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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331204/a-cognitive-model-for-multidigit-number-reading-inferences-from-individuals-with-selective-impairments
#1
Dror Dotan, Naama Friedmann
We propose a detailed cognitive model of multi-digit number reading. The model postulates separate processes for visual analysis of the digit string and for oral production of the verbal number. Within visual analysis, separate sub-processes encode the digit identities and the digit order, and additional sub-processes encode the number's decimal structure: its length, the positions of 0, and the way it is parsed into triplets (e.g., 314987 → 314,987). Verbal production consists of a process that generates the verbal structure of the number, and another process that retrieves the phonological forms of each number word...
November 14, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323179/neither-action-nor-phonological-video-games-make-dyslexic-children-read-better
#2
Magdalena Łuniewska, Katarzyna Chyl, Agnieszka Dębska, Agnieszka Kacprzak, Joanna Plewko, Marcin Szczerbiński, Jakub Szewczyk, Anna Grabowska, Katarzyna Jednoróg
The prevalence and long-term consequences of dyslexia make it crucial to look for effective and efficient ways of its therapy. Action video games (AVG) were implied as a possible remedy for difficulties in reading in Italian and English-speaking children. However, the studies examining the effectiveness of AVG application in dyslexia suffered from significant methodological weaknesses such as small sample sizes and lack of a control group with no intervention. In our study, we tested how two forms of training: based on AVG and on phonological non-action video games (PNAVG), affect reading in a group of fifty-four Polish children with dyslexia...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319358/cognitive-mechanisms-underlying-the-associations-between-inattention-and-reading-abilities
#3
Vickie Plourde, Michel Boivin, Mara Brendgen, Frank Vitaro, Philippe Robaey, Richard E Tremblay, Ginette Dionne
This study aims to test cognitive skills underlying the association between inattention and reading in early primary school. Teachers rated inattention symptoms when children (N = 523-962) were 6-7 years old. Children were assessed at age 7-8 on phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), rapid auditory and bimodal processing, vocabulary, and reading (decoding and comprehension). Phonological awareness, RAN of numbers, and vocabulary mediated the association between inattention and both decoding and comprehension...
January 10, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317143/predictors-of-speech-outcomes-in-children-with-pierre-robin-sequence
#4
Anne Morice, Francis Renault, Véronique Soupre, Cécile Chapuis, Chantal Trichet Zbinden, Natacha Kadlub, Amerigo Giudice, Marie-Paule Vazquez, Arnaud Picard
BACKGOUND: Pierre Robin sequence (PRS) has worse speech outcomes than isolated cleft palate. We aimed to search for possible associations of phonological outcomes with PRS status (isolated vs syndromic), clinical severity, soft palate muscles deficiency, or surgical procedure. METHODS: We designed a retrospective study of 130 children (male/female ratio: 0.4) with isolated (96) or syndromic (34) PRS with cleft palate. Grading systems were used to classify retrognathia, glossoptosis, and respiratory and feeding disorders...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316015/tracking-the-effects-of-dyslexia-in-reading-and-spelling-development-a-longitudinal-study-of-greek-readers
#5
Vassiliki Diamanti, Nata Goulandris, Morag Stuart, Ruth Campbell, Athanassios Protopapas
In this study, we followed Greek children with and without dyslexia for 18 months, assessing them twice on a battery of phonological, reading, and spelling tasks, aiming to document the relative progress achieved and to uncover any specific effects of dyslexia in the development of reading and spelling beyond the longitudinal associations among variables that are observed in typical readers. A wide-ranging match was achieved between the dyslexic group and the younger reading-matched comparison group, enabling longitudinal comparisons on essentially identical initial performance profiles...
January 5, 2018: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313414/a-survey-of-phonological-mid-vowel-intuitions-in-central-catalan
#6
Margaret E L Renwick, Marianna Nadeu
Catalan, like other Romance languages, has two pairs of phonemic mid vowels (/be/ "well" vs. /bɛ/ "lamb"; /os/ "bear" vs. /ɔs/ "bone"). However, these contrasts do not function like others in the language: they are partially phonologically conditioned, and evidence shows that words may be pronounced with different mid vowels by speakers of the same variety or even by the same speaker. Spanish may influence this instability, as first-language Spanish Catalan-Spanish bilinguals struggle to perceive and produce the contrast...
