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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715436/use-of-water-turnover-method-to-measure-mother-s-milk-flow-in-a-rat-model-application-to-dams-receiving-a-low-protein-diet-during-gestation-and-lactation
#1
Thomas Sevrin, Marie-Cécile Alexandre-Gouabau, Dominique Darmaun, Antoine Palvadeau, Agnès André, Patrick Nguyen, Khadija Ouguerram, Clair-Yves Boquien
Assessment of milk production is of utmost relevance for pediatricians and scientists interested in early life nutrition. The weight-suckle-weight (WSW) method, which consists of weighing babies before and after they suckle their mother, uses the difference in body weight as an estimate of milk intake. However, this is prone to many sources of error. In the current study, we used for the first time the water turnover method and compartmental analysis with deuterated water (D2O) as a non-toxic tracer to quantify in vivo milk production in a rat model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712143/reliability-of-the-echomri-infants-system-for-water-and-fat-measurements-in-newborns
#2
Tatiana Toro-Ramos, Charles Paley, William W Wong, F Xavier Pi-Sunyer, Wen W Yu, John Thornton, Dympna Gallagher
OBJECTIVE: The precision and accuracy of a quantitative magnetic resonance (EchoMRI Infants) system in newborns were determined. METHODS: Canola oil and drinking water phantoms (increments of 10 g to 1.9 kg) were scanned four times. Instrument reproducibility was assessed from three scans (within 10 minutes) in 42 healthy term newborns (12-70 hours post birth). Instrument precision was determined from the coefficient of variation (CV) of repeated scans for total water, lean mass, and fat measures for newborns and the mean difference between weight and measurement for phantoms...
July 16, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696207/levels-and-determinants-of-ddt-and-dde-exposure-in-the-vhembe-cohort
#3
Fraser W Gaspar, Jonathan Chevrier, Lesliam Quirós-Alcalá, Jonah M Lipsitt, Dana Boyd Barr, Nina Holland, Riana Bornman, Brenda Eskenazi
BACKGROUND: Although indoor residual spraying (IRS) is an effective tool for malaria control, its use contributes to high insecticide exposure in sprayed communities and raises concerns about possible unintended health effects. OBJECTIVE: The Venda Health Examination of Mothers, Babies and their Environment (VHEMBE) is a birth cohort study initiated in 2012 to characterize prenatal exposure to IRS insecticides and exposures' impacts on child health and development in rural South Africa...
July 7, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692341/the-2014-crude-4-methylcyclohexanemethanol-chemical-release-and-birth-outcomes-in-west-virginia
#4
Stacey M Benson, Peter Ruestow, Kara A Keeton, Rachel M Novick, Gary M Marsh, Dennis J Paustenbach
Approximately 10,000 gallons of crude 4-methylcyclohexanemethanol and propylene glycol phenol ether were accidentally released into the Elk River upstream from a water treatment facility in West Virginia. The objective of this study was to use logistic and Poisson regression analyses to determine the impact potential exposures had on adverse birth outcomes (birth weight, small for gestational age, and abnormal Apgar score). We adjusted for confounding factors and assessed prevalence of adverse birth outcomes by residential location and timing of the pregnancy...
July 10, 2017: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689612/observations-and-conversations-home-preparation-of-infant-formula-among-a-sample-of%C3%A2-low-income-mothers-in-the-southeastern-us
#5
Rebecca G Ellison, Betty P Greer, Janie L Burney, L Suzie Goodell, Katherine B Bower, Jennifer C Nicklas, Zixin Lou, Katherine F Kavanagh
OBJECTIVE: Explore infant formula preparation attitudes and beliefs among low-income, formula-feeding, Southeastern US mothers. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study using in-home observations and in-depth interviews. SETTING: Participant homes. PARTICIPANTS: Thirteen low-income mothers of normal birth weight, healthy, term infants aged ≤3 months, who were predominantly feeding powdered or from-concentrate formula. VARIABLES MEASURED: Reading formula preparation instructions; order of added ingredients; leveling powdered formula scoop(s); adding cereal or other ingredients to bottles...
