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Infection Elderly

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243033/incontinence-associated-dermatitis-pathogenesis-contributing-factors-prevention-and-management-options
#1
Hilde Beele, Steven Smet, Nele Van Damme, Dimitri Beeckman
Incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) is a common type of irritant contact dermatitis, seen in patients with urinary or faecal incontinence. Mechanical factors such as traumata and friction may aggravate the lesions. The fragile skin in elderly patients is more prone to developing IAD. The clinical picture of IAD consists of persistent redness on the one hand and skin loss on the other. Both categories may be associated with clinical signs of major colonisation or infection. It is important to distinguish IAD from pressure ulcers and other dermatoses in the genital region...
December 14, 2017: Drugs & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239539/-fractures-of-the-distal-humerus-in-the-elderly-osteosynthesis-or-elbow-arthoplasty
#2
Diogo Vieira Cardoso, Gregory Cunningham
With an aging population, distal humerus fractures are becoming an emerging problem. Whereas open reduction and internal fixation has been the treatment of choice, results have not been as conclusive in elderly patients. Over two thirds of the cases in this population present with a highly comminuted articular fracture and poor bone stock, jeopardizing the quality and stability of the construct. Total elbow arthroplasty has gained popularity in the treatment of such fractures, and has shown higher results in terms of pain, function, and patient satisfaction...
December 13, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238652/handling-of-laundry-in-nursing-homes-in-frankfurt-am-main-germany-2016-laundry-and-professional-clothing-as-potential-pathways-of-bacterial-transfer
#3
Ursel Heudorf, Stefanie Gasteyer, Maria Müller, Nicole Serra, Tim Westphal, Claudia Reinheimer, Volkhard Kempf
Background: In accordance with the German Infection Protection Act, the treatment and handling of laundry was checked by the Public Health Department in 2016 in all Frankfurt nursing homes with special focus on the staff's clothing. Methods: On-site visits and surveys were conducted in all 44 nursing homes in Frankfurt/Main, Germany, and random microbiological examinations of 58 reprocessed and 58 already worn protective gowns were performed to determine the numbers of the colony forming units (cfu) and microbiological differentiation of the pathogen species...
2017: GMS Hygiene and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238620/angiovac-system-used-for-vegetation-debulking-in-a-patient-with-tricuspid-valve-endocarditis-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#4
Hossam Abubakar, Ahmed Rashed, Ahmed Subahi, Ahmed S Yassin, Mohamed Shokr, Mahir Elder
AngioVac is a vacuum-based device approved in 2014 for percutaneous removal of undesirable materials from the intravascular system. Although numerous reports exist with regard to the use of the AngioVac device in aspiration of iliocaval, pulmonary, upper extremity, and right-sided heart chamber thrombi, very few data are present demonstrating its use in treatment of right-sided endocarditis. In this case report, we describe the novel device used in debulking a large right-sided tricuspid valve vegetation reducing the occurrence of septic embolisation and enhancing the efficacy of antibiotics in clearance of bloodstream infection...
2017: Case Reports in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238342/breastfeeding-behaviors-and-the-innate-immune-system-of-human-milk-working-together-to-protect-infants-against-inflammation-hiv-1-and-other-infections
#5
REVIEW
Bethany M Henrick, Xiao-Dan Yao, Laila Nasser, Ava Roozrogousheh, Kenneth L Rosenthal
The majority of infants' breastfeeding from their HIV-infected mothers do not acquire HIV-1 infection despite exposure to cell-free virus and cell-associated virus in HIV-infected breast milk. Paradoxically, exclusive breastfeeding regardless of the HIV status of the mother has led to a significant decrease in mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) compared with non-exclusive breastfeeding. Although it remains unclear how these HIV-exposed infants remain uninfected despite repeated and prolonged exposure to HIV-1, the low rate of transmission is suggestive of a multitude of protective, short-lived bioactive innate immune factors in breast milk...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238178/clinical-application-of-arthroscopy-assisted-minimally-invasive-therapy-in-chinese-elderly-with-type-iii-pilon-fracture
#6
Peiming Liu, Yong Guo, Ying Wen, Wei Wang
Objective: Pilon fracture is so complex that its therapy poses a great challenge to surgeons. Few studies have compared arthroscopy-assisted minimally invasive therapy and external fixation combined with limited internal fixation (EFLIF), and an optimal choice of surgical therapy remains unclear in patients with type III Pilon fracture. Moreover, to our knowledge, very few studies have specifically evaluated arthroscopy-assisted minimally invasive therapy in Chinese elderly with type III Pilon fracture...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238103/clinical-features-of-patients-with-infective-endocarditis-presenting-to-the-emergency-department-a-retrospective-case-series
#7
Naruhiro Jingushi, Mitsunaga Iwata, Teruhiko Terasawa
Infective endocarditis (IE) is an uncommon clinical problem with diverse, nonspecific presentations. Therefore, information on the clinical features of IE patients presenting to emergency departments (EDs) is scarce. To descriptively analyze the pertinent data, we performed a retrospective chart review. We reviewed 15 consecutive IE patients admitted directly from ED in a university hospital in Japan between 2013 and 2015. We compared their clinical features with those of 14 IE patients admitted during the same period without ED presentations...
