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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921180/-infections-during-immunosuppression
#1
Carsten Depmeier, Huldrych F Günthard, Urs C Steiner
Infections during Immunosuppression Abstract. Immunomodulating and immunosuppressive therapies are being used more and more frequently. Depending on the mechanism of action and the underlying disease, there is an increased risk of infection with these therapies. In everyday clinical practice, the individual risk of infection depends on a large number of patients, and environmental as well as pathogen-specific factors. Elderly and multimorbid patients are at particular risk of infection. Classical bacterial infections with possible atypical manifestation, hepatitis B virus, herpes viruses, mycobacteria and other granulomatous infections are prevalent...
June 2018: Praxis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916448/clinical-profile-and-risk-factors-associated-with-severe-scrub-typhus-infection-among-non-icu-patients-in-semi-urban-south-india
#2
Sarah S Premraj, K Mayilananthi, Durga Krishnan, K Padmanabhan, D Rajasekaran
Background & objectives: Scrub typhus is as an emerging infectious disease that generally causes acute febrile illness, with disease spectrum ranging from mild illness to multiorgan dysfunction. This study was aimed to report the clinical profile, complications and risk factors associated with severe illness in patients with scrub typhus, outside the intensive care setting. Methods: It was a prospective study, which involved recruitment of patients with acute febrile illness and diagnosed to have scrub typhus, who were admitted to the general medical wards of a tertiary care centre in Kanchipuram district, in semi-urban south India, over a 12 month period between June 2015 and May 2016...
January 2018: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915758/adult-onset-seizures-clinical-etiological-and-radiological-profile
#3
Sarabjot Kaur, Ravinder Garg, Simmi Aggarwal, Sumit Pal Singh Chawla, Ranabir Pal
Introduction: Adult onset seizure disorder is a major public health concern in terms of burden of disease, nature of illness, and its impact on individual, family, and community. This study was done to assess the clinical profile and etiology of adult onset seizures and correlates of clinical and radiological pattern. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional hospital-based study conducted on 100 cases presenting with adult onset seizures. Results: Adult onset seizures were most prevalent in the young and middle-aged adults than elderly; generalized seizures were more common than focal seizures...
January 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914955/pharmacokinetics-safety-and-tolerability-of-single-and-multiple-doses-of-relebactam-a-%C3%AE-lactamase-inhibitor-in-combination-with-imipenem-and-cilastatin-in-healthy-participants
#4
Elizabeth G Rhee, Matthew L Rizk, Nicole Calder, Marcela Nefliu, Steven J Warrington, Michael S Schwartz, Eric Mangin, Keith Boundy, Pratik Bhagunde, Francheska Colon-Gonzalez, Patricia Jumes, Yang Liu, Joan R Butterton
Relebactam is a novel class A and C β-lactamase inhibitor that is being developed in combination with imipenem/cilastatin for the treatment of serious gram-negative bacterial infections. Here we report on 2 phase 1 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability studies of relebactam administered with or without imipenem/cilastatin in healthy participants: 1) a single dose (25 to 1150 mg) and multiple dose (50 to 625 mg every 6 hours [q6h] for 7 to 14 days) escalation study in men and 2) a single dose (125 mg) study in women and elderly...
June 18, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914836/strategies-and-outcomes-for-aortic-endograft-explantation
#5
Dean J Arnaoutakis, Gaurav Sharma, Stuart Blackwood, Samir K Shah, Matthew Menard, C Keith Ozaki, Michael Belkin
BACKGROUND: Failure of endovascular aneurysm repairs (EVARs) requiring open conversion remains a major challenge. We analyzed indications for repair, operative strategies, and outcomes with a focus on iliac artery degeneration after endograft removal. METHODS: A prospective, institutional database was reviewed to identify patients who underwent explantation of a failed EVAR device. Demographics, reason for failure, operative details including extent of endograft removal, and complications/survival were examined...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914692/incidence-and-clinical-characteristics-of-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-in-osona-barcelona-spain-2003-2016
#6
J M Aragonès, J Altimiras, F Alonso, G Celedón, S Alfonso, P Roura, A Moreira
INTRODUCTION: According to most studies, the incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome increases with age, with a peak incidence occurring between 70 and 80 years of age. The objective of this study is to describe the incidence (overall and by sex and age group) and clinical characteristics of Guillain-Barré syndrome in Osona (Barcelona, Spain). METHODS: We performed a retrospective, descriptive, population-based study covering the period 2003 to 2016. RESULTS: The global incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome is 2...
June 15, 2018: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912695/detection-of-respiratory-viruses-in-deceased-persons-spain-2017
#7
Ana Navascués, Itziar Casado, Alejandra Pérez-García, Aitziber Aguinaga, Iván Martínez-Baz, Yugo Floristán, Carmen Ezpeleta, Jesús Castilla
During the 2016-17 influenza season in Spain, we tested specimens from 57 elderly deceased persons for respiratory viruses. Influenza viruses were detected in 18% of the specimens and any respiratory virus in 47%. Only 7% of participants had received a diagnosis of infection with the detected virus before death.
