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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345397/hepatitis-b-virus-prevalence-in-rural-areas-in-south-west-chad
#1
Julian Suesstrunk, Fédéric Berniba Djongali
In Chad, hepatitis B virus (HBV) is thought to have a high prevalence and is consequently responsible for numerous acute and long-term complications. It is often detected during screening in potential blood donors. However, no general population-based study on the prevalence of hepatitis B has been performed. The aim of this study was to gain an impression of the HBV prevalence in rural areas in south-west Chad. A total of 1309 individuals (745 boys/men, 564 girls/women) with a median age of 15 years (age range, 6-81 years) were screened for the presence of the hepatitis B antigen (HBsAG)...
January 1, 2017: Tropical Doctor
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340985/autoimmunity-autoantibodies-and-autism-spectrum-disorder
#2
REVIEW
Elizabeth Edmiston, Paul Ashwood, Judy Van de Water
Auism spectrum disorder (ASD) now affects one in 68 births in the United States and is the fastest growing neurodevelopmental disability worldwide. Alarmingly, for the majority of cases, the causes of ASD are largely unknown, but it is becoming increasingly accepted that ASD is no longer defined simply as a behavioral disorder, but rather as a highly complex and heterogeneous biological disorder. Although research has focused on the identification of genetic abnormalities, emerging studies increasingly suggest that immune dysfunction is a viable risk factor contributing to the neurodevelopmental deficits observed in ASD...
March 1, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334811/causes-and-predictors-of-neonatal-post-neonatal-and-maternal-deaths-in-india-analysis-of-a-nationwide-district-level-household-survey-4-dlhs-4-2012-13
#3
Jaya P Tripathy, Sanskruti Mishra
Introduction: There is lack of reliable mortality estimates in India about maternal, neonatal and infant deaths. As we move towards achieving the targets under Sustainable Development Goals, information on cause of death is essential to prioritize our resources and planning. Therefore, the present study describes the causes and characteristics of neonatal, post-neonatal and maternal deaths in India. Methods: The study analysed nationwide District-Level Household Survey-4 conducted by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, in 2014...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327104/characterizing-early-child-growth-patterns-of-height-for-age-in-an-urban-slum-cohort-of-bangladesh-with-functional-principal-component-analysis
#4
Yin Zhang, Jianhui Zhou, Feiyang Niu, Jeffrey R Donowitz, Rashidul Haque, William A Petri, Jennie Z Ma
BACKGROUND: Early childhood is a critical stage of physical and cognitive growth that forms the foundation of future wellbeing. Stunted growth is presented in one of every 4 children worldwide and contributes to developmental impairment and under-five mortality. Better understanding of early growth patterns should allow for early detection and intervention in malnutrition. We aimed to characterize early child growth patterns and quantify the change of growth curves from the World Health Organization (WHO) Child Growth Standards...
March 21, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318025/maternal-chronic-hypoxia-increases-expression-of-genes-regulating-lung-liquid-movement-and-surfactant-maturation-in-male-fetuses-in-late-gestation
#5
Erin V McGillick, Sandra Orgeig, Beth J Allison, Kirsty L Brain, Youguo Niu, Nozomi Itani, Katie L Skeffington, Andrew D Kane, Emilio A Herrera, Dino A Giussani, Janna L Morrison
Chronic fetal hypoxaemia is a common pregnancy complication that may arise from maternal, placental and/or fetal factors. Respiratory outcome of the infant at birth likely depends on the duration, timing and severity of the hypoxaemic insult. We have isolated the effect of maternal chronic hypoxia (MCH) for a month in late gestation on fetal lung development. Pregnant ewes were exposed to normoxia (21% O2 ) or hypoxia (10% O2 ) from 105-138 d gestation (term ∼145 d). At 138 d, gene expression in fetal lung tissue was determined by qRT-PCR...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287631/negative-association-between-acrylamide-exposure-and-body-composition-in-adults-nhanes-2003-2004
#6
P-L Chu, L-Y Lin, P-C Chen, T-C Su, C-Y Lin
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Acrylamide is present in mainstream cigarette smoke and in some food prepared at high temperature. Animal studies have shown that acrylamide exposure reduces body weight. Prenatal exposure to acrylamide also has been linked to reduced birth weight in human. Whether acrylamide exposure is associated with altered body compositions in adults is not clear. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We selected 3623 subjects (aged ⩾20 years) from a National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in 2003-2004 to determine the relationship among hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide (HbAA), hemoglobin adducts of glycidamide (HbGA) and body composition (body measures, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA))...
