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Agnieszka Bochyńska, Juliane Lüscher-Firzlaff, Bernhard Lüscher
Regulation of gene expression is achieved by sequence-specific transcriptional regulators, which convey the information that is contained in the sequence of DNA into RNA polymerase activity. This is achieved by the recruitment of transcriptional co-factors. One of the consequences of co-factor recruitment is the control of specific properties of nucleosomes, the basic units of chromatin, and their protein components, the core histones. The main principles are to regulate the position and the characteristics of nucleosomes...
March 2, 2018: Cells
Tom S Koemans, Tjitske Kleefstra, Melissa C Chubak, Max H Stone, Margot R F Reijnders, Sonja de Munnik, Marjolein H Willemsen, Michaela Fenckova, Connie T R M Stumpel, Levinus A Bok, Margarita Sifuentes Saenz, Kyna A Byerly, Linda B Baughn, Alexander P A Stegmann, Rolph Pfundt, Huiqing Zhou, Hans van Bokhoven, Annette Schenck, Jamie M Kramer
Kleefstra syndrome, caused by haploinsufficiency of euchromatin histone methyltransferase 1 (EHMT1), is characterized by intellectual disability (ID), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), characteristic facial dysmorphisms, and other variable clinical features. In addition to EHMT1 mutations, de novo variants were reported in four additional genes (MBD5, SMARCB1, NR1I3, and KMT2C), in single individuals with clinical characteristics overlapping Kleefstra syndrome. Here, we present a novel cohort of five patients with de novo loss of function mutations affecting the histone methyltransferase KMT2C...
October 2017: PLoS Genetics
Xiaoming Zhang, Wisna Novera, Yan Zhang, Lih-Wen Deng
The mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) family of genes, also known as the lysine N-methyltransferase 2 (KMT2) family, are homologous to the evolutionarily conserved trithorax group that plays critical roles in the regulation of homeotic gene (HOX) expression and embryonic development. MLL5, assigned as KMT2E on the basis of its SET domain homology, was initially categorized under MLL (KMT2) family together with other six SET methyltransferase domain proteins (KMT2A-2D and 2F-2G). However, emerging evidence suggests that MLL5 is distinct from the other MLL (KMT2) family members, and the protein it encodes appears to lack intrinsic histone methyltransferase (HMT) activity towards histone substrates...
July 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Ying Zhang, Anshumali Mittal, James Reid, Stephanie Reich, Steven J Gamblin, Jon R Wilson
Methylation of histone H3 lysine-4 is a hallmark of chromatin associated with active gene expression. The activity of H3K4-specific modification enzymes, in higher eukaryotes the MLL (or KMT2) family, is tightly regulated. The MLL family has six members, each with a specialized function. All contain a catalytic SET domain that associates with a core multiprotein complex for activation. These SET domains segregate into three classes that correlate with the arrangement of targeting domains that populate the rest of the protein...
October 6, 2015: Structure
Rajesh C Rao, Yali Dou
Histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 2 (KMT2) family proteins methylate lysine 4 on the histone H3 tail at important regulatory regions in the genome and thereby impart crucial functions through modulating chromatin structures and DNA accessibility. Although the human KMT2 family was initially named the mixed-lineage leukaemia (MLL) family, owing to the role of the first-found member KMT2A in this disease, recent exome-sequencing studies revealed KMT2 genes to be among the most frequently mutated genes in many types of human cancers...
June 2015: Nature Reviews. Cancer
David J Ford, Andrew K Dingwall
The mixed-lineage leukemia family of histone methyltransferases (MLL1-4, or KMT2A-D) were previously linked to cancer through the founding member, MLL1/KMT2A, which is often involved in translocation-associated gene fusion events in childhood leukemias. However, in recent years, a multitude of tumor exome sequencing studies have revealed that orthologues MLL3/KMT2C and MLL2/KMT2D are mutated in a significant percentage of a large variety of malignancies, particularly solid tumors. These unexpected findings necessitate a deeper inspection into the activities and functional differences between the MLL/KMT2 family members...