July 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910176/emapii-monoclonal-antibody-ameliorates-influenza-a-virus-induced-lung-injury
#8
Hongyan Lu, Sarvesh Chelvanambi, Christophe Poirier, Jacob Saliba, Keith L March, Matthias Clauss, Natalia V Bogatcheva
Influenza A virus (IAV) remains a major worldwide health threat, especially to high-risk populations, including the young and elderly. There is an unmet clinical need for therapy that will protect the lungs from damage caused by lower respiratory infection. Here, we analyzed the role of EMAPII, a stress- and virus-induced pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic factor, in IAV-induced lung injury. First, we demonstrated that IAV induces EMAPII surface translocation, release, and apoptosis in cultured endothelial and epithelial cells...
June 14, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909184/rates-causes-risk-factors-and-outcomes-of-readmission-following-deep-brain-stimulation-for-movement-disorders-analysis-of-the-u-s-nationwide-readmissions-database
#9
Kavelin Rumalla, Kyle A Smith, Kenneth A Follett, Jules M Nazzaro, Paul M Arnold
OBJECTIVE: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery has proven benefit for several movement disorders and medically-refractory psychiatric conditions and is considered a fairly safe procedure. We sought to determine the national rates, causes, predictors, and outcomes associated with 30-day and 90-day readmission. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The Nationwide Readmissions Database was queried (January-September 2013) using ICD-9-CM codes, identifying patients who underwent DBS for movement disorder (Parkinson's disease [PD], essential tremor [ET], or dystonia)...
June 10, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909165/-hepatic-and-extra-hepatic-manifestations-of-hepatitis-e-virus-infection
#10
Hélène Blasco-Perrin, Jean-Marie Péron
All patients with elevated transaminases in France should be tested for HEV infection. HEV can cause severe hepatitis, in particular in patients with chronic liver disease, pregnant women and the elderly. Extra-hepatic manifestations including a number of neurologic syndromes, thrombopenia and renal injury have been described. HEV can cause chronic infection in immunosuppressed patients, in particular in organ-transplant recipients, patients with hematological malignancies and individuals with HIV. In patients with hematological malignancies, viral clearance can occur at the time of remission, with a risk of acute cytolysis and acute liver failure...
June 13, 2018: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906311/elderly-psoriatic-patients-under-biological-therapies-an-italian-experience
#11
F Ricceri, F Bardazzi, A Chiricozzi, P Dapavo, F Ferrara, C Mugheddu, M Romanelli, F Rongioletti, F Prignano
BACKGROUND: The number elderly patients with psoriasis is steadily increasing in the Western world, nevertheless they are frequently excluded from biologic clinical trials and described as a high-risk group for adverse events. Thus, there is lack of information concerning safety and effectiveness of available treatments for psoriasis in the elderly, particularly about new biologic systemic drugs. OBJECTIVE: Our aim is to describe our experience with all biological therapies currently used in the elderly (> 65 years) psoriatic patients...
June 15, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904444/the-impact-of-nutritional-status-and-complete-blood-count-parameters-on-clinical-outcome-in-geriatric-critically-ill-patients
#12
Abdulkerim Yildiz, Ali Yigit, Ali Ramazan Benli
Background: The geriatric population in intensive care units (ICUs) has recently increased. The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of initial complete blood count (CBC)-related parameters and nutritional status on morbidity and mortality in geriatric ICU patients. Methods: A retrospective analysis was made of geriatric patients admitted to our tertiary adult ICU for 1 year. Patients with a length of stay (LOS) of < 48 h, with hematological malignancy or age < 65 years age were excluded from the study...
July 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904012/tuberculosis-specific-interferon-gamma-production-in-a-current-refugee-cohort-in-western-europe
#13
Alexandra Jablonka, Christian Dopfer, Christine Happle, Georgios Sogkas, Diana Ernst, Faranaz Atschekzei, Stefanie Hirsch, Annabelle Schäll, Adan Jirmo, Philipp Solbach, Reinhold Ernst Schmidt, Georg M N Behrens, Martin Wetzke
BACKGROUND: In 2015, a high number of refugees with largely unknown health statuses immigrated to Western Europe. To improve caretaking strategies, we assessed the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in a refugee cohort. METHODS: Interferon-Gamma release assays (IGRA, Quantiferon) were performed in n = 232 inhabitants of four German refugee centers in the summer of 2015. RESULTS: Most refugees were young, male adults. Overall, IGRA testing was positive in 17...
