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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526621/electrophysiological-signatures-of-phonological-and-semantic-maintenance-in-sentence-repetition
#1
Jed A Meltzer, Aneta Kielar, Lilia Panamsky, Kira A Links, Tiffany Deschamps, Rosie C Leigh
Verbal short-term memory comprises resources for phonological rehearsal, which have been characterized anatomically, and for maintenance of semantic information, which are less understood. Sentence repetition tasks tap both processes interactively. To distinguish brain activity involved in phonological vs. semantic maintenance, we recorded magnetoencephalography during a sentence repetition task, incorporating three manipulations emphasizing one mechanism over the other. Participants heard sentences or word lists and attempted to repeat them verbatim after a 5-second delay...
May 16, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522967/sources-of-phoneme-errors-in-repetition-perseverative-neologistic-and-lesion-patterns-in-jargon-aphasia
#2
Emma Pilkington, James Keidel, Luke T Kendrick, James D Saddy, Karen Sage, Holly Robson
This study examined patterns of neologistic and perseverative errors during word repetition in fluent Jargon aphasia. The principal hypotheses accounting for Jargon production indicate that poor activation of a target stimulus leads to weakly activated target phoneme segments, which are outcompeted at the phonological encoding level. Voxel-lesion symptom mapping studies of word repetition errors suggest a breakdown in the translation from auditory-phonological analysis to motor activation. Behavioral analyses of repetition data were used to analyse the target relatedness (Phonological Overlap Index: POI) of neologistic errors and patterns of perseveration in 25 individuals with Jargon aphasia...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517945/predicting-growth-in-english-and-french-vocabulary-the-facilitating-effects-of-morphological-and-cognate-awareness
#3
Nadia D'Angelo, Kathleen Hipfner-Boucher, Xi Chen
The present study investigated the contribution of morphological and cognate awareness to the development of English and French vocabulary knowledge among young minority and majority language children who were enrolled in a French immersion program. Participating children (n = 75) were assessed in English and French on measures of morphological awareness, cognate awareness, and vocabulary knowledge from Grades 1 to 3. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to investigate linear trends in English and French vocabulary growth for minority and majority language children and to identify metalinguistic contributions to Grade 1 and Grade 3 English and French vocabulary performance and rate of growth...
May 18, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515265/clinical-marker-for-alzheimer-disease-pathology-in-logopenic-primary-progressive-aphasia
#4
Lucia A A Giannini, David J Irwin, Corey T McMillan, Sharon Ash, Katya Rascovsky, David A Wolk, Vivianna M Van Deerlin, Edward B Lee, John Q Trojanowski, Murray Grossman
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether logopenic features of phonologic loop dysfunction reflect Alzheimer disease (AD) neuropathology in primary progressive aphasia (PPA). METHODS: We performed a retrospective case-control study of 34 patients with PPA with available autopsy tissue. We compared baseline and longitudinal clinical features in patients with primary AD neuropathology to those with primary non-AD pathologies. We analyzed regional neuroanatomic disease burden in pathology-defined groups using postmortem neuropathologic data...
May 17, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507981/a-quasi-experimental-study-of-a-movement-and-preliteracy-program-for-3-and-4-year-old-children
#5
Chloe Bedard, Emily Bremer, Wenonah Campbell, John Cairney
OBJECTIVE: Approximately 28% of children are not ready for kindergarten, 91% are inactive according to current guidelines, and 21% are overweight/obese. Early intervention to strengthen movement and preliteracy skills may help to curb the concerning rates of poor school readiness, inactivity, obesity, and subsequently positively impact health across the lifespan. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a motor and preliteracy skill program for a community sample of 3- to 4-year-old children...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506807/phoneme-processing-skills-are-reflected-in-children-s-mmn-responses
#6
Tanja Linnavalli, Vesa Putkinen, Minna Huotilainen, Mari Tervaniemi
Phonological awareness (PA), the core contributor in phoneme processing abilities, has a link to later reading skills in children. However, the associations between PA and neural auditory discrimination are not clear. We used event-related potential (ERP) methodology and neuropsychological testing to monitor the neurocognitive basis of phonological awareness in typically developing children. We measured 5-6-year-old children's (N=70) phoneme processing, word completion and perceptual reasoning skills and compared their test results to their brain responses to phonemic changes, separately for each test...