January 1, 2018: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304447/dyslexia-as-a-multi-deficit-disorder-working-memory-and-auditory-temporal-processing
#7
Leah Fostick, Hadas Revah
Dyslexia is difficulty in acquiring reading skills despite adequate intelligence and sufficient reading opportunities. Its origin is still under debate. Studies usually focus on a singular cause for dyslexia; however, some researchers argue that dyslexia reflects multiple deficits. Two of the abilities under investigation in dyslexia are working memory (WM) and auditory temporal processing (ATP). In order to better evaluate the relative roles of WM and ATP in dyslexia, in the present study, we tested the contribution of WM and ATP to different types of reading performance and phonological awareness in dyslexia, using a multidimensional approach...
January 2, 2018: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298550/maximising-recovery-from-aphasia-with-central-and-peripheral-agraphia-the-benefit-of-sequential-treatments
#8
Pélagie M Beeson, Chelsea Bayley, Christine Shultz, Kindle Rising
Maximal recovery from acquired language impairment may require progression from one behavioural treatment protocol to the next in order to build upon residual and relearned cognitive-linguistic and sensory-motor processes. We present a five-stage treatment sequence that was initiated at one year post stroke in a woman with acquired impairments of spoken and written language. As is typical of individuals with left perisylvian damage, she demonstrated marked impairment of phonological retrieval and sublexical phonology, but she also faced additional challenges due to impaired letter shape knowledge and visual attention...
January 3, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297757/learning-nonwords-the-hebb-repetition-effect-as-a-model-of-word-learning
#9
Dennis Norris, Michael P A Page, Jane Hall
Page and Norris [(2008). Is there a common mechanism underlying word-form learning and the Hebb repetition effect? Experimental data and a modelling framework. In A. Thorn & M. P. A. Page (Eds.), Interactions between short-term and long-term memory in the verbal domain; (2009). A model linking immediate serial recall, the Hebb repetition effect and the learning of phonological word forms. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 364(1536), 3737-3753. doi:10.1098/rstb.2009.0173] have suggested that the Hebb [(1961)...
January 3, 2018: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289078/native-phonological-processing-abilities-predict-post-consolidation-nonnative-contrast-learning-in-adults
#10
F Sayako Earle, Dana T Arthur
This study examined the relationship between native phonological processing ability and the learning outcome of a trained nonnative (Hindi /ɖ/ - / d̪/) contrast. Participants were perceptually trained and assessed in the evening, and reassessed early the next morning. Native phonological processing ability did not predict the learning of the nonnative contrasts on Day 1. However, after a period of post-training sleep, Blending ability predicted nonnative Discrimination performance, and Nonword Repetition predicted nonnative Identification...
December 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283605/cognates-facilitate-switches-and-then-confusion-contrasting-effects-of-cascade-versus-feedback-on-language-selection
#11
Chuchu Li, Tamar H Gollan
The current study investigated the hypothesis that cognates (i.e., translation equivalents that overlap in form, e.g., lemon is limón in Spanish) facilitate language switches. Spanish-English bilinguals were cued to switch languages while repeatedly naming pictures with cognate versus noncognate names in separate (Experiment 1) or mixed (Experiments 2 and 3) blocks. In all 3 experiments, on the first presentation of each picture, cognates elicited significantly smaller switch costs and were produced faster than noncognates only on switch trials...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283604/orthographic-effects-in-second-language-spoken-word-recognition
#12
Qingqing Qu, Zhanling Cui, Markus F Damian
Evidence from both alphabetic and nonalphabetic languages has suggested the role of orthography in the processing of spoken words in individuals' native language (L1). Less evidence has existed for such effects in nonnative (L2) spoken-word processing. Whereas in L1 orthographic representations are learned only after phonological representations have long been established, in L2 the sound and spelling of words are often learned in conjunction; this might predict stronger orthographic effects in L2 than in L1 spoken processing...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282474/tutorial-assessment-and-analysis-of-polysyllables-in-young-children
#13
Sarah Masso, Sharynne McLeod, Elise Baker
Purpose: Polysyllables, words of 3 or more syllables, represent almost 30% of words used in American English. The purpose of this tutorial is to support speech-language pathologists' (SLPs') assessment and analysis of polysyllables, extending the focus of published assessment tools that focus on sampling and analyzing children's segmental accuracy and/or the presence of phonological error patterns. Method: This tutorial will guide SLPs through a review of 53 research papers that have explored the use of polysyllables in assessment, including the sampling and analysis procedures used in different research studies...