June 14, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902092/escherichia-coli-and-staphylococcus-aureus-leading-bacterial-pathogens-of-health-care-associated-infections-and-bacteremia-at-older-age
#14
Jan T Poolman, Annaliesa S Anderson
Bacteremia and healthcare-associated infections (HAI) continue to rise in industrialized countries, in line with population ageing and increased healthcare needs. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus are the most common pathogens causing HAI and bacteremia. Areas covered: This review discusses risk factors in the healthcare setting contributing to the rise in bacteremia and other invasive bacterial HAI in older populations in general, and attributed to E. coli and S. aureus. Treatment of infections is becoming increasingly difficult due to emerging antimicrobial resistance...
June 14, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901606/a-case-report-of-successful-treatment-of-secondary-aortoenteric-fistula-complicated-with-gastrointestinal-bleeding-and-retroperitoneal-abscess-in-an-elderly-patient
#15
Chunyan Jiang, Xueming Chen, Jianshe Li, Hongwei Li
RATIONALE: The treatment of secondary aortoenteric fistula (SAEF) involves maintaining hemodynamic stability, infection control, revascularization, and surgical repair. Conventional open repair is associated with high mortality, whereas endovascular stent-graft repair is associated with recurrent infection or bleeding. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report the case of an 85-year-old man with SAEF who presented with gastrointestinal bleeding and retroperitoneal abscess. DIAGNOSES: He was misdiagnosed for 5 months...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900082/tuberculous-arthritis-of-the-elbow-joint-an-uncommon-location-with-a-diagnostic-dilemma
#16
Neelam Khetpal, Sameen Khalid, Ranjeet Kumar, Manuel F Betancourt, Akash Khetpal, Christopher Wasyliw, Seema Patel
Musculoskeletal tuberculosis accounts for 1%-3% of all cases of tuberculosis (TB) worldwide with elbow involvement being even less common. The most cases of tuberculous arthritis occur in patients born in and emigrated from endemic regions, especially in patients who are co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We present a rare case of tuberculous septic arthritis of the elbow joint in a 78-year-old African-American female from the United States, with no history of travel abroad. Her presenting symptoms included pain, swelling, and decreased range of motion of the right elbow for six months...
April 11, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898768/klrd1-expressing-natural-killer-cells-predict-influenza-susceptibility
#17
Erika Bongen, Francesco Vallania, Paul J Utz, Purvesh Khatri
BACKGROUND: Influenza infects tens of millions of people every year in the USA. Other than notable risk groups, such as children and the elderly, it is difficult to predict what subpopulations are at higher risk of infection. Viral challenge studies, where healthy human volunteers are inoculated with live influenza virus, provide a unique opportunity to study infection susceptibility. Biomarkers predicting influenza susceptibility would be useful for identifying risk groups and designing vaccines...
June 14, 2018: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887865/human-macrophages-escape-inhibition-of-major-histocompatibility-complex-dependent-antigen-presentation-by-cytomegalovirus-and-drive-proliferation-and-activation-of-memory-cd4-and-cd8-t-cells
#18
Giada Frascaroli, Carina Lecher, Stefania Varani, Corinna Setz, Johannes van der Merwe, Wolfram Brune, Thomas Mertens
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) persistently infects 40-90% of the human population but in the face of a normal immune system, viral spread and dissemination are efficiently controlled thus preventing clinically signs and disease. HCMV-infected hosts produce a remarkably large amount of HCMV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells that can even reach 20-50% of total T memory cells in the elderly. How HCMV may elicit such large and long-lasting T-cell responses in the absence of detectable viremia has not been elucidated yet...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884770/crystal-structure-of-the-streptococcus-agalactiae-camp-factor-and-insights-into-its-membrane-permeabilizing-activity
#19
Tengchuan Jin, Eric Brefo-Mensah, Weirong Fan, Weihong Zeng, Yajuan Li, Yuzhu Zhang, Michael Palmer
Streptococcus agalactiae is an important human pathogen, and infections can cause serious health problems, particularly among newborn infants and elders. CAMP factor is a pore-forming toxin first found in S. agalactiae The CAMP reaction, which is based on the co-hemolytic activity of CAMP factor, is commonly used to identify this pathogen in clinical microbiology. Closely related proteins occur in other Gram-positive pathogens. While it has been discovered over half century ago, no structure of the CAMP toxin family has been reported, and their mechanism of action remains unclear...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882122/coagulase-negative-staphylococcus-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections
#20
REVIEW
Nicola E Natsis, Philip R Cohen
Coagulase-negative staphylococcus organisms may be normal flora of human skin, however these bacteria can also be pathogens in skin and soft tissue infections. A summary of skin and soft tissue infections caused by coagulase-negative staphylococcus species is provided in this review. We conducted a search of the PubMed database using the following terms: abscess, auricularis, biofilm, capitis, cellulitis, coagulase, contaminant, cyst, draining, epidermidis, felon, folliculitis, furuncle, haemolyticus, hominis, indolent, infection, lugdunensis, mecA, microbiome, negative, osteomyelitis, paronychia, saprophyticus, skin, simulans, sinus, soft, staphylococcus, systemic, tissue, virulence, virulent, and vulvar...
June 7, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
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