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Water birth

J Ellison, C Nagamuthu, S Vanderloo, B McRae, C Waters
INTRODUCTION: Chronic disease rates are produced from the Public Health Agency of Canada's Canadian Chronic Disease Surveillance System (CCDSS) using administrative health data from provincial/territorial health ministries. Denominators for these rates are based on estimates of populations derived from health insurance files. However, these data may not be accessible to all researchers. Another source for population size estimates is the Statistics Canada census. The purpose of our study was to calculate the major differences between the CCDSS and Statistics Canada's population denominators and to identify the sources or reasons for the potential differences between these data sources...
October 2016: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada
Breanna L Alman, Evan Coffman, Anna Maria Siega-Riz, Thomas J Luben
BACKGROUND: Water and water-based beverages constitute a major part of daily fluid intake for pregnant women, yet few epidemiologic studies have investigated the role of water consumption on birth outcomes. METHODS: We used data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study to conduct a case-control study investigating associations between maternal water consumption during pregnancy and birth defects (BD). We used interview data on water consumption during the first trimester of pregnancy in 14,454 cases (major BDs n ≥ 50) and 5,063 controls...
October 21, 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part A, Clinical and Molecular Teratology
Julie Reygner, Lydia Lichtenberger, Ghada Elmhiri, Samir Dou, Narges Bahi-Jaber, Larbi Rhazi, Flore Depeint, Veronique Bach, Hafida Khorsi-Cauet, Latifa Abdennebi-Najar
Increasing evidence indicates that chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organophosphorus insecticide, is involved in metabolic disorders. We assess the hypothesis whether supplementation with prebiotics from gestation to adulthood, through a modulation of microbiota composition and fermentative activity, alleviates CPF induced metabolic disorders of 60 days old offspring. 5 groups of Wistar rats, from gestation until weaning, received two doses of CPF pesticide: 1 mg/kg/day (CPF1) or 3.5 mg/kg/day (CPF3.5) with free access to inulin (10g/L in drinking water)...
2016: PloS One
Sakineh Haydari, Manouchehr Safari, Sam Zarbakhsh, Ahmad Reza Bandegi, Hossein Miladi-Gorji
This study was designed to investigate whether free access to a running wheel during pregnancy in morphine-dependent mothers would influence the viability, proliferation and BDNF levels of bone marrow stromal cells in rat pups. Pregnant rats were made dependent by chronic administration of morphine in drinking water simultaneously with free access to a running wheel. Male pups are weaned at 21days of birth and their bones marrows were aspirated from the femurs and tibias and also the bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) cultured...
October 13, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Halina B Röllin, Kalavati Channa, Bukola G Olutola, Jon Ø Odland
Early life exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) has been shown to interfere with foetal and early childhood development, and is associated with morbidity and mortality in adulthood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate exposure to As in utero, to determine the association between maternal and cord blood of As and birth outcomes in South African populations. Total arsenic was measured in maternal blood of a total cohort (n=650) and in paired cord blood and urine of a subset cohort (n=317). Overall, the geometric mean (GM) of As in maternal blood was 0...
October 12, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
You-Lin Tain, Wei-Chia Lee, Kay L H Wu, Steve Leu, Julie Y H Chan
Hypertension can be programmed in response to nutritional insults in early life. Maternal high-fructose (HF) intake induced programmed hypertension in adult male offspring, which is associated with renal programming and arachidonic acid metabolism pathway. We examined whether early treatment with a soluble epoxide hydrolase (SEH) inhibitor, 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid (AUDA) or 15-Deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostagandin J2 (15dPGJ2) can prevent HF-induced programmed hypertension. Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats received regular chow or chow supplemented with fructose (60% diet by weight) during the whole period of pregnancy and lactation...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Rachel Denholm, Bianca De Stavola, John H Hipwell, Simon J Doran, Marta C Busana, Amanda Eng, Mona Jeffreys, Martin O Leach, David Hawkes, Isabel Dos Santos Silva
BACKGROUND: Breast density, the amount of fibroglandular tissue in the adult breast for a women's age and body mass index, is a strong biomarker of susceptibility to breast cancer, which may, like breast cancer risk itself, be influenced by events early in life. In the present study, we investigated the association between pre-natal exposures and breast tissue composition. METHODS: A sample of 500 young, nulliparous women (aged approximately 21 years) from a U...
