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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228888/assessing-levels-and-trends-of-child-health-inequality-in-88-developing-countries-from-2000-to-2014
#1
Zhihui Li, Mingqiang Li, S V Subramanian, Chunling Lu
BACKGROUND: Reducing child mortality was one of the Millennium Development Goals. In the current Sustainable Development Goals era, achieving equity is prioritized as a major aim. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to provide a comprehensive and updated picture of inequalities in child health intervention coverage and child health outcomes by wealth status, as well as their trends between 2000 and 2014. METHODS: Using data from Demographic Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, we adopted three measures of inequality, including one absolute inequality indicator and two relative inequality indicators, to estimate the level and trends of inequalities in three child health outcome variables and 17 intervention coverages in 88 developing countries...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224235/long-term-cardiovascular-re-programming-by-short-term-perinatal-exposure-to-nicotine-s-main-metabolite-cotinine
#2
Stefano Bastianini, Viviana Lo Martire, Alessandro Silvani, Giovanna Zoccoli, Chiara Berteotti, Hugo Lagercrantz, Anders Arner, Gary Cohen
AIM: Gather "proof-of-concept" evidence of the adverse developmental potential of cotinine (a seemingly benign biomarker of recent nicotine / tobacco smoke exposure). METHODS: Pregnant C57 mice drank nicotine or cotinine-laced water for 6wks from conception (NPRE = 2% saccharin+100μg nicotine/ml; CPRE = 2% saccharin + 10μg cotinine/ml) or 3wks after birth (CPOST = 2% saccharin + 30μg cotinine/ml). Controls drank 2% saccharin (CTRL). At 17±1weeks (male pups; CTRL n=6; CPOST n=6; CPRE n=8; NPRE n=9) we assessed (i) cardiovascular control during sleep; (ii) arterial reactivity ex vivo; (iii) expression of genes involved in arterial constriction / dilation...
December 9, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219853/effects-of-a-soybean-milk-product-on-feto-neonatal-development-in-rats
#3
Eun Suk An, Dongsun Park, Young-Hwan Ban, Choi Jieun, Da Woom Seo, Yoon Bok Lee, Mi Yae Shon, Ehn-Kyoung Choi, Yun-Bae Kim
Since estrogenic pollutants and phytoestrogens can cause the disorder of the reproductive system, the effects of a soybean milk product (Vegemil<sup>®</sup> containing 162 ppm isoflavones) on the feto-neonatal development, including male reproductive function, were investigated. Pregnant rats were fed the soybean milk (5% or 100% in drinking water) from gestational day (GD) 6 to parturition or to post-natal day (PND) 56. Specifically, the rats were divided into 4 groups: the control group (drinking water), the GD5% group (5% soybean milk during only the GD period), the GD-PND5% group (5% soybean milk during the GD and PND periods), and the GD-PND100% group (100% soybean milk instead of water during the GD and PND periods)...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219094/a-collaborative-approach-to-adopting-adapting-guidelines-the-australian-24-hour-movement-guidelines-for-the-early-years-birth-to-5-years-an-integration-of-physical-activity-sedentary-behavior-and-sleep
#4
Anthony D Okely, Davina Ghersi, Kylie D Hesketh, Rute Santos, Sarah P Loughran, Dylan P Cliff, Trevor Shilton, David Grant, Rachel A Jones, Rebecca M Stanley, Julie Sherring, Trina Hinkley, Stewart G Trost, Clare McHugh, Simon Eckermann, Karen Thorpe, Karen Waters, Timothy S Olds, Tracy Mackey, Rhonda Livingstone, Hayley Christian, Harriette Carr, Adam Verrender, João R Pereira, Zhiguang Zhang, Katherine L Downing, Mark S Tremblay
BACKGROUND: In 2017, the Australian Government funded the update of the National Physical Activity Recommendations for Children 0-5 years, with the intention that they be an integration of movement behaviours across the 24-h period. The benefit for Australia was that it could leverage research in Canada in the development of their 24-h guidelines for the early years. Concurrently, the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) working group published a model to produce guidelines based on adoption, adaption and/or de novo development using the GRADE evidence-to-decision framework...