May 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506484/a-surgical-approach-to-the-anatomo-functional-structure-of-language
#7
REVIEW
E Mandonnet
INTRODUCTION: Language is the most widely mapped cognitive function during brain surgery. Intraoperative language functional mapping using direct electrical stimulation under awake conditions is currently the gold standard technique for establishing the causal link between an area and a deficit that would be caused by its resection. It is also a powerful tool to investigate the anatomical correlates of current neuropsychological models of language. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The aim of this article is to reexamine the anatomo-functional structure of language that could be inferred from data obtained in direct electrical stimulation studies during awake surgery...
May 12, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506442/boosting-syntax-training-with-temporally-regular-musical-primes-in-children-with-cochlear-implants
#8
N Bedoin, A-M Besombes, E Escande, A Dumont, P Lalitte, B Tillmann
OBJECTIVES: Previous research has suggested the use of rhythmic structures (implemented in musical material) to improve linguistic structure processing (i.e., syntax processing), in particular for populations showing deficits in syntax and temporal processing (e.g., children with developmental language disorders). The present study proposes a long-term training program to improve syntax processing in children with cochlear implants, a population showing syntax processing deficits in perception and production...
May 11, 2017: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505273/factor-analysis-of-an-expanded-halstead-reitan-battery-and-the-structure-of-neurocognition
#9
Virginie M Patt, Gregory G Brown, Michael L Thomas, Scott C Roesch, Michael J Taylor, Robert K Heaton
Objective: The structure of neurocognition is explored by examining the neurocognitive domains underlying comprehensive neuropsychological assessment of cognitively healthy individuals. Method: Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the adult normative dataset of an expanded Halstead-Reitan Battery (eHRB), comprising Caucasian and African American participants. The factor structure contributions of the original HRB, eHRB expansion, and Wechsler intelligence scales were compared...
May 13, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504532/orthography-affects-second-language-speech-double-letters-and-geminate-production-in-english
#10
Bene Bassetti
Second languages (L2s) are often learned through spoken and written input, and L2 orthographic forms (spellings) can lead to non-native-like pronunciation. The present study investigated whether orthography can lead experienced learners of EnglishL2 to make a phonological contrast in their speech production that does not exist in English. Double consonants represent geminate (long) consonants in Italian but not in English. In Experiment 1, native English speakers and EnglishL2 speakers (Italians) were asked to read aloud English words spelled with a single or double target consonant letter, and consonant duration was compared...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499139/a-novel-form-of-perceptual-attunement-context-dependent-perception-of-a-native-contrast-in-14-month-old-infants
#11
Mathilde Fort, Perrine Brusini, M Julia Carbajal, Yue Sun, Sharon Peperkamp
By the end of their first year of life, infants have become experts in discriminating the sounds of their native language, while they have lost the ability to discriminate non-native contrasts. This type of phonetic learning is referred to as perceptual attunement. In the present study, we investigated the emergence of a context-dependent form of perceptual attunement in infancy. Indeed, some native contrasts are not discriminated in certain phonological contexts by adults, due to the presence of a language-specific process that neutralizes the contrasts in those contexts...
April 26, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498724/phonological-patterns-templates-in-5p-deletion-syndrome
#12
Nina Gram Garmann, Kristian Emil Kristoffersen, Hanne Gram Simonsen
Whole word phonological patterns (templates) in utterances produced by children with 5p deletion syndrome are analysed, addressing four questions: (1) Are children with 5p deletion syndrome able to generalise over words? (2) How does the template score of children with 5p deletion syndrome relate to those of typically developing children and of the target language? (3) How do the template scores relate to other phonological measures, PCC and consonant variegation? (4) What can the relationship between template scores and phonological measures tell us about templates? Children with 5p deletion syndrome are able to generalise over words, some to a target like extent, others generalise more than expected for their age...
May 12, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497530/short-term-memory-in-childhood-dyslexia-deficient-serial-order-in-multiple-modalities
#13
Nelson Cowan, Tiffany P Hogan, Mary Alt, Samuel Green, Kathryn L Cabbage, Shara Brinkley, Shelley Gray
In children with dyslexia, deficits in working memory have not been well-specified. We assessed second-grade children with dyslexia, with and without concomitant specific language impairment, and children with typical development. Immediate serial recall of lists of phonological (non-word), lexical (digit), spatial (location) and visual (shape) items were included. For the latter three modalities, we used not only standard span but also running span tasks, in which the list length was unpredictable to limit mnemonic strategies...