November 2017: Nagoya Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236737/comparison-of-sequential-multiplex-pcr-sequetyping-and-whole-genome-sequencing-for-serotyping-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#8
Florian Mauffrey, Éric Fournier, Walter Demczuk, Irene Martin, Michael Mulvey, Christine Martineau, Simon Lévesque, Sadjia Bekal, Marc-Christian Domingo, Florence Doualla-Bell, Jean Longtin, Brigitte Lefebvre
Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the major causes of pneumonia, meningitis and other pneumococcal infections in young children and elders. Determination of circulating S. pneumoniae serotypes is an essential service by public health laboratories for the monitoring of putative serotype replacement following the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) and of the efficacy of the immunization program. The Quellung method remains the gold standard for typing S. pneumoniae. Although this method is very effective, it is also costly, time consuming and not totally reliable due to its subjective nature...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232151/adjuvanted-influenza-vaccines
#9
John S Tregoning, Ryan F Russell, Ekaterina Kinnear
In spite of current influenza vaccines being immunogenic, evolution of the influenza virus can reduce efficacy and so influenza remains a major threat to public health. One approach to improve influenza vaccines is to include adjuvants; substances that boost the immune response. Adjuvants are particularly beneficial for influenza vaccines administered during a pandemic when a rapid response is required or for use in patients with impaired immune responses, such as infants and the elderly. This review outlines the current use of adjuvants in human influenza vaccines, including what they are, why they are used and what is known of their mechanism of action...
December 12, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230484/-vaccination-in-advanced-age
#10
REVIEW
H J Heppner, A Leischker, P Wutzler, A Kwetkat
Infectious diseases are responsible for up to 5% of fatalities even in developed countries. In addition, there is an increasing susceptibility for infections in elderly people due to physiological aging of the immune system. The principles of vaccination are based on a targeted activation of the human immune system. Principally, a distinction is made between passive immunization, i.e. the application of specific antibodies against a pathogen and active immunization. In active immunization, i.e. vaccination, weakened (attenuated) or dead pathogens or components of pathogens (antigens) are administered...
December 11, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230219/functional-impairment-of-mononuclear-phagocyte-system-by-the-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#11
REVIEW
Karen Bohmwald, Janyra A Espinoza, Raúl A Pulgar, Evelyn L Jara, Alexis M Kalergis
The mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) comprises of monocytes, macrophages (MΦ), and dendritic cells (DCs). MPS is part of the first line of immune defense against a wide range of pathogens, including viruses, such as the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV). The hRSV is an enveloped virus that belongs to the Pneumoviridae family, Orthopneumovirus genus. This virus is the main etiological agent causing severe acute lower respiratory tract infection, especially in infants, children and the elderly. Human RSV can cause bronchiolitis and pneumonia and it has also been implicated in the development of recurrent wheezing and asthma...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226766/a-case-report-of-living-donor-liver-transplantation-for-fulminant-hepatitis-related-to-hepatitis-e-virus-infection
#12
Keita Shimata, Yasuhiko Sugawara, Hidekazu Yamamoto, Hiroaki Okamoto, Koushi Uchida, Seiichi Kawabata, Kaori Isono, Shintaro Hayashida, Yukihiro Inomata
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection which may become fulminant, especially in elderly people is more common than previously recognized in develop countries. Here we report successful living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in a case of acute liver failure due to HEV. A 63-year-old Japanese man with no previous history of liver disease was admitted for severe acute hepatitis. Detection of anti-HEV immunoglobulin A established a diagnosis of this virus-related liver failure. The patient suffered from hepatic encephalopathy 10 days after symptom onset and underwent LDLT...
January 1, 2017: Progress in Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226201/acute-primary-total-knee-arthroplasty-for-proximal-tibial-fractures-in-elderly
#13
Mohammad M Sarzaeem, Mohammad M Omidian, Gholamhossein Kazemian, Alireza Manafi
Background: Proximal tibial fractures in elderly patients with osteoporosis or knee osteoarthritis (OA) are challenging cases. In the current study, we present our experience with uncommon acute primary total knee arthroplasty (PTKA) in this patient population. Methods: PTKAs were performed following proximal tibial fractures in 30 consecutive patients over 60 years of age with osteoporosis or knee OA between 2005 and 2009. Three constrained condylar knees (CCK) and no hinged knee prosthesis were used...