May 2015: Cancer Genetics
Pamela Zhang, Chandra-Prakash Chaturvedi, Veronique Tremblay, Myriam Cramet, Joseph S Brunzelle, Georgios Skiniotis, Marjorie Brand, Ali Shilatifard, Jean-François Couture
The methyltransferase activity of the trithorax group (TrxG) protein MLL1 found within its COMPASS (complex associated with SET1)-like complex is allosterically regulated by a four-subunit complex composed of WDR5, RbBP5, Ash2L, and DPY30 (also referred to as WRAD). We report structural evidence showing that in WRAD, a concave surface of the Ash2L SPIa and ryanodine receptor (SPRY) domain binds to a cluster of acidic residues, referred to as the D/E box, in RbBP5. Mutational analysis shows that residues forming the Ash2L/RbBP5 interface are important for heterodimer formation, stimulation of MLL1 catalytic activity, and erythroid cell terminal differentiation...
January 15, 2015: Genes & Development
Andrea Ullius, Juliane Lüscher-Firzlaff, Ivan G Costa, Gesa Walsemann, Alexandra H Forst, Eduardo G Gusmao, Karsten Kapelle, Henning Kleine, Elisabeth Kremmer, Jörg Vervoorts, Bernhard Lüscher
The appropriate expression of the roughly 30,000 human genes requires multiple layers of control. The oncoprotein MYC, a transcriptional regulator, contributes to many of the identified control mechanisms, including the regulation of chromatin, RNA polymerases, and RNA processing. Moreover, MYC recruits core histone-modifying enzymes to DNA. We identified an additional transcriptional cofactor complex that interacts with MYC and that is important for gene transcription. We found that the trithorax protein ASH2L and MYC interact directly in vitro and co-localize in cells and on chromatin...
June 2014: Nucleic Acids Research
Muzaffar Ali, Robert A Hom, Weston Blakeslee, Larissa Ikenouye, Tatiana G Kutateladze
Five members of the KMT2 family of lysine methyltransferases, originally named the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL1-5) proteins, regulate gene expression during embryogenesis and development. Each KMT2A-E contains a catalytic SET domain that methylates lysine 4 of histone H3, and one or several PHD fingers. Over the past few years a growing number of studies have uncovered diverse biological roles of the KMT2A-E PHD fingers, implicating them in binding to methylated histones and other nuclear proteins, and in mediating the E3 ligase activity and dimerization...
February 2014: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Vasileios Ladopoulos, Helmut Hofemeister, Maarten Hoogenkamp, Arthur D Riggs, A Francis Stewart, Constanze Bonifer
KMT2B (MLL2/WBP7) is a member of the MLL subfamily of H3K4-specific histone lysine methyltransferases (KMT2) and is vital for normal embryonic development in the mouse. To gain insight into the molecular mechanism underlying KMT2B function, we focused on MagohB, which is controlled by a CpG island promoter. We show that in cells lacking Mll2-the gene encoding KMT2B-the MagohB promoter resides in inaccessible chromatin and is methylated. To dissect the molecular events leading to the establishment of silencing, we performed kinetic studies in Mll2-conditional-knockout embryonic stem cells...
April 2013: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Guillermo Senisterra, Hong Wu, Abdellah Allali-Hassani, Gregory A Wasney, Dalia Barsyte-Lovejoy, Ludmila Dombrovski, Aiping Dong, Kong T Nguyen, David Smil, Yuri Bolshan, Taraneh Hajian, Hao He, Alma Seitova, Irene Chau, Fengling Li, Gennadiy Poda, Jean-François Couture, Peter J Brown, Rima Al-Awar, Matthieu Schapira, Cheryl H Arrowsmith, Masoud Vedadi
WDR5 (WD40 repeat protein 5) is an essential component of the human trithorax-like family of SET1 [Su(var)3-9 enhancer-of-zeste trithorax 1] methyltransferase complexes that carry out trimethylation of histone 3 Lys4 (H3K4me3), play key roles in development and are abnormally expressed in many cancers. In the present study, we show that the interaction between WDR5 and peptides from the catalytic domain of MLL (mixed-lineage leukaemia protein) (KMT2) can be antagonized with a small molecule. Structural and biophysical analysis show that this antagonist binds in the WDR5 peptide-binding pocket with a Kd of 450 nM and inhibits the catalytic activity of the MLL core complex in vitro...