May 12, 2017: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496393/subtlety-of-ambient-language-effects-in-babbling-a-study-of-english-and-chinese-learning-infants-at-8-10-and-12-months
#14
Chia-Cheng Lee, Yuna Jhang, Li-Mei Chen, George Relyea, D Kimbrough Oller
Prior research on ambient-language effects in babbling has often suggested infants produce language-specific phonological features within the first year. These results have been questioned in research failing to find such effects and challenging the positive findings on methodological grounds. We studied English- and Chinese-learning infants at 8, 10, and 12 months and found listeners could not detect ambient-language effects in the vast majority of infant utterances, but only in items deemed to be words or to contain canonical syllables that may have made them sound like words with language-specific shapes...
2017: Language Learning and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495601/structural-connectivity-subserving-verbal-fluency-revealed-by-lesion-behavior-mapping-in-stroke-patients
#15
Mingyang Li, Yumei Zhang, Luping Song, Ruiwang Huang, Junhua Ding, Yuxing Fang, Yangwen Xu, Zaizhu Han
Tests of verbal fluency have been widely used to assess the cognitive functioning of persons, and are typically classified into two categories (semantic and phonological fluency). While widely-distributed divergent and convergent brain regions have been found to be involved in semantic and phonological fluency, the anatomical connectivity underlying the fluency is not well understood. The present study aims to construct a comprehensive white-matter network associated with semantic and phonological fluency by investigating the relationship between the integrity of 22 major tracts in the whole brain and semantic fluency (measured by 3 cues) and phonological fluency (measured by 2 cues) in a group of 51 stroke patients...
May 8, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493726/anticipatory-coarticulation-and-the-minimal-planning-unit-of-speech
#16
Qiang Liu, Alan H Kawamoto, Katherine K Payne, Genvieve N Dorsey
One of the most persistent arguments against the segment as the minimal planning unit is that the seemingly ubiquitous, thus, presumed obligatory, nature of anticipatory coarticulation (AC) effects favors the syllable or a larger unit. By contrast, we present the results of 3 experiments showing that AC is not ubiquitous, but graded and variable based on (a) phonological availability and (b) the specific criterion to initiate articulation adopted by a speaker. We further argue that phonological encoding is parallel...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493359/verbal-and-non-verbal-fluency-in-adults-with-developmental-dyslexia-phonological-processing-or-executive-control-problems
#17
James H Smith-Spark, Lucy A Henry, David J Messer, Adam P Zięcik
The executive function of fluency describes the ability to generate items according to specific rules. Production of words beginning with a certain letter (phonemic fluency) is impaired in dyslexia, while generation of words belonging to a certain semantic category (semantic fluency) is typically unimpaired. However, in dyslexia, verbal fluency has generally been studied only in terms of overall words produced. Furthermore, performance of adults with dyslexia on non-verbal design fluency tasks has not been explored but would indicate whether deficits could be explained by executive control, rather than phonological processing, difficulties...
May 11, 2017: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492912/auditory-verbal-working-memory-as-a-predictor-of-speech-perception-in-modulated-maskers-in-listeners-with-normal-hearing
#18
Rebecca E Millman, Sven L Mattys
Purpose: Background noise can interfere with our ability to understand speech. Working memory capacity (WMC) has been shown to contribute to the perception of speech in modulated noise maskers. WMC has been assessed with a variety of auditory and visual tests, often pertaining to different components of working memory. This study assessed the relationship between speech perception in modulated maskers and components of auditory verbal working memory (AVWM) over a range of signal-to-noise ratios...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492716/prevalence-of-phonological-disorders-and-phonological-processes-in-typical-and-atypical-phonological-development
#19
Marizete Ilha Ceron, Marileda Barichello Gubiani, Camila Rosa de Oliveira, Marieli Barichello Gubiani, Márcia Keske-Soares
Purpose: To determine the occurrence of phonological disorders by age, gender and school type, and analyze the phonological processes observed in typical and atypical phonological development across different age groups. Methods: The sample consisted of 866 children aged between 3:0 and 8:11 years, recruited from public and private schools in the city of Santa Maria/RS. A phonological evaluation was performed to analyze the operative phonological processes. Results: 15...
May 8, 2017: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491042/disentangling-working-memory-functioning-in-mood-states-of-bipolar-disorder-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Carolina Soraggi-Frez, Flávia H Santos, Pedro B Albuquerque, Leandro F Malloy-Diniz
Working memory (WM) deficits are often reported in patients with Bipolar Disorder (BD). However, it is not clear about the nature of these WM deficits (update or serial order processes) and their association with each BD states (euthymic, mania, and depressive). This review investigated the association between BD patient's states and the functioning of WM components. For this purpose, we carried out a systematic review fulfilling a search in the databases Medline, Scopus, SciELO, and Web of Science using specific terms in the abstracts of the articles that generated 212 outcomes in the restricted period from 2005 to 2016...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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