November 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211765/impact-of-multisectoral-health-determinants-on-child-mortality-1980-2010-an-analysis-by-country-baseline-mortality
#5
Robert L Cohen, John Murray, Susan Jack, Sharon Arscott-Mills, Vincenzo Verardi
INTRODUCTION: Some health determinants require relatively stronger health system capacity and socioeconomic development than others to impact child mortality. Few quantitative analyses have analyzed how the impact of health determinants varies by mortality level. METHODS: 149 low- and middle-income countries were stratified into high, moderate, low, and very low baseline levels of child mortality in 1990. Data for 52 health determinants were collected for these countries for 1980-2010...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204053/induction-of-precocious-intestinal-maturation-in-t-cell-deficient-athymic-neonatal-rats
#6
Ester Arévalo Sureda, Catherine Gidlund, Björn Weström, Olena Prykhodko
AIM: To investigate whether gut maturation could be induced precociously in an athymic T-cell deficient neonatal rat model. METHODS: Fourteen day-old athymic (nude) rats (NIH-Foxn1rnu) were gavaged with either phytohaemagglutinin - a lectin from red kidney beans (PHA); trypsin - a protease (Prot); or water - vehicle (control) as a single dose on one day or once a day for 3-day. The nude rats were either nurtured by their mothers or cross-fostered by conventional foster dams of the Sprague-Dawley strain from days 3-5 after birth...
November 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198502/pregnant-women-s-choice-of-birthing-hospital-a-qualitative-study-on-individuals-preferences
#7
Nasrin Tayyari Dehbarez, Stina Lou, Niels Uldbjerg, Anne Møller, Dorte Gyrd-Hansen, Rikke Søgaard
OBJECTIVE: To investigate pregnant women's decision making in relation to their choice of birthing hospital and, in particular, their priorities regarding hospital characteristics. METHODS: The focus of this study was the choice of birthing hospital among pregnant women. A qualitative interview design was used and women were recruited during their first pregnancy-related visit to a general practitioner. The interviews were conducted using a semi-structured interview guide, and a thematic analysis of the data was carried out...
November 29, 2017: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195186/medium-shapes-the-microbial-community-of-water-filters-with-implications-for-effluent-quality
#8
Marta Vignola, David Werner, Matthew J Wade, Paola Meynet, Russell J Davenport
Little is known about the forces that determine the assembly of diverse bacterial communities inhabiting drinking water treatment filters and how this affects drinking water quality. Two contrasting ecological theories can help to understand how natural microbial communities assemble; niche theory and neutral theory, where environmental deterministic factors or stochastic factors predominate respectively. This study investigates the development of the microbial community on two common contrasting filter materials (quartz sand and granular activated carbon-GAC), to elucidate the main factors governing their assembly, through the evaluation of environmental (i...
September 22, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194651/antenatal-anemia-increases-the-risk-of-receiving-postpartum-red-blood-cell-transfusions-although-the-overall-risk-of-transfusion-is-low
#9
Kate Petty, Jonathan H Waters, Sara B Sakamoto, Mark H Yazer
BACKGROUND: The objective was to determine if antenatal anemia is associated with postpartum red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Women who gave birth at a regional, tertiary care maternity hospital between December 1, 2015, and September 31, 2016, with a documented antenatal hemoglobin (Hb) concentration were included. Women were grouped into those who were either anemic (Hb < 11.0 g/dL) or nonanemic. The change in Hb concentration and RBC transfusion rates were compared between the anemic and nonanemic women, as well as by the mode of delivery (vaginal vs...
December 1, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187750/beverage-consumption-in-australian-children
#10
Nicole Cockburn, Ratilal Lalloo, Lisa Schubert, Pauline J Ford
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: While beverages are an important dietary source of water and some essential nutrients, consumption of sweet beverages has increasingly been linked to adverse health outcomes. Currently there is a paucity of longitudinal consumption data on beverage consumption in Australian children. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children has run biennially since 2004. Twenty four-hour recall data collected over 6 waves from the birth cohort (aged 0-1 year at baseline) was analysed and demographics were assessed for associations...