March 13, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279085/aquatic-activities-during-pregnancy-prevent-excessive-maternal-weight-gain-and-preserve-birth-weight
#7
Mariano Bacchi, Michelle F Mottola, Maria Perales, Ignacio Refoyo, Ruben Barakat
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of a supervised and regular program of aquatic activities throughout gestation on maternal weight gain and birth weight. DESIGN: A randomized clinical trial. SETTING: Instituto de Obstetricia, Ginecología y Fertilidad Ghisoni (Buenos Aires, Argentina). PARTICIPANTS: One hundred eleven pregnant women were analyzed (31.6 ± 3.8 years). All women had uncomplicated and singleton pregnancies; 49 were allocated to the exercise group (EG) and 62 to the control group (CG)...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277311/the-fact-and-the-fiction-a-prospective-study-of-internet-forum-discussions-on-vaginal-breech-birth
#8
Karolina Petrovska, Athena Sheehan, Caroline S E Homer
BACKGROUND: Women with a breech baby late in pregnancy may use the internet to gather information to assist in decision-making for birth. The aim of this study was to examine how women use English language internet discussion forums to find out information about vaginal breech birth and to increase understanding of how vaginal breech birth is perceived among women. METHOD: A descriptive qualitative study of internet discussion forums was undertaken. Google alerts were created with the search terms "breech birth" and "breech"...
October 26, 2016: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254453/structural-properties-of-the-human-corpus-callosum-multimodal-assessment-and-sex-differences
#9
L Björnholm, J Nikkinen, V Kiviniemi, T Nordström, S Niemelä, M Drakesmith, J C Evans, G B Pike, J Veijola, T Paus
A number of structural properties of white matter can be assessed in vivo using multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We measured profiles of R1 and R2 relaxation rates, myelin water fraction (MWF) and diffusion tensor measures (fractional anisotropy [FA], mean diffusivity [MD]) across the mid-sagittal section of the corpus callosum in two samples of young individuals. In Part 1, we compared histology-derived axon diameter (Aboitiz et al., 1992) to MRI measures obtained in 402 young men (19.55 ± 0.84 years) recruited from the Avon Longitudinal Study on Parents and Children...
February 22, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244331/applicability-of-fetal-thoracic-aortic-diameter-measurement-in-the-prediction-of-birth-weight-in-holstein-friesian-cows-short-communication
#10
Boglárka Vincze, András Gáspárdy, Levente Kovács, Ervin Albert, Luca Kézér, Ferenc Baska, Ottó Szenci
Transabdominal ultrasonography has been shown to be a useful and reliable method for assessing fetal well-being in horses and cattle. To test the applicability of fetal aortic diameter measurement in cattle, 44 late-term pregnant cows and heifers were examined 21 to 0 days prior to calving. Mean fetal aortic diameter was 2.07 ± 0.14 cm and mean fetal heart rate (FHR) was 109 ± 17 bpm. Three dead calves were dissected and their aortic diameter was measured in a water bath. The mean birth weight (n = 44) was 39...
March 2017: Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237603/embryonic-only-arsenic-exposure-in-killifish-fundulus-heteroclitus-reduces-growth-and-alters-muscle-igf-levels-one-year-later
#11
Dana B Szymkowicz, Kaleigh C Sims, Noemi M Castro, William C Bridges, Lisa J Bain
Arsenic is a contaminant of drinking water and crops in many parts of the world. Epidemiological studies have shown that arsenic exposure is linked to decreased birth weight, weight gain, and proper skeletal muscle function. The goal of this study was to use killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) as a model to determine the long-term effects of embryonic-only arsenic exposure on muscle growth and the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway. Killifish embryos were exposed to 0, 50, 200 or 800ppb As(III) from fertilization until hatching...
February 20, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213294/a-low-cost-simplified-and-scaleable-pneumotachograph-and-face-mask-for-neonatal-mouse-respiratory-measurements
#12
Jenny J Sun, Roshan Nanu, Russell S Ray
INTRODUCTION: Neonatal respiratory disorders are a leading cause of perinatal mortality due to complications resulting from premature births and prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse, but optimal treatments for these symptoms are still unclear due to a variety of confounds and risk factors. Mouse models present an opportunity to study the underlying mechanisms and efficacy of potential treatments of these conditions with controlled variables. However, measuring respiration in newborn mice is difficult and commercial components are expensive and often require modification, creating a barrier and limiting our understanding of the short and long-term effects of birth complications on respiratory function...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195584/live-birth-in-an-archosauromorph-reptile
#13
Jun Liu, Chris L Organ, Michael J Benton, Matthew C Brandley, Jonathan C Aitchison
Live birth has evolved many times independently in vertebrates, such as mammals and diverse groups of lizards and snakes. However, live birth is unknown in the major clade Archosauromorpha, a group that first evolved some 260 million years ago and is represented today by birds and crocodilians. Here we report the discovery of a pregnant long-necked marine reptile (Dinocephalosaurus) from the Middle Triassic (∼245 million years ago) of southwest China showing live birth in archosauromorphs. Our discovery pushes back evidence of reproductive biology in the clade by roughly 50 million years, and shows that there is no fundamental reason that archosauromorphs could not achieve live birth...