September 2017: Archives of Bone and Joint Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225254/observational-study-of-infective-endocarditis-at-a-community-based-hospital-dominance-of-elderly-patients-with-comorbidity
#14
Tomoo Nagai, Yoshiyuki Takase, Akira Hamabe, Hirotsugu Tabata
Objective The purpose of this study was to present the recent clinical profiles and the real-world management of infective endocarditis (IE). Methods All medical records of patients with IE were reviewed retrospectively for their clinical data, including clinical presentation, laboratory results, blood cultures, echocardiographic findings, treatments and complications. Using the clinical data collected, we calculated the EuroSCORE II, the European risk score for adult cardiac surgery, the Charlson Comorbidity Index as a surrogate of comordibity, and the Katz Index as a surrogate of frailty...
December 8, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223594/femoral-neck-fractures-after-removal-of-hardware-in-healed-trochanteric-fractures
#15
REVIEW
Antonio Barquet, Peter V Giannoudis, Andrés Gelink
INTRODUCTION: Hardware removal in healed trochanteric fractures (TF) in the absence of infection or significant mechanical complications is rarely indicated. However, in patients with persistent pain, prominent material and discomfort in the activities of daily living, the implant is eventually removed. Publications of ipsilateral femoral neck fracture after removal of implants from healed trochanteric fractures (FNFARIHTF) just because of pain or discomfort are rare. The purpose of this systematic review of the literature is to report on the eventual risk factors, the mechanisms, the clinical presentation, and frequency, and to pay special emphasis in their prevention...
December 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222712/categorization-and-association-analysis-of-risk-factors-for-adverse-drug-events
#16
REVIEW
Lina Zhou, Anamika Paul Rupa
PURPOSE: Adverse drug events (ADE) are among the leading causes of morbidity and hospitalization. This review analyzes risk factors for ADE, particularly their categorizations and association patterns, the prevalence, severity, and preventability of ADE, and method characteristics of reviewed studies. METHODS: Literature search was conducted via PubMed, Science Direct, CINAHL, and MEDLINE. A review was conducted of research articles that reported original data about specific risk factors for ADE since 2000...
December 8, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221479/in-screw-polymethylmethacrylate-augmented-sacroiliac-screw-for-the-treatment-of-fragility-fractures-of-the-pelvis-a-prospective-observational-study-with-1-year-follow-up
#17
Andreas Höch, Philipp Pieroh, Ralf Henkelmann, Christoph Josten, Jörg Böhme
BACKGROUND: The incidence of pelvic ring fractures in the elderly significantly increased. Because of persistent pain and immobilization associated with this injury, surgical treatment is recommended. To minimise comorbidities and surgical risk, percutaneous techniques are becoming more relevant. In-screw cement augmentation of sacroiliac screw fixation is a promising procedure; however, clinical follow-up data remain scarce. This study investigated the safety and possible complications of the procedure along with a 1-year follow-up...
December 8, 2017: BMC Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218008/improving-the-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-a-difficult-but-essential-task-for-a-successful-hiv-treatment-clinical-points-of-view-and-practical-considerations
#18
REVIEW
Simona A Iacob, Diana G Iacob, Gheorghita Jugulete
HIV infection is responsible for one the most devastating human pandemics. The advent of antiretroviral therapy has changed the course of the pandemic and saved millions of lives. Complex therapeutic regimens have been introduced since 1996 and have contributed to the transformation of HIV infection into a treatable chronic diseases. New types of potent antiretrovirals and their combinations, including "once daily" treatment, have simplified the regimens and diminished side effects. Nevertheless the adherence to antiretroviral therapy remains unsatisfactory and varies between 27 and 80% across different population in various studies, compared with the required level of 95%...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217879/iga-dominant-infection-related-glomerulonephritis-in-india-a-single-center-experience
#19
J Dhanapriya, T Balasubramaniyan, S P Maharajan, T Dineshkumar, R Sakthirajan, N Gopalakrishnan, M Nagarajan
IgA-dominant infection-related glomerulonephritis (IRGN) is a distinct morphologic variant of IRGN, characterized by dominant or codominant glomerular deposits of IgA, mostly in elderly and patients with diabetes. More cases are being reported in recent times due to increased awareness of the disease entity and increased rate of Staphylococcus infection. It usually presents as rapidly progressive renal failure with proteinuria, and treatment guidelines for this disease entity are not well defined. We report here 12 cases of IgA-dominant IRGN seen over a period of 5 years from a single center...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217660/chimeric-pneumoviridae-fusion-proteins-as-immunogens-to-induce-cross-neutralizing-antibody-responses
#20
Eduardo Olmedillas, Olga Cano, Isidoro Martínez, Daniel Luque, María C Terrón, Jason S McLellan, José A Melero, Vicente Más
Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV), two members of the Pneumoviridae family, account for the majority of severe lower respiratory tract infections worldwide in very young children. They are also a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly and immunocompromised adults. High levels of neutralizing antibodies, mostly directed against the viral fusion (F) glycoprotein, correlate with protection against either hRSV or hMPV However, no cross-neutralization is observed in polyclonal antibody responses raised after virus infection or immunization with purified F proteins...
December 7, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
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