet has been shown to program hypertension and a reduction in glomerular filtration rate in adult offspring. This study examined the effect of continuous administration of enalapril in the drinking water and transient administration of enalapril administered from 21 to 42 days of age on blood pressure and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in male rats whose mothers were fed a 20% protein diet (control) or a 6% protein diet (programmed) during the last half of pregnancy. After birth all rats were fed a 20% protein diet...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434758/mallards-anas-platyrhynchos-and-wastewater-ponds-part-ii-developmental-physiological-morphological-and-behavioural-effects-of-ingestion-of-secondary-clarified-effluent-water
#7
K B Tierney, P O Welsh, M Mills, S Nason, D R Barreda, C A Paszkowski
Rather than migrating, mallard ducks may choose to overwinter in northern cities on open-water thermal refuges, such as municipal wastewater treatment ponds, which in Edmonton, Canada, stay ≥10°C during frigid winter months. Refuging mallards spend appreciable time daily on these ponds and hydrate using secondary clarified municipal wastewater (SCEW). We aimed to determine if SCEW ingestion affected mallard health. To this end, we gavaged newly hatched mallards (domesticated Pekin strain) over their first month with SCEW, as well as water representing negative and positive controls (municipal tap water, and the primary active ingredient from birth control pills, 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2), respectively)...
April 20, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430606/ketamine-administered-pregnant-rats-impair-learning-and-memory-in-offspring-via-the-creb-pathway
#8
Xinran Li, Cen Guo, Yanan Li, Lina Li, Yuxin Wang, Yiming Zhang, Yue Li, Yu Chen, Wenhan Liu, Li Gao
Ketamine has been reported to impair the capacity for learning and memory. This study examined whether these capacities were also altered in the offspring and investigated the role of the CREB signaling pathway in pregnant rats, subjected to ketamine-induced anesthesia. On the 14th day of gestation (P14), female rats were anesthetized for 3 h via intravenous ketamine injection (200 mg/Kg). Morris water maze task, contextual and cued fear conditioning, and olfactory tasks were executed between the 25th to 30th day after birth (B25-30) on rat pups, and rats were sacrificed on B30...
February 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427089/editor-s-highlight-exposure-to-crvi-during-early-pregnancy-increases-oxidative-stress-and-disrupts-the-expression-of-antioxidant-proteins-in-placental-compartments
#9
Sakhila K Banu, Jone A Stanley, Kirthiram K Sivakumar, Robert J Taylor, Joe A Arosh, Robert C Burghardt
Epidemiologic studies document relationships between chromium VI (CrVI) exposure and increased risk of spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, preterm birth, and neonatal death in pregnant women. Environmental contamination with CrVI is a growing problem both in the United States and developing countries. CrVI is widely used in numerous industries. This study was designed to understand the mechanism of CrVI toxicity on placental oxidative stress and antioxidant (AOX) machinery. Pregnant mother rats were treated with or without CrVI (50 ppm K2Cr2O7) through drinking water from gestational day (GD) 9...
February 1, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420799/neonatal-hypothyroidism-does-not-increase-sertoli-cell-proliferation-in-inos-mice
#10
Nathalia de Lima E Martins Lara, Luiz Renato de França
Sertoli cell (SC) proliferation in mice occurs until two weeks after birth and is mainly regulated by FSH and thyroid hormones. Previous studies have shown that transient neonatal hypothyroidism in laboratory rodents is able to extend SC mitotic activity, leading ultimately to higher testis size and daily sperm production (DSP) in adult animals. Moreover, we have shown that due to higher SC proliferation and lower germ cell apoptosis, iNOS deficiency in mice also results in higher testis size and DSP. Although the cell size was smaller, the Leydig cells (LC) number per testis also significantly increased in iNOS(-/-) mice...
April 18, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414522/a-comparison-of-breast-milk-and-sucrose-in-reducing-neonatal-pain-during-eye-exam-for-retinopathy-of-prematurity
#11
Ayşe Şener Taplak, Emine Erdem
BACKGROUND: This double-blind randomized controlled experimental study aimed to determine the effects of breast milk and sucrose in reducing pain in preterm infants during retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) examination. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted with 60 preterm infants (breast milk group = 20, sucrose group = 20, and control/distilled water group = 20) meeting the inclusion criteria. The data were collected with the use of an Infant Evaluation Form, Procedure Monitoring Form, and Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP)...
April 17, 2017: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405925/a-survey-of-metal-concentrations-in-marine-sediment-cores-in-the-vicinity-of-an-old-mercury-mining-area-in-karaburun-aegean-sea
#12
Ebru Yesim Ozkan, Hasan Baha Buyukisik, Aynur Kontas, Mert Turkdogan
The aim of this study was to assess the historical trends of metal concentrations in coastal sediments in the vicinity of an inactive mining area, find background values and contamination levels of metals around the Karaburun peninsula, and then search for other sources of mercury in marine sediment cores using multivariate statistical analysis and report the potential ecological risks from that metal contamination. Surface sediment samples were taken from seven stations. Water depths were less than 20 m (coastal area) at stations KB07 and KB08...