July 2017: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689517/an-assessment-of-irish-farmers-knowledge-of-the-risk-of-spread-of-infection-from-animals-to-humans-and-their-transmission-prevention-practices
#6
M M Mahon, M C Sheehan, P F Kelleher, A J Johnson, S M Doyle
The aim of this study was to ascertain farmers' knowledge of the risk of spread of infection from animals to humans, and their transmission prevention practices. This was a survey of farmers who submitted material to Ireland's Regional Veterinary Laboratories in 2015. There was an 84% response rate (1044 farmers). Ninety per cent of farmers were not aware that infection can be acquired from apparently healthy animals. Over half were not aware that disease could be contracted from sick poultry or pets. Conversely, the knowledge of the risk to pregnant women of infection from birthing animals was high (88%)...
July 10, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685039/comprehensive-review-of-the-evidence-regarding-the-effectiveness-of-community-based-primary-health-care-in-improving-maternal-neonatal-and-child-health-1-rationale-methods-and-database-description
#7
Henry B Perry, Bahie M Rassekh, Sundeep Gupta, Jess Wilhelm, Paul A Freeman
BACKGROUND: Community-based primary health care (CBPHC) is an approach used by health programs to extend preventive and curative health services beyond health facilities into communities and even down to households. Evidence of the effectiveness of CBPHC in improving maternal, neonatal and child health (MNCH) has been summarized by others, but our review gives particular attention to not only the effectiveness of specific interventions but also their delivery strategies at the community level along with their equity effects...
June 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671954/breastfeeding-practices-beliefs-and-social-norms-in-low-resource-communities-in-mexico-insights-for-how-to-improve-future-promotion-strategies
#8
Tessa M Swigart, Anabelle Bonvecchio, Florence L Théodore, Sophia Zamudio-Haas, Maria Angeles Villanueva-Borbolla, James F Thrasher
INTRODUCTION: Breastfeeding is recommended exclusively for the first 6 months after birth, with continued breastfeeding for at least 2 years. Yet prevalence of these recommendations is low globally, although it is an effective and cost-effective way to prevent serious infections and chronic illness. Previous studies have reported that social support greatly influences breastfeeding, but there is little evidence on perceived social norms in Mexico and how they affect actual behavior. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate breastfeeding intention, practices, attitudes, and beliefs, particularly normative, among low-resource communities in central and southern Mexico...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671327/dental-caries-clusters-among-adolescents
#9
John J Warren, John M Van Buren, Steven M Levy, Teresa A Marshall, Joseph E Cavanaugh, Alexandra M Curtis, Justine L Kolker, Karin Weber-Gasparoni
OBJECTIVES: There have been very few longitudinal studies of dental caries in adolescents, and little study of the caries risk factors in this age group. The purpose of this study was to describe different caries trajectories and associated risk factors among members of the Iowa Fluoride Study (IFS) cohort. METHODS: The IFS recruited a birth cohort from 1992 to 1995, and has gathered dietary, fluoride and behavioural data at least twice yearly since recruitment...
July 3, 2017: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663110/sucrose-and-naltrexone-prevent-increased-pain-sensitivity-and-impaired-long-term-memory-induced-by-repetitive-neonatal-noxious-stimulation-role-of-bdnf-and-%C3%AE-endorphin
#10
Khawla Q Nuseir, Karem H Alzoubi, Ahmed Alhusban, Areej Bawaane, Mohammed Al-Azzani, Omar F Khabour
Pain in neonates is associated with short and long-term adverse outcomes. Data demonstrated that long-term consequences of untreated pain are linked to the plasticity of the neonate's brain. Sucrose is effective and safe for reducing painful procedures from single events. However, the mechanism of sucrose-induced analgesia is not fully understood. The role of the opioid system in this analgesia using the opioid receptor antagonist Naltrexone was investigated, plus the long-term effects on learning and memory formation during adulthood...