October 12, 2016: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
Arne Ohlsson, Prakeshkumar S Shah
BACKGROUND: Newborn infants have the ability to experience pain. Hospitalised infants are exposed to numerous painful procedures. Healthy newborns are exposed to pain if the birth process consists of assisted vaginal birth by vacuum extraction or by forceps and during blood sampling for newborn screening tests. OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy and safety of paracetamol for the prevention or treatment of procedural/postoperative pain or pain associated with clinical conditions in neonates...
October 7, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Stephen A Wood, James M Armitage, Matthew J Binnington, Frank Wania
A population's exposure to persistent organic pollutants, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), is typically assessed through national biomonitoring programs, such as the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). To complement statistical methods, we use a deterministic modeling approach to establish mechanistic links between human contaminant concentrations and factors (e.g. age, diet, lipid mass) deemed responsible for the often considerable variability in these concentrations...
September 14, 2016: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Lena Natapov, Avi Sasson, Shlomo P Zusman
BACKGROUND: The National health insurance law enacted in 1995 did not include dental care in its basket of services. Dental care for children was first included in 2010, initially up till 8 years of age. The eligibility age rose to 12 years in 2013. The dental survey of 6 year-olds in 2007 found that the average of decayed, missing and filled teeth index (dmft) was 3.31 and 35 % of children were caries free. The current cross sectional survey of dental health for 6 year-olds was conducted as a comparison to the pre-reform status...
2016: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
Wladimir Wertelecki, Christina D Chambers, Lyubov Yevtushok, Natalya Zymak-Zakutnya, Zoriana Sosyniuk, Serhiy Lapchenko, Bogdana Ievtushok, Diana Akhmedzhanova
In the 30 years since the Chornobyl nuclear power plant disaster, there is evidence of persistent levels of incorporated ionizing radiation in adults, children and pregnant women in the surrounding area. Measured levels of Cesium-137 vary by region, and may be influenced by dietary and water sources as well as proximity to nuclear power plants. Since 2000, comprehensive, population-based birth defects monitoring has been performed in selected regions of Ukraine to evaluate trends and to generate hypotheses regarding potential causes of unexplained variations in defect rates...
September 30, 2016: European Journal of Medical Genetics
Chantel L Martin, Anna Maria Siega-Riz, Daniela Sotres-Alvarez, Whitney R Robinson, Julie L Daniels, Eliana M Perrin, Alison M Stuebe
BACKGROUND: Child obesity is a major problem in the United States. Identifying early-life risk factors is necessary for prevention. Maternal diet during pregnancy is a primary source of fetal energy and might influence risk of child obesity. OBJECTIVE: We prospectively investigated the influence of maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy on child growth in the first 3 y of life in 389 mother-child pairs from the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition study. METHODS: Dietary patterns were derived with the use of latent class analysis (LCA) based on maternal diet, collected with the use of a food-frequency questionnaire at 26-29 wk gestation...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
L M Horng, L Unicomb, M-U Alam, A K Halder, A K Shoab, P K Ghosh, A Opel, M K Islam, S P Luby
BACKGROUND: Healthcare facility hand hygiene impacts patient care, healthcare worker safety, and infection control, but low-income countries have few data to guide interventions. AIM: To conduct a nationally representative survey of hand hygiene infrastructure and behaviour in Bangladeshi healthcare facilities to establish baseline data to aid policy. METHODS: The 2013 Bangladesh National Hygiene Baseline Survey examined water, sanitation, and hand hygiene across households, schools, restaurants and food vendors, traditional birth attendants, and healthcare facilities...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
Olga E Sinigaglia, Elaine M Ríos, Maribel Campos, Beatriz Díaz, Cristina Palacios
BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding is associated with lower rates of obesity; in addition, it is also associated with later introduction of beverages and foods; however, this has not been well studied among Hispanics. The objective was to assess breastfeeding practices and timing of introduction of beverages and solid foods in a sample of Hispanic infants and their association with weight status. SUBJECT AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study in 296 caregivers of infants and toddlers 0-24 months of age participants of a WIC clinic in Puerto Rico...