February 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195340/preventive-benefit-of-access-to-fluoridated-water-for-young-adults
#14
A John Spencer, Pingzhou Liu, Jason Mathew Armfield, Loc Giang Do
Water fluoridation has been repeatedly associated with lower caries experience in children but uncertainty still exists on strength and extent of the association into adulthood. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the preventive effect of access to fluoridated water on dental caries among young adults. METHODS: In 1991/92 a cross-section of South Australian children aged 5-17 were recruited. Parents provided information on residential history, socioeconomic status, and behaviors...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Public Health Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193233/tacrolimus-in-the-prevention-of-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-and-diabetes-associated-embryopathies-in-obese-and-diabetic-mice
#15
Ahmad J H Albaghdadi, Melanie A Hewitt, Samantha M Putos, Michael Wells, Terence R S Ozolinš, Frederick W K Kan
BACKGROUND: T2DM is a high-risk pregnancy with adverse fetal and maternal outcomes including repeated miscarriages and fetal malformations. Despite the established association between placental insufficiency and poor maternal Th1-adaptability to the development of pregnancy complications in T2DM, there have been no established data to assess benefits of pre-pregnancy immunosuppression relative to gestational outcomes in T2DM. We hypothesized that pre-pregnancy macrolide immune suppression can re-establish normal placental development and uterine vascular adaptation in a mouse model of obesity-associated T2DM...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189027/the-flame-retardant-2-2-4-4-tetrabromodiphenyl-ether-enhances-the-expression-of-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-in-the-placental-cell-model-jeg-3
#16
Yun Zhu, Yan Qin Tan, Chi Chiu Wang, Lai K Leung
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are chemicals used as flame retardants in household products. After disposing of these items, PBDEs leach from the products by surface water. BDE-47 is a PBDE congener commonly isolated from contaminated food and is the most studied isomer. The placenta is the major source of hormones during pregnancy, and an elevated level of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) is associated with premature delivery. In the present study, we examined changes in the placental CRH expression under BDE-47 exposure in the JEG-3 cell model system...
May 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174046/prenatal-exposure-to-drinking-water-disinfection-by-products-and-dna-methylation-in-cord-blood
#17
Pan Yang, Bin Zhou, Wen-Cheng Cao, Yi-Xin Wang, Zhen Huang, Jin Li, Wen-Qing Lu, Qiang Zeng
Maternal exposure to drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) during pregnancy has been related to adverse birth outcomes. While experimental studies have shown that exposure to DBPs induce DNA hypomethylation, evidence from humans is limited. This study aimed to examine whether prenatal exposure to drinking water DBPs was associated with DNA methylation in cord blood. Maternal biomarkers of exposure to drinking water DBPs including blood trihalomethanes [THMs, including chloroform (TCM), bromodichloromethane (BDCM), dibromochloromethane (DBCM), and bromoform (TBM)] and urinary trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) were measured during late pregnancy...
May 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170093/topical-treatments-for-blepharokeratoconjunctivitis-in-children
#18
REVIEW
Michael O'Gallagher, Catey Bunce, Melanie Hingorani, Frank Larkin, Stephen Tuft, Annegret Dahlmann-Noor
BACKGROUND: Blepharokeratoconjunctivitis (BKC) is a type of inflammation of the surface of the eye and eyelids that involves changes of the eyelids, dysfunction of the meibomian glands, and inflammation of the conjunctiva and cornea. Chronic inflammation of the cornea can lead to scarring, vascularisation and opacity. BKC in children can cause significant symptoms including irritation, watering, photophobia and loss of vision from corneal opacity, refractive error or amblyopia.Treatment of BKC is directed towards modification of meibomian gland disease and the bacterial flora of lid margin and conjunctiva, and control of ocular surface inflammation...
February 7, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161509/25-years-of-research-on-global-asphyxia-in-the-immature-rat-brain
#19
REVIEW
M Barkhuizen, D L A van den Hove, J S H Vles, H W M Steinbusch, B W Kramer, A W D Gavilanes
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy remains a common cause of brain damage in neonates. Preterm infants have additional complications, as prematurity by itself increases the risk of encephalopathy. Currently, therapy for this subset of asphyxiated infants is limited to supportive care. There is an urgent need for therapies in preterm infants - and for representative animal models for preclinical drug development. In 1991, a novel rodent model of global asphyxia in the preterm infant was developed in Sweden. This method was based on the induction of asphyxia during the birth processes itself by submerging pups, still in the uterine horns, in a water bath followed by C-section...
February 1, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161168/technical-note-evaluating-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-for-determining-body-composition-in-holstein-dairy-calves-using-deuterium-oxide-dilution-methods
#20
C E Chapman, P Stone Wilkinson, M R Murphy, P S Erickson
Deuterium oxide (D2O) dilution methods have been used to assess body composition in live animals. Estimated body water content can be used to predict body fat and protein, and thus, the amount of energy reserves. It is an alternative method to direct chemical analysis and considered a noninvasive technique that is economical and repeatable. Deuterium oxide use is considered easy, safe, and accurate; however, the traditional methods of analyzing D2O are expensive, tedious, and time consuming. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) to determine body composition in Holstein dairy heifers...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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