June 27, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652426/transcriptome-analysis-of-skin-from-smp30-gnl-knockout-mice-reveals-the-effect-of-ascorbic-acid-deficiency-on-skin-and-hair
#11
Koji Wakame, Ken-Ichi Komatsu, Akifumi Nakata, Keisuke Sato, Akira Takaguri, Hirofumi Masutomi, Takayuki Nagashima, Hironobu Uchiyama
BACKGROUND/AIM: Senescence marker protein-30/gluconolactonase knockout mice (SMP-30/GNL-KO) are a very useful model for clarifying the involvement of vitamin C (VC) in aging-related diseases. In this study, the effects of VC deficiency on skin and hair growth were investigated using SMP-30/GNL-KO mice by RNA sequencing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SMP-30/GNL-KO mice were given water containing 1.5 g/l VC until up to 8 weeks after birth to maintain a VC concentration in their organs and plasma equivalent to that in wild-type mice...
July 2017: In Vivo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645849/thermal-management-in-closed-incubators-new-software-for-assessing-the-impact-of-humidity-on-the-optimal-incubator-air-temperature
#12
Stéphane Delanaud, Pauline Decima, Amandine Pelletier, Jean-Pierre Libert, Estelle Durand, Erwan Stephan-Blanchard, Véronique Bach, Pierre Tourneux
BACKGROUND: Low-birth-weight (LBW) neonates are nursed in closed incubators to prevent transcutaneous water loss. The RH's impact on the optimal incubator air temperature setting has not been studied. METHODS: On the basis of a clinical cohort study, we modelled all the ambient parameters influencing body heat losses and gains. The algorithm quantifies the change in RH on the air temperature, to maintain optimal thermal conditions in the incubator. RESULTS: Twenty-three neonates (gestational age (GA): 30...
June 20, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641602/milk-replacers-supplemented-with-either-l-arginine-or-l-carnitine-potentially-improve-muscle-maturation-of-early-reared-low-birth-weight-piglets-from-hyperprolific-sows
#13
J G Madsen, S Mueller, M Kreuzer, M B Bigler, P Silacci, G Bee
As a result of the selection for genotypes with greater sow prolificacy, litter size increased and, concomitantly, average litter birth weight and early postnatal survival rates of low birth weight (L-BtW) offspring decreased. This study compared the impact of l-carnitine (CAR) and l-arginine (ARG) supplemented with a milk replacer and fed to L-BtW piglets born from large litters from days 7 to 28 of age on growth performance, carcass composition, organ and Semitendinosus muscle (STM) development. A total of 30 female and castrated Swiss Large White piglets weaned at 7 days of age were assigned to three milk replacer diets containing either no supplement (CON), CAR (0...
June 23, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630642/infant-and-young-child-feeding-practice-among-mothers-with-0-24%C3%A2-months-old-children-in-slum-areas-of-bahir-dar-city-ethiopia
#14
Yeshalem Mulugeta Demilew, Tadese Ejigu Tafere, Dereje Berhanu Abitew
BACKGROUND: Adequate nutrition during infancy and early childhood is essential to ensure the health, growth and development of children. However, infant feeding practice is suboptimal in Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia. The slum area is a heavily populated urban informal settlement characterized by substandard housing, squalor, with a lack of reliable sanitation services, supply of clean water, reliable electricity, law enforcement and other basic services. Residents of the slum area were poor and less educated...