November 30, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187161/does-the-oviparity-viviparity-transition-alter-the-partitioning-of-yolk-in-embryonic-snakes
#11
Yan-Qing Wu, Yan-Fu Qu, Xue-Ji Wang, Jian-Fang Gao, Xiang Ji
BACKGROUND: The oviparity-viviparity transition is a major evolutionary event, likely altering the reproductive process of the organisms involved. Residual yolk, a portion of yolk remaining unutilized at hatching or birth as parental investment in care, has been investigated in many oviparous amniotes but remained largely unknown in viviparous species. Here, we used data from 20 (12 oviparous and 8 viviparous) species of snakes to see if the oviparity-viviparity transition alters the partitioning of yolk in embryonic snakes...
November 29, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186387/resveratrol-intake-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-modulates-the-early-metabolic-effects-of-maternal-nutrition-differently-in-male-and-female-offspring
#12
Purificación Ros, Francisca Díaz, Alejandra Freire-Regatillo, Pilar Argente-Arizón, Vicente Barrios, Jesús Argente, Julie A Chowen
Poor maternal nutrition can have detrimental long-term consequences on energy homeostasis in the offspring. Resveratrol exerts anti-oxidant and anti-obesity actions, but its impact during development remains largely unknown. We hypothesized that resveratrol intake during pregnancy and lactation could improve the effects of poor maternal nutrition on offspring metabolism. Wistar rats received a low-fat diet (LFD: 10.2% Kcal from fat) or high fat diet (HFD: 61.6% Kcal from fat), with half of each group receiving resveratrol (+R) in their drinking water (50 mg/L) during pregnancy and lactation...
November 24, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186291/sex-differences-in-the-behavioral-desensitization-of-water-intake-observed-after-repeated-central-injections-of-angiotensin-ii
#13
Jessica Santollo, K Linnea Volcko, Derek Daniels
Previous in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrate that the angiotensin type 1 receptor rapidly desensitizes after exposure to angiotensin II (AngII). Behaviorally, this likely underlies the reduced drinking observed after acute repeated central injections of AngII. To date, this phenomenon has been studied exclusively in male subjects. Because there are sex differences in the dipsogenic potency of AngII, we hypothesized that sex differences also exist in desensitization caused by AngII. As expected, when male rats were pretreated with AngII, they drank less water after a test injection of AngII than did rats pretreated with vehicle...
November 24, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177099/estimating-the-need-for-inpatient-neonatal-services-an-iterative-approach-employing-evidence-and-expert-consensus-to-guide-local-policy-in-kenya
#14
REVIEW
Georgina A V Murphy, Donald Waters, Paul O Ouma, David Gathara, Sasha Shepperd, Robert W Snow, Mike English
Universal access to quality newborn health services will be essential to meeting specific Sustainable Development Goals to reduce neonatal and overall child mortality. Data for decision making are crucial for planning services and monitoring progress in these endeavours. However, gaps in local population-level and facility-based data hinder estimation of health service requirements for effective planning in many low-income and middle-income settings. We worked with local policy makers and experts in Nairobi City County, an area with a population of four million and the highest neonatal mortality rate amongst counties in Kenya, to address this gap, and developed a systematic approach to use available data to support policy and planning...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169099/exposure-to-arsenic-in-tap-water-and-gestational-diabetes-a-french-semi-ecological-study
#15
Cécile Marie, Stéphanie Léger, Aline Guttmann, Olivier Rivière, Nathalie Marchiset, Didier Lémery, Françoise Vendittelli, Marie-Pierre Sauvant-Rochat
INTRODUCTION: The increase in the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and its consequences for mother and children prompts research on their risk factors including environmental factors. Studies on exposure to arsenic (As) in tap water and the risk of GDM have not provided conclusive evidence, particularly when levels of exposure were low (from 10 to 50µg As/L). The main objective of this study was to assess the association between exposure to As in tap water and the risk of GDM...
