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Stefan Elmer, Joëlle Albrecht, Seyed Abolfazl Valizadeh, Clément François, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells
Word learning constitutes a human faculty which is dependent upon two anatomically distinct processing streams projecting from posterior superior temporal (pST) and inferior parietal (IP) brain regions toward the prefrontal cortex (dorsal stream) and the temporal pole (ventral stream). The ventral stream is involved in mapping sensory and phonological information onto lexical-semantic representations, whereas the dorsal stream contributes to sound-to-motor mapping, articulation, complex sequencing in the verbal domain, and to how verbal information is encoded, stored, and rehearsed from memory...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Natalia Mitrofanova, Marit Westergaard
This paper focuses on the acquisition of locative prepositional phrases in L1 Norwegian. We report on two production experiments with children acquiring Norwegian as their first language and compare the results to similar experiments conducted with Russian children. The results of the experiments show that Norwegian children at age 2 regularly produce locative utterances lacking overt prepositions, with the rate of preposition omission decreasing significantly by age 3. Furthermore, our results suggest that phonologically strong and semantically unambiguous locative items appear earlier in Norwegian children's utterances than their phonologically weak and semantically ambiguous counterparts...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Child Language
Cristina Caciolo, Paolo Alfieri, Giorgia Piccini, Maria Cristina Digilio, Francesca Romana Lepri, Marco Tartaglia, Deny Menghini, Stefano Vicari
BACKGROUND: Kabuki syndrome (KS) is a disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies affecting development and function of multiple systems. Over the years, researchers have attempted to characterize the neurobehavioral phenotype of KS in cohorts of patients enrolled on the basis of clinical assessment. The availability of molecular testing now allows for recruitment of patients with confirmed KS due to KMT2D and KDM6A. METHODS: The aims of the present study were to investigate the neuropsychological and behavioral profiles of individuals with molecularly confirmed diagnosis of KS, and determine the extent of heterogeneity occurring in these profiles between individuals with clinical diagnosis of KS with and without mutations in KMT2D...
March 13, 2018: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
Zhizhou Deng, Bharath Chandrasekaran, Suiping Wang, Patrick C M Wong
In second language acquisition studies, the high talker variability training approach has been frequently used to train participants to learn new speech patterns. However, the neuroplasticity induced by training is poorly understood. In the present study, native English speakers were trained on non-native pitch patterns (linguistic tones from Mandarin Chinese) in multi-talker (N = 16) or single-talker (N = 16) training conditions. We focused on two aspects of multi-talker training, voice processing and lexical phonology accessing, and used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure brain activation and functional connectivity (FC) of two regions of interest in a tone identification task conducted before and after training, namely the anterior part of the right superior temporal gyrus (aRSTG) and the posterior left superior temporal gyrus (pLSTG)...
March 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Geoffrey A Coalson, Courtney T Byrd, Amanda Kuylen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Previous studies employing a variety of tasks have demonstrated that adults who stutter (AWS) pre-sent with phonological encoding differences compared to adults who do not stutter (AWNS). The present study examined whether atypical preverbal monitoring also influenced AWS performance during one such paradigm - the silent phoneme monitoring task. Specifically, we investigated whether monitoring latencies for AWS were accelerated after the word's uniqueness point - the phoneme that isolates the word from all lexical competitors - as observed for AWNS when monitoring internal and external speech...
March 13, 2018: Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica
Ulrike Schild, Claudia K Friedrich
It is a matter of debate, whether and how improved auditory discrimination abilities enable speeded speech comprehension in congenitally blind adults. Previous research concentrated on semantic and syntactic aspects of processing. Here we investigated phonologically mediated spoken word access processes by means of word onset priming. Blind adults and age- and gender-matched sighted adults listened to spoken word onsets (primes) followed by complete words (targets). Phonological overlap between primes and targets varied...
March 7, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Yingying Tan, Randi C Martin
This study examined the role of verbal short-term memory (STM) and executive function (EF) underlying semantic and syntactic interference resolution during sentence comprehension for persons with aphasia (PWA) with varying degrees of STM and EF deficits. Semantic interference was manipulated by varying the semantic plausibility of the intervening NP as subject of the verb and syntactic interference was manipulated by varying whether the NP was another subject or an object. Nine PWA were assessed on sentence reading times and on comprehension question performance...
March 7, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Qiuhai Yue, Randi C Martin, A Cris Hamilton, Nathan S Rose
Buffer versus embedded processes accounts of short-term memory (STM) for phonological information were addressed by testing subjects' perception and memory for speech and non-speech auditory stimuli. Univariate and multivariate (MVPA) approaches were used to assess whether brain regions recruited in recognizing speech were involved in maintaining speech representations over a delay. As expected, a left superior temporal region was found to support speech perception. However, contrary to the embedded processes approach, this region failed to show a load effect, or any sustained activation, during a maintenance delay...
March 7, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Tian Hong, Lan Shuai, Stephen J Frost, Nicole Landi, Kenneth R Pugh, Hua Shu
We investigated whether preschoolers with poor phonological awareness (PA) skills had impaired cortical basis for detecting speech feature, and whether speech perception influences future literacy outcomes in preschoolers. We recorded ERP responses to speech in 52 Chinese preschoolers. The results showed that the poor PA group processed speech changes differentially compared to control group in mismatch negativity (MMN) and late discriminative negativity (LDN). Furthermore, speech perception in kindergarten could predict literacy outcomes after literacy acquisition...