December 27, 2017: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280405/lexical-segmentation-in-artificial-word-learning-the-effects-of-converging-sublexical-cues
#14
Odile Bagou, Ulrich Hans Frauenfelder
This study examines how French listeners segment and learn new words of artificial languages varying in the presence of different combinations of sublexical segmentation cues. The first experiment investigated the contribution of three different types of sublexical cues (acoustic-phonetic, phonological and prosodic cues) to word learning. The second experiment explored how participants specifically exploited sublexical prosodic cues. Whereas complementary cues signaling word-initial and word-final boundaries had synergistic effects on word learning in the first experiment, the two manipulated prosodic cues redundantly signaling word-final boundaries in the second experiment were rank-ordered with final pitch variations being more weighted than final lengthening...
March 1, 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280107/neural-response-to-working-memory-demand-predicts-neurocognitive-deficits-in-hiv
#15
Ronald A Cohen, S Siegel, J M Gullett, E Porges, A J Woods, H Huang, Y Zhu, K Tashima, M-Z Ding
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to have adverse effects on cognition and the brain in many infected people, despite a reduced incidence of HIV-associated dementia with combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Working memory is often affected, along with attention, executive control, and cognitive processing speed. Verbal working memory (VWM) requires the interaction of each of the cognitive component processes along with a phonological loop for verbal repetition and rehearsal. HIV-related functional brain response abnormalities during VWM are evident in functional MRI (fMRI), though the neural substrate underlying these neurocognitive deficits is not well understood...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278950/the-effect-of-different-speaker-accents-on-sentence-comprehension-in-children-with-speech-sound-disorder
#16
Jennifer Harte, Pauline Frizelle, Fiona Gibbon
There is substantial evidence that a speaker's accent, specifically an unfamiliar accent, can affect the listener's comprehension. In general, this effect holds true for both adults and children as well as those with typical and impaired language. Previous studies have investigated the effect of different accents on individuals with language disorders, but children with speech sound disorders (SSDs) have received little attention. The current study aims to learn more about the ability of children with SSD to process different speaker accents...
December 26, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278932/correspondence-and-cluster-analysis-of-free-drawn-clocks-in-a-group-of-children-and-adolescents-with-neurological-and-psychiatric-diseases
#17
Izabela Kaczmarek, Paweł Kleka, Piotr Fliciński, Barbara Steinborn
The present work addresses the identification and qualitative assessment of errors that appear in a free-drawn clock-drawing test representing the time 8:20 in a sample of 455 children and adolescents with neurological diseases and their controls. The authors sought to verify whether the occurrence of particular errors in the clock drawings significantly differentiates the clinical groups. For statistical evaluation of the results, we applied correspondence analysis and cluster analysis. The results of the study showed that three types of errors played an important role in the differentiation of the groups: spatial neglect, mirror reflection, and phonological depletion...
December 26, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277646/convergence-of-spoken-and-written-language-processing-in-the-superior-temporal-sulcus
#18
Stephen M Wilson, Alexa Bautista, Angelica McCarron
Spoken and written language processing streams converge in the superior temporal sulcus (STS), but the functional and anatomical nature of this convergence is not clear. We used functional MRI to quantify neural responses to spoken and written language, along with unintelligible stimuli in each modality, and employed several strategies to segregate activations on the dorsal and ventral banks of the STS. We found that intelligible and unintelligible inputs in both modalities activated the dorsal bank of the STS...
December 22, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274945/role-of-linguistic-skills-in-fifth-grade-mathematics
#19
Tijs Kleemans, Eliane Segers, Ludo Verhoeven
The current study investigated the direct and indirect relations between basic linguistic skills (i.e., phonological skills and grammatical ability) and advanced linguistic skills (i.e., academic vocabulary and verbal reasoning), on the one hand, and fifth-grade mathematics (i.e., arithmetic, geometry, and fractions), on the other, taking working memory and general intelligence into account and controlling for socioeconomic status, age, and gender. The results showed the basic linguistic representations of 167 fifth graders to be indirectly related to their geometric and fraction skills via arithmetic...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261718/mapping-qtls-for-grain-yield-components-in-wheat-under-heat-stress
#20
Nabin Bhusal, Ashok Kumar Sarial, Pradeep Sharma, Sindhu Sareen
The current perspective of increasing global temperature makes heat stress as a major threat to wheat production worldwide. In order to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with heat tolerance, 251 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between HD2808 (heat tolerant) and HUW510 (heat susceptible) were evaluated under timely sown (normal) and late sown (heat stress) conditions for two consecutive crop seasons; 2013-14 and 2014-15. Grain yield (GY) and its components namely, grain weight/spike (GWS), grain number/spike (GNS), thousand grain weight (TGW), grain filling rate (GFR) and grain filling duration (GFD) were recorded for both conditions and years...
2017: PloS One
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