November 20, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168981/high-resolution-rapid-neonatal-whole-body-composition-using-3-0-tesla-chemical-shift-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#16
Jonathan P Dyke, Amanda C Garfinkel, Alan M Groves, Arzu Kovanlikaya
BACKGROUND: To evaluate a whole body rapid imaging technique to calculate neonatal lean body mass and percentage adiposity using 3.0 Tesla chemical shift Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). METHODS: A 2-Point Dixon MRI technique was used to calculate whole body fat and water images in term (n=10) and preterm (n=15) infants. RESULTS: Chemical shift images were obtained in 42 s. MRI calculated whole body mass correlated closely with measured body weight (R(2)=0...
November 23, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164940/applying-ecological-frameworks-in-obesity-intervention-studies-in-hispanic-latino-youth-a-systematic-review
#17
Carmen Kiraly, Melanie T Turk, Melissa A Kalarchian, Cheryl Shaffer
INTRODUCTION: In the United States, Hispanic children have higher rates of obesity compared with non-Hispanic White children. An ecological framework provides a holistic view of the environment to which Hispanic/Latino children are exposed that can potentially inform prevention and treatment initiatives for this vulnerable population. METHOD: This systematic review examines the existing evidence on the use of an ecological framework in intervention studies targeting overweight and obesity in Hispanic youth from birth to 8 years...
September 2017: Hispanic Health Care International: the Official Journal of the National Association of Hispanic Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164515/early-life-exposure-to-cadmium-triggers-distinct-zn-dependent-protein-expression-patterns-and-impairs-brain-development
#18
Safa Ben Mimouna, Marouane Chemek, Sana Boughammoura, Mohamed Banni, Imed Messaoudi
The objective of this study was to determine if the brain development impairment induced by early-life exposure to cadmium (Cd) could result from changes in the expression pattern of distinct zinc (Zn)-dependent proteins. For this purpose, adult female rats receiving either tap water, Cd, Zn, or Cd + Zn in their drinking water during gestation and lactation periods were used. After birth, the male offspring were screened for locomotors and sensorial defects. At postnatal day 21 (PND 21), the male pups were sacrificed and their brains, liver, and plasma were taken for chemical, biochemical, and molecular analyses...
November 22, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155920/early-pregnancy-perfluoroalkyl-substance-plasma-concentrations-and-birth-outcomes-in-project-viva-confounded-by-pregnancy-hemodynamics
#19
Sharon K Sagiv, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Abby F Fleisch, Thomas F Webster, Antonia M Calafat, Xiaoyun Ye, Matthew W Gillman, Emily Oken
Associations of prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), ubiquitous chemicals used in stain and water resistant products, with adverse birth outcomes may be confounded by pregnancy hemodynamics. We measured plasma concentrations of four PFASs in early pregnancy (median, 9 weeks) among 1,645 women in Project Viva, a Boston-area cohort recruited 1999-2002. We fit multivariable models to estimate PFAS associations with birth weight-for-gestational age z score and gestation length adjusting for sociodemographic confounders and two hemodynamic markers: 1) plasma albumin, a measure of plasma volume expansion, and 2) plasma creatinine, used to estimate glomerular filtration rate...
November 16, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153521/efficacy-of-colostrum-replacer-versus-maternal-colostrum-on-immunological-status-health-and-growth-of-preweaned-dairy-calves
#20
A Lago, M Socha, A Geiger, D Cook, N Silva-Del-Río, C Blanc, R Quesnell, C Leonardi
Commercially available colostrum replacers (CR) are commonly used when maternal colostrum (MC) is unavailable, for managerial convenience, to ensure quality consistency at first feeding, or in disease control and eradication programs. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of feeding First Day Formula (Accelerated Genetics, Baraboo, WI) CR versus pooled MC on immunological status, growth, and health of preweaned dairy calves. A total of 1,220 Jersey and Jersey × Holstein calves born on a California Central Valley dairy farm were assigned after birth to receive either CR or MC following a systematic allocation procedure...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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