March 9, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Marjolaine Cohen, G Mahé, Marina Laganaro, Pascal Zesiger
Reading predictors evolve through age: phonological awareness is the best predictor of reading abilities at the beginning of reading acquisition while Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) becomes the best reading predictor in more experienced readers (around 9-10 years old). Those developmental changes in the relationship between RAN and reading have so far been explained in term of participants' age. However, it should be noted that in the previous experiments age always co-vary with participants reading level. It is thus not clear whether RAN-reading relationship is developmental in nature or related to the reading system itself...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
H Branch Coslett, Myrna F Schwartz
Although the parietal lobe was considered by many of the earliest investigators of disordered language to be a major component of the neural systems instantiating language, most views of the anatomic substrate of language emphasize the role of temporal and frontal lobes in language processing. We review evidence from lesion studies as well as functional neuroimaging, demonstrating that the left parietal lobe is also crucial for several aspects of language. First, we argue that the parietal lobe plays a major role in semantic processing, particularly for "thematic" relationships in which information from multiple sensory and motor domains is integrated...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Musetta C Fu, Basia Belza, Huong Nguyen, Rebecca Logsdon, Steven Demorest
PURPOSE: Participating in a group-singing program may be beneficial to healthy aging through engaging in active music-making activities and breathing exercises. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and impact of a 12-week group singing program on cognitive function, lung health and quality of life (QoL) of older adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A pre and post-test quasi-experimental design evaluated the impact of a group-singing program on older adult health...
February 23, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Pamela Luft
This manuscript reviews 28 studies of reading research on deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) students published since 2000 that used correlational analyses. The examination focused on assessment issues affecting measurement and analysis of relationships between early phonological or orthographic skills and reading comprehension. Mixed outcomes complicate efforts to determine evidence-based practices, and to develop an accurate model of reading. Across the 28 studies, DHH participants represented a wide age range with potential floor and ceiling effects that reduce score variability for valid correlations...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
Ryoji Nishiyama
Models of verbal working memory that incorporate active memory maintenance, long-term memory networks, and attention control have been developed. Current studies suggest that semantic representations of words, evoked via long-term memory networks, are actively maintained until they are needed to fulfill a role. In other words, it is possible that some mechanism actively refreshes semantic representations of words, analogous to but independently from articulatory rehearsal which refreshes phonological representations...
2018: PloS One
Benjamin Kowialiewski, Steve Majerus
The lexicality effect in verbal short-term memory (STM), in which word lists are better recalled than nonwords lists, is considered to reflect the influence of linguistic long-term memory (LTM) knowledge on verbal STM performance. The locus of this effect remains, however, a matter of debate. The redintegrative account considers that degrading phonological traces of memoranda are reconstructed at recall by selecting lexical LTM representations that match the phonological traces. According to a strong version of this account, redintegrative processes should be strongly reduced in recognition paradigms, leading to reduced LTM effects...
March 7, 2018: Memory
George K Georgiou, Raabia Ghazyani, Rauno Parrila
The purpose of this study was to examine different hypotheses in relation to RAN deficits in dyslexia. Thirty university students with dyslexia and 32 chronological-age controls were assessed on RAN Digits and Colors as well as on two versions of RAN Letters and Objects (one with five items repeated 16 times and one with 20 items repeated four times). In addition, participants were tested on discrete letter and object naming, phonological awareness, orthographic knowledge, and speed of processing, and the RAN Letters and Objects total times were partitioned into pause times and articulation times...
March 6, 2018: Annals of Dyslexia
Gabrielle Miller, Barbara Lewis, Penelope Benchek, Emily Buss, Lauren Calandruccio
Purpose: The relationship between reading (decoding) skills, phonological processing abilities, and masked speech recognition in typically developing children was explored. This experiment was designed to evaluate the relationship between phonological processing and decoding abilities and 2 aspects of masked speech recognition in typically developing children: (a) the ability to benefit from temporal and spectral modulations within a noise masker and (b) the masking exerted by a speech masker...
March 4, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Pilar Sellés, Vicenta Ávila, Tomás Martínez, Liz Ysla
This paper deals with the skills related to the early reading acquisition in two countries that share language. Traditionally on reading readiness research there is a great interest to find out what factors affect early reading ability, but differ from other academic skills that affect general school learnings. Furthermore, it is also known how the influence of pre-reading variables in two countries with the same language, affect the development of the reading. On the other hand, several studies have examined what skills are related to reading readiness (phonological awareness, alphabetic awareness, naming speed, linguistic skills, metalinguistic knowledge and basic cognitive processes), but there are no studies showing whether countries can also influence the development of these skills...
2018: PloS One
Bethany L Sussman, Samir Reddigari, Sharlene D Newman
Visual word recognition has been studied for decades. One question that has received limited attention is how different text presentation orientations disrupt word recognition. By examining how word recognition processes may be disrupted by different text orientations it is hoped that new insights can be gained concerning the process. Here, we examined the impact of rotating and inverting text on the neural network responsible for visual word recognition focusing primarily on a region of the occipto-temporal cortex referred to as the visual word form area (VWFA)...
February 27, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Irene Minkina, Nadine Martin, Kristie A Spencer, Diane L Kendall
Purpose: This study explored the relationship between anomia and verbal short-term memory (STM) in the context of an interactive activation language processing model. Method: Twenty-four individuals with aphasia and reduced STM spans (i.e., impaired immediate serial recall of words) completed a picture-naming task and a word pair repetition task (a measure of verbal STM). Correlations between verbal STM and word retrieval errors made on the picture-naming task were examined...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
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