January 1, 2013: Biochemical Journal
Yong Huang, Chunlin Liu, Wen-Hui Shen, Ying Ruan
BACKGROUND: The SET (Su(var)3-9, Enhancer-of-zeste, Trithorax) domain is an evolutionarily conserved sequence of approximately 130-150 amino acids, and constitutes the catalytic site of lysine methyltransferases (KMTs). KMTs perform many crucial biological functions via histone methylation of chromatin. Histone methylation marks are interpreted differently depending on the histone type (i.e. H3 or H4), the lysine position (e.g. H3K4, H3K9, H3K27, H3K36 or H4K20) and the number of added methyl groups (i...
2011: BMC Plant Biology
Zain Odho, Stacey M Southall, Jon R Wilson
Histone modification is well established as a fundamental mechanism driving the regulation of transcription, replication, and DNA repair through the control of chromatin structure. Likewise, it is apparent that incorrect targeting of histone modifications contributes to misregulated gene expression and hence to developmental disorders and diseases of genomic instability such as cancer. The KMT2 family of SET domain methyltransferases, typified by mixed lineage leukemia protein-1 (MLL1), is responsible for histone H3 lysine 4 methylation, a marker of active genes...
October 22, 2010: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Ben L Murton, Wee Loong Chin, Chris P Ponting, Laura S Itzhaki
KMT2/Set1 is the catalytic subunit of the complex of proteins associated with Set1 (COMPASS) that is responsible for the methylation of lysine 4 of histone H3 (H3K4) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Whereas monomethylated H3K4 (H3K4me1) is found throughout the genome, di- (H3K4me2) and tri- (H3K4me3) methylated H3K4 are enriched at specific loci, which correlates with the promoter and 5'-ends of actively transcribed genes in the case of H3K4me3. The COMPASS subunits contain a number of domains that are conserved in homologous complexes in higher eukaryotes and are reported to interact with modified histones...
May 14, 2010: Journal of Molecular Biology
Jung-Shin Lee, Abhijit Shukla, Jessica Schneider, Selene K Swanson, Michael P Washburn, Laurence Florens, Sukesh R Bhaumik, Ali Shilatifard
COMPASS, the yeast homolog of the mammalian MLL complex, is a histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methylase consisting of Set1 (KMT2) and seven other polypeptides, including Cps35, the only essential subunit. Histone H2B monoubiquitination by Rad6/Bre1 is required for both H3K4 methylation by COMPASS, and H3K79 methylation by Dot1. However, the molecular mechanism for such histone crosstalk is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that histone H2B monoubiquitination controls the binding of Cps35 with COMPASS complex...
December 14, 2007: Cell
M Goto, S Kumagai, R Ryo
Regulation of interleukin-3 receptor (IL-3R) gene expression by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) was investigated using an IL-3-dependent CD34-positive hematopoietic cell line (KMT2) and a human megakaryocytic cell line (CMK). KMT2 expressed IL-3R alpha-subunit mRNA, whereas the level of expression of IL-3R beta-subunit mRNA was low. CMK expressed IL-3R beta-subunit mRNA more strongly. The expression of IL-3R mRNA varied in the progenitor cells of different lineages. TNF alpha markedly enhanced expression of IL-3R beta-subunit mRNA in KMT2, whereas it only slightly augmented IL-3R alpha-subunit mRNA level...
July 1995: International Journal of Hematology
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