April 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398243/neonatal-citrulline-supplementation-and-later-exposure-to-a-high-fructose-diet-in-rats-born-with-a-low-birth-weight-a-preliminary-report
#13
Nhat-Thang Tran, Marie-Cécile Alexandre-Gouabau, Anthony Pagniez, Khadija Ouguerram, Clair-Yves Boquien, Norbert Winer, Dominique Darmaun
A low birth weight (LBW) leads to a higher risk of metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Literature suggests that citrulline supplementation in adulthood prevents the effect of a high fructose diet on energy metabolism. Whether neonatal citrulline supplementation would alter early growth or energy metabolism in the long-term in rats with LBW is unknown. LBW pups born from dams fed a low (4%) protein diet, were nursed by normally-fed dams and received isonitrogenous supplements of either l-citrulline or l-alanine by gavage from the sixth day of life until weaning, and were subsequently exposed to 10%-fructose in drinking water from weaning to 90 days of age...
April 11, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392064/prenatal-exposure-to-perfluoroalkyl-acids-and-prevalence-of-infectious-diseases-up-to-4years-of-age
#14
Houman Goudarzi, Chihiro Miyashita, Emiko Okada, Ikuko Kashino, Chi-Jen Chen, Sachiko Ito, Atsuko Araki, Sumitaka Kobayashi, Hideyuki Matsuura, Reiko Kishi
Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are synthetic chemicals with ability to repel oils and water, and have been widely used in many industrial and household applications such as adhesives and water- and stain-repellent surfaces to nonstick coatings. Animal studies have shown that PFAAs have immunotoxic effects. However, few epidemiological studies have investigated the effects of PFAAs on infectious diseases occurrence. We examined the relationship between prenatal exposure to PFAAs and prevalence of infectious diseases up to 4years of life...
April 6, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390193/functional-amino-acids-in-the-development-of-the-pig-placenta
#15
REVIEW
Guoyao Wu, Fuller W Bazer, Gregory A Johnson, Cassandra Herring, Heewon Seo, Zhaolai Dai, Junjun Wang, Zhenlong Wu, Xiaolong Wang
The mammalian placenta is essential for supplying nutrients (e.g., amino acids and water) and oxygen from the mother to fetus and for removing fetal metabolites (e.g., ammonia and CO2 ) from fetus to mother. Thus, placental growth and development are determinants of fetal survival, growth, and development. Indeed, low birth weight is closely associated with reduced placental growth. Providing gestating gilts or sows with dietary supplementation of arginine and glutamine, however, increases placental growth (including vascular growth), improves embryonic/fetal growth and survival, and reduces the large variation in birth weight among litters...
April 8, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388335/agreement-between-two-methods-for-retrospective-assessment-of-occupational-exposure-intensity-to-six-chlorinated-solvents-data-from-the-national-birth-defects-prevention-study
#16
Candice Y Johnson, Carissa M Rocheleau, Misty J Hein, Martha A Waters, Patricia A Stewart, Christina C Lawson, Jennita Reefhuis
The wide variety of jobs encountered in population-based studies makes retrospective exposure assessment challenging in occupational epidemiology. In this analysis, two methods for estimating exposure intensity to chlorinated solvents are compared: rated (assigned by an expert rater) and modeled (assigned using statistical models). Estimates of rated and modeled intensities were compared for jobs held by mothers participating in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study with possible exposure to six chlorinated solvents: carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, methylene chloride, perchloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and trichloroethylene...
May 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382585/when-pasteurian-science-went-to-sea-the-birth-of-marine-microbiology
#17
Antony Adler, Erik Dücker
In the late nineteenth century, French naturalists were global leaders in microbial research. Louis Pasteur advanced sterilization techniques and demonstrated that dust particles in the air could contaminate a putrefiable liquid. Pasteur's discoveries prompted a new research program for the naturalists of the Talisman and Travailleur expeditions: to recover uncontaminated water and mud samples from the deep sea. French naturalists Adrien Certes and Paul Regnard both independently conducted experiments to address the question of whether microorganisms inhabited the oceans and whether organic material in the deep sea was subject to decomposition...
April 5, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376565/implementation-of-a-hydrotherapy-protocol-to-improve-postpartum-pain-management
#18
Meghann Batten, Eleanor Stevenson, Deb Zimmermann, Christine Isaacs
INTRODUCTION: A growing number of women are seeking alternatives to traditional pharmacologic pain management during birth. While there has been an extensive array of nonpharmacologic options developed for labor, there are limited offerings in the postpartum period. The purpose of this quality improvement project was to implement a hydrotherapy protocol in the early postpartum period to improve pain management for women choosing a nonmedicated birth. PROCESS: The postpartum hydrotherapy protocol was initiated in a certified nurse-midwife (CNM) practice in an urban academic medical center...
March 2017: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375691/from-50-years-ago-the-birth-of-moden-liquid-state-science
#19
David Chandler
The story told in this autobiographical perspective begins 50 years ago, at the 1967 Gordon Research Conference on the Physics and Chemistry of Liquids. It traces developments in liquid-state science from that time, including contributions from the author, and especially in the study of liquid water. It emphasizes the importance of fluctuations and the challenges of far-from-equilibrium phenomena. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Physical Chemistry Volume 68 is April 20, 2017...
March 27, 2017: Annual Review of Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373969/the-molecular-apgar-score-a-key-to-unlocking-evolutionary-principles
#20
John S Torday, Heber C Nielsen
One of the first "tools" used for systematically evaluating successful newborn transitional physiology at birth was the Apgar Score, devised by Virginia Apgar in 1953. This objective assessment tool allowed clinicians to immediately gauge the relative success of a newborn infant making the transition from the in utero liquid immersive environment to the ex utero gas environment in the delivery room during the first minutes after birth. The scoring system, although eponymous, is generally summarized as an acronym based on Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, and Respiration, criteria evaluated and scored at 1 and 5 min after birth...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
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