2016: SpringerPlus
Deepak Sharma, Ankur Patel, Priyanka Soni, Pradeep Sharma, Basudev Gupta
Empedobacter brevis is gram-negative bacilli that belongs to Flavobacteriaceae family. It was previously known with name of Flavobacterium breve. The reservoir of these bacteria is soil, plants, water, food, hospital water sources, including incubators, sinks, faucets, tap water, hemodialysis systems, saline solutions, and other pharmaceutical solutions. We report a case of term female newborn, admitted with complaint of respiratory distress developing soon after birth and developed clinical features of sepsis at age of 92 hours of postnatal life...
2016: Case Reports in Pediatrics
Thaddeus P Waters, Alan R Dyer, Denise M Scholtens, Sharon L Dooley, Elaine Herer, Lynn P Lowe, Jeremy J N Oats, Bengt Persson, David A Sacks, Boyd E Metzger, Patrick M Catalano
OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of adverse outcomes for women who are diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) by the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria using data from the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) Study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This is a secondary analysis from the North American HAPO studycenters. Glucose measurements from a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test were used to group participants into three nonoverlapping categories: GDM based on Carpenter-Coustan (CC) criteria (also GDM based on IADPSG criteria), GDM diagnosed based on IADPSG criteria but not CC criteria, and no GDM...
September 15, 2016: Diabetes Care
Leticia Bequer, Tahiry Gómez, José Luis Molina, Daniel Artiles, Rosa Bermúdez, Sonia Clapés
INTRODUCTION: The use of experimental models is essential to study the pathophysiological mechanisms of diabetes.  OBJECTIVES: To compare in adult Wistar rats the diabetogenic action of streptozotocin according to the moment and route of administration during the neonatal period by evaluating biochemical, metabolic and histological variables.  MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight groups of neonatal female Wistar rats (n=10) were formed. We evaluated the induction with streptozotocin (100 mg/kg of body weight) on days 2 and 5 after birth, as well as the administration routes (subcutaneous or intraperitoneal)...
2016: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
Kei E Fujimura, Alexandra R Sitarik, Suzanne Havstad, Din L Lin, Sophia Levan, Douglas Fadrosh, Ariane R Panzer, Brandon LaMere, Elze Rackaityte, Nicholas W Lukacs, Ganesa Wegienka, Homer A Boushey, Dennis R Ownby, Edward M Zoratti, Albert M Levin, Christine C Johnson, Susan V Lynch
Gut microbiota bacterial depletions and altered metabolic activity at 3 months are implicated in childhood atopy and asthma. We hypothesized that compositionally distinct human neonatal gut microbiota (NGM) exist, and are differentially related to relative risk (RR) of childhood atopy and asthma. Using stool samples (n = 298; aged 1-11 months) from a US birth cohort and 16S rRNA sequencing, neonates (median age, 35 d) were divisible into three microbiota composition states (NGM1-3). Each incurred a substantially different RR for multisensitized atopy at age 2 years and doctor-diagnosed asthma at age 4 years...
October 2016: Nature Medicine
K Hauck, S Martin, P C Smith
The WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health set out an impressive collection of policy proposals on the social determinants of health. However, a serious weakness for securing implementation is the difficulty for policymakers in identifying priorities for action. The objective of this study is to determine a small set of the most influential determinants using existing data and an empirical approach. 45 Indicators from the World Bank's World Development Indicators are selected to measure attainment for the determinants proposed by the Commission...
October 2016: Social Science & Medicine
N N Ambadekar, S P Zodpey
OBJECTIVES: The present study was planned to identify some of the risk factors of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in under-five children in a rural part of India. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study. METHODS: The study was carried out in rural areas of Yavatmal district. A total of 737 cases (under-five SAM children) and an equal number of normal controls were included in the study. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Binary logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis using a hierarchical model...
September 6, 2016: Public Health
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