2017: International Breastfeeding Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618920/castor-oil-for-induction-of-labour-a-retrospective-study
#15
Isabella Neri, Giulia Dante, Lucrezia Pignatti, Chiara Salvioli, Fabio Facchinetti
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to investigate the safety and efficacy of castor oil to induce labour. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective observational case control study was conducted over five years. Castor oil was proposed to women referred to the Birth Centre (Castor Oil group (COG)). They were compared to women who chose to be followed by the traditional doctor-led unit (control group (CG)). Castor oil was administered in a 60 ml single dose in 200 ml of warm water...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610744/prenatal-manganese-exposure-and-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-of-emotional-brain-areas-in-children
#16
Erik de Water, Erika Proal, Victoria Wang, Sandra Martínez Medina, Lourdes Schnaas, Martha María Téllez-Rojo, Robert O Wright, Cheuk Y Tang, Megan K Horton
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace metal that is neurotoxic at high levels of exposure. Disruption of brain maturation processes during the prenatal period may have lasting consequences. During this critical period, the developing human brain is uniquely vulnerable to exposure to environmental toxicants such as Mn, and prenatal Mn exposure has been associated with changes in brain areas involved in emotion processing and regulation. The goal of the present pilot study was to examine whether prenatal Mn exposure is associated with changes in the intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) of the brain in childhood, focusing on changes in emotional brain areas...
June 10, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601764/maternal-perchlorate-exposure-in-pregnancy-and-altered-birth-outcomes
#17
Rainbow Rubin, Michelle Pearl, Martin Kharrazi, Benjamin C Blount, Mark D Miller, Elizabeth N Pearce, Liza Valentin-Blasini, Gerald DeLorenze, Jane Liaw, Andrew N Hoofnagle, Craig Steinmaus
BACKGROUND: At high medicinal doses perchlorate is known to decrease the production of thyroid hormone, a critical factor for fetal development. In a large and uniquely exposed cohort of pregnant women, we recently identified associations between environmental perchlorate exposures and decreased maternal thyroid hormone during pregnancy. Here, we investigate whether perchlorate might be associated with birthweight or preterm birth in the offspring of these women. METHODS: Maternal urinary perchlorate, serum thyroid hormone concentrations, birthweight, gestational age, and urinary nitrate, thiocyanate, and iodide were collected in 1957 mother-infant pairs from San Diego County during 2000-2003, a period when the county's water supply was contaminated with perchlorate...
June 8, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601458/ad-libitum-milk-replacer-feeding-but-not-butyrate-supplementation-affects-growth-performance-as-well-as-metabolic-and-endocrine-traits-in-holstein-calves
#18
D Frieten, C Gerbert, C Koch, G Dusel, K Eder, E Kanitz, J M Weitzel, H M Hammon
The enhanced growth performance of calves fed a higher plane of nutrition pre-weaning is well documented, and the effect of butyrate on the development of the gastrointestinal tract in calves has been evaluated. The aim of this study was to examine the synergistic effects of ad libitum milk replacer (MR) feeding and butyrate supplementation on growth performance and energy metabolism in calves. Sixty-four (32 male, 32 female) Holstein calves were examined from birth until wk 11 of life. Calves received MR either ad libitum (Adl) or restrictively (Res) with (AdlB+, ResB+) or without (AdlB-, ResB-) 0...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594785/notes-from-the-field-two-cases-of-legionnaires-disease-in-newborns-after-water-births-arizona-2016
#19
Geoffrey Granseth, Rachana Bhattarai, Tammy Sylvester, Siru Prasai, Eugene Livar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 9, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594232/revisiting-the-aids-epidemic-in-pakistan-where-we-stand-and-what-we-must-aim-for
#20
Hamza Arshad Dar, Areeba Mubashir, Manal Adil, Aiman Farzeen, Hasaan Naseer, Gohar Ayub, Sajid Mansoor, Aneela Javed
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is the major cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans, where the immune system totally succumbs to the virus. A large proportion of the AIDS infected belong to developing countries and AIDS prevalence is intensified by severe poverty, malnutrition, and famine; fatal illnesses with a scorn shortage of medical amenities complemented with the lack of education and development. Current Pakistani health system setting is in a dire need of improvement...